The Dutch technology of growing potatoes has one peculiarity - food, as well as seed potatoes are grown differently, in different fields, by different farms. Dutch farmers pay special attention to the preparation of soil. It should be loose, fine-grained. The tubers are planted with well sprouted eyes, short, strong sprouts..
- Dutch potato planting technology
- Harvesting Potatoes by Dutch Technology
- Features of potato storage in Holland
- Planting potatoes in Holland
- Harvesting potatoes in Holland
Dutch potato planting technology
The features of planting potatoes according to the Dutch technology are as follows: the upper part of the potato tuber is at the level of the soil surface. Such a small plantation facilitates, greatly accelerates the emergence of seedlings. After planting above the tubers, crests 25 cm high, 75 cm wide at the base with a wide rounded top form. Tubers form and develop within a wide crest, they are not flooded by heavy rain, they do not rot.
Harvesting Potatoes by Dutch Technology
Different in the Dutch technology of cultivation approaches to harvesting and storing food andseed potatoes. If the first clean in late August - early September, the second - much earlier (in July, rarely - at the beginning of August).
And for 5-7 days before harvest, the tops, still quite green, are necessarily removed. It is cut with special machines and crushed to produce silage, sometimes using chemical means..
The stems are removed so that the seed tubers do not become infected with viral diseases, carried by aphids. In addition, when the leaves are removed, the tubers ripen faster, as the inflow of assimilants from leaves, they previously formed a strong peel, protecting against mechanical damage and diseases.
Farmers growingSeed potatoes, it is believed that the tops should be removed when the tubers have an optimal size (diameter not more than 28-55 mm). This prevents them from becoming infected with rhizoctonia, the so-called black dandruff.
Cutting the tops and hives are carried out by machines. From the field to the storage, potatoes are usually transported on trailers with tippers. Here the tubers are cleaned, sorted, laid for long-term storage.↑ back to content ↑
Features of potato storage in Holland
After harvesting tubers most Dutch varieties do not germinate for 2-3 months. The duration of this rest period depends on the biological characteristics of the variety, the degree of maturity of the tubers, the temperature, the humidity of the air in storage, damage, etc. In tubers harvested before full maturity or after a warm summer, a longer period rest.
At a temperature of 3-5 degrees, relative humidity of 92-95%, potatoes intended for food purposes or processing, well maintained without significant loss of food quality 8-9 months, is particularly reliable, because the storage regime is controlled automation.
If the air humidity falls below 92%, the potato tubers lose a lot of moisture, become porous, wrinkled, and at a humidity of more than 95% the buds begin to germinate, the tubers get sick.
However, with such storage (+ 4-5 ° C), the content of sugary substances in the tubers increases substantially. This is the main reason for the appearance of a brown shade, for example, in chips. Therefore, in Holland, tubers for processing are stored separately at a higher temperature.
Since there are many large tubers in the country for cooking potatoes, most of the harvest stored at t + 6-7 degrees, and the tubers used to make chips - at + 8-10 degrees. Also apply substances that delay the germination of tubers..
Seed tubers are stored at a temperature of 3-4 degrees, at which it lies well until March..
Seed and industrial potatoes are kept in special vaults with modern ventilation systems. A powerful fan (100 cubic meters of air per 1 cubic meter of potato mass at a static pressure of 15 mm of a water sensor) takes fresh air from outside and drives it through the entire mass of the product. The exhaust air leaves through the automatic shutters.
And the system of the external pipeline (or laid under the storehouse) ensures an even distribution of air. The temperature regime of storage is constant, because all the walls of the storage are well isolated.
Tubers brought from the field are always slightly damp, so in order to avoid the development of diseases, they are first dried a few days with the help of fans and withstand another 7-14 days at a temperature of 12 degrees, to show black spots (late blight).
According to the Dutch technology, before laying the tubers for long-term storage, they are thoroughly cleaned from land, roots, remains of the leaves, sort by size, separating all the damaged, sick or very small. Tubers, passing along the conveyor, rotate around the axis, which allows operators to inspect them from all sides.
The improvement of sorting in Holland is of great importance. The cost of sorting works is about a quarter of the cost of producing potatoes sold. Some farmers perform these works on their own, others transfer products to specialized cooperative points or organizations that sell. The production areas for centralized machine sorting are large.
In Flevoland, on land "rising from the sea the conditions are particularly favorable, there are many relatively large potato farms.
In the New Polder, the storage consists of cells with a capacity of 300 tons - this is a huge, two-story sorting center. Workers, sitting in comfortable moving chairs, are packed in cellophane packets of tubers of 2, and 5 kg, remaining from last year's harvest, cleanly washed, fed from the storage conveyors, as well as young small tubers, just brought from the farms..
The packages indicate not only the mass, but also the variety, as well as the preferred use of the products-for cooking, preparation of mashed potatoes, frying, the content of starch, protein, total calorific value and other varietal indices are indicated.
So-called environmentally friendly potatoes, that is, grown without the use of any chemicals, is more expensive, as well as young in comparison with last year's, although in almost 9 months of storage, the mass losses of the latter do not exceed 1%.
Near Rotterdam, in Maasdike, is the company Vanders agro VF, which is engaged in the construction of such potato storage facilities, which produces equipment for them. The firm on orders develops storage projects for certain local conditions, having comprehensively studied their features. In addition, it implements its projects in other countries.
I suggest watching a few videos about planting and harvesting potatoes in Holland. Very interesting!↑ back to content ↑