Refrigeration devices differ from other major household appliances durability, while functioning daily. However, they are subject to breakage. With frequent voltage drops of the mains, the compressor for the refrigerator first fails.
It is this mechanism that is considered the most important element of the system that drives freon through pipes, due to which cooling is ensured.
The content of the article:
Existing Compressor Types
- Manifold Air Blower
- Invertor - the embodiment of modern technology
- Cost-effective linear devices
- Plate Rotary Blowers
- The overall algorithm of the refrigerator
- The main causes of failure of the supercharger
Phased self-replacement process
- Stage # 1 - dismantling the supercharger
- Stage # 2 - measure ohmic resistance
- Stage # 3 - check the current strength
- Stage # 4 - we prepare tools and equipment
- Stage # 5 - we mount a new compressor
- Stage # 6 - we start the refrigerant in the system
- Useful Soldering Guidelines
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Existing Compressor Types
Breakdown of the most important element of the refrigerator promises substantial spending not only on the purchase of a new device, but also on the work of the master.
However, you can go the other way and make their own replacement. Whichever option is chosen, the first step is to select the type you want.
Manifold Air Blower
Obtaining information about innovative models of refrigerators from sources you can come across such a thing as a “normal” compressor. However, not everyone knows its meaning.
This term refers to the collector mechanism, with a vertically mounted electric motor shaft. It is mounted on a spring mechanism and closed sealed box, thereby providing a high degree of sound insulation system.
In the older models, the horizontal layout was used, which made the unit more noisy - the vibrations reflected on the whole body.
It uses the standard operating principle and technology developed many decades ago - the supercharger works until the specified temperature condition is reached in the refrigeration unit, and then turns off.
Refrigeration units can be equipped with one or two manifold blowers. If there are two of them, then one maintains the temperature in the freezer compartment and the other in the cooling unit. Now it is less and less possible to meet two-compressor equipment.
Survey models are equipped with mostly budget versions of refrigerators and this is their only advantage over other representatives of the species.
Invertor - the embodiment of modern technology
Upgraded units are equipped with an inverter type supercharger. An ordinary compressor goes to the peak of its capabilities when it is disconnected, and there are a lot of such repetitions on the day, and, accordingly, it is subject to rapid wear and reduced operational life.
While the inverter devices work even with sufficient air injection in the chambers, periodically reducing the number of revolutions. The durability of the component elements is much lower, and accordingly, the uninterrupted use period is higher.
The main feature of modern inverter air blowers for refrigeration devices is a non-stop mode of operation, but simply a cyclic reduction in speed.
The leading positions in the development of inverter devices are taken by Samsung, which was the first to massively equip refrigerators with non-switching mechanisms. Manufacturers give a ten year warranty on their work.
Cost-effective linear devices
Innovative developments in imported technology involved a new type of superchargers - linear. The principle of operation is similar to the previous versions of devices, but this type functions much quieter and more economical.
Unlike conventional mechanisms, there is no crankshaft. Through the action of electromagnetic forces are provided by the reciprocating motion of the rotor.
New modern models of cooling devices are presented in the layout with inverter-type compressors. They work smoothly and measuredly, without amplitude differences, which are the main causes of the mechanism wear.
Linear blowers are technically similar to the two previous analogues, but they have several significant advantages:
- less weight;
- high degree of reliability at work;
- lack of friction in the compression plane;
- application at low temperature conditions.
LG is considered to be the main ideologist who has begun active implementation of linear-type superchargers. Most often they are used in refrigerators with a system No frosthaving individual temperature regulators in different blocks.
Plate Rotary Blowers
Rotary (rotary) horizontally or vertically positioned blowers are equipped with one or two rotors and are analogues of the twin-screw juicer, however, the spiral helix type unequal.
Depending on the principle of operation, they are divided into two main classes: with a rolling and rotating shaft.
A gap is formed between the piston and the compressor casing with movable plates. Due to the eccentricity of the rotor, its magnitude changes during playback of the rotations, thereby blocking the transition of the refrigerant from one zone to another
In the first case, the unit is represented by an engine shaft with a fitted cylindrical piston that is eccentric about the center, i.e. is offset.
Rotations are made inside the cylinder body. The gap between the housing and the rotor changes its dimensions during rotation.
In the place of the minimum opening there is an injection nozzle, the maximum - suction. A plate is attached to the circulating piston, in turn, by means of a spring, which blocks the space between the two nozzles.
In the second version, the principle of operation is similar with one difference: the plates are fixed and placed on the rotor. During operation, the piston rotates relative to the cylinder, and the plates rotate with it.
The overall algorithm of the refrigerator
The operation of all refrigerators is based on exposure to freon, which acts as a refrigerant. Moving around the closed loop, the substance changes its temperature readings.
Under pressure, the refrigerant is brought to a boil, which is from -30 ° C to -150 ° C. Evaporating, it captures the warm atmosphere located on the walls of the evaporator. As a result, the temperature in the refrigeration unit drops to a predetermined level.
The compressor is the main node of all refrigerators. The correct level of temperature inside the blocks depends on its correct operation.
In addition to the main pressure device, which creates pressure in the refrigerator, there are auxiliary elements that fulfill the specified options:
- evaporatorthat collects heat inside the refrigeration unit;
- capacitor, offsetting the coolant to the outside;
- throttling deviceregulating the flow of refrigerant through a capillary tube and a thermostatic valve.
All these processes are dynamic. We should also consider the algorithm of the motor and the principle of operation when it malfunctions.
The compressor is responsible for the system regulation of pressure drop. The vaporized refrigerant is drawn into it, which is compressed and pushed back into the heat exchanger.
At the same time, the temperature indicators of freon increase due to which it becomes liquid. The compressor operates with the help of an electric motor located in a sealed enclosure.
Refrigerators with two motors are available for two-chamber units or side-by-bye side-factors. In this case, each unit is equipped with an individual compressor, due to which the user has the opportunity to make temperature adjustments in each of them individually
Additionally, it is worth noting that most refrigeration devices have different temperature indicators inside the main unit. So manufacturers simplify the system of organizing the storage of various categories of products.
Depending on the zone, the climate can be adjusted from dry to wet, and the temperature of the main compartment is from 0 to 5-6 ° C, and the freezer temperature - to -30 ° C.
Having dealt with the device, go to the analysis of the main factors of compressor failure, after which you will need to dismantle it.
The main causes of failure of the supercharger
All problems in the compression node are conventionally divided into two main groups: with a working and non-working motor. The first option is as follows: when you turn on you can hear the sound from the compressor, the light on the refrigerator is on. Accordingly, in another embodiment - the unit does not turn on at all.
Reason # 1 - refrigerant leakage or thermostat defect. Here the main reason may be the leakage of freon.
You can conduct a self-test in this way: touch the condenser - its temperature will correspond to room temperature.
Inspecting the degree of condenser heating can reveal one of the reasons for the refrigerator’s failure — a refrigerant leak. In this case, the device will function, but the temperature in the chambers will not be maintained.
Another reason is possible - the failure of the thermostat. In this case, the signal of the wrong temperature regime will simply not be received.
Reason # 2 - Winding Problems. If the unit does not turn on, a possible cause could be an open circuit of the compressor windings.
Such a situation can occur both at work and at start-up or at two at once. When the refrigerator is turned on, the blower does not work, and the temperature of its unit is room temperature.
Reason # 3 - interturn closure. The device starts, but no more than a minute. And the body is overheated.
In this case, the coils of the winding are closed, their resistance is lowered, and an increased amperage passes through the relay unit. The relay shuts down the supercharger, a click will be heard. After cooling the starter, it turns on the compressor again and so on in a circle.
Reason # 4 - engine seizure. When turned on, an electric motor is audible, but rotation does not occur, the compressor does not compress, the resistance of the windings is at its maximum.
Reason # 5 - valve failure. Loss of cooling capacity due to valve defects.
As a result of such a breakdown, the unit works without shutdown and does not create the proper level of compression, respectively, the units of the refrigeration device do not reach the desired temperature.
Often, in such a case, the uncharacteristic ringing of metal parts during operation may be heard. You can figure this out by determining the degree of air supply.
You can confirm the presence of deformation of the valves by fixing the degree of air supply to the compressor. This will require a special device with a pressure gauge.
To verify the “diagnosis”, you need to cut off the filling nozzle using a pipe cutter. Similar actions are done with a condenser filter.
Now, in their place, we connect the gauge manifold, turn on the blower and check the generated level of air compression - the norm is 30 atm.
Reason # 6 - temperature-controlled sensor or starting rele. It is also necessary to check for defects such elements as the thermal sensor and the relay unit.
With this failure, the compressor either does not turn on or turns on for 1-2 minutes. When checking the resistance of the windings, the nominal values will be recorded.
Phased self-replacement process
If the causes of malfunctions are not identified, the blower itself must be repaired. And to start it will need to be removed from the refrigeration unit and test performance.
Stage # 1 - dismantling the supercharger
The compressor is located behind the refrigerator in its lower part. In the process of dismantling the following tools will be applied:
- plus and minus screwdrivers.
A supercharger is placed between two connections connected to the cooling system. With the help of pliers need to bite.
The nozzles through which the refrigerant circulates, in no case can not be sawed off with a hacksaw, because the process will necessarily form small chips, which when released into the condenser will move through the system, thereby leading to a rapid failure of its items
The refrigerator is started for 5 minutes, during which the freon goes into a state of condensation. Then a valve with a hose connected to the cylinder is connected to the filling line. In 30 seconds with the valve open, the entire refrigerant will be vented.
After we remove the relay unit. Visually, it can be compared with the usual black box with wires coming out of it.
First of all, the starter marks the top and bottom - this is useful in the process of re-installation. Unscrewing the clips and removing from the traverse, also snack on the wiring leading to the plug.
All fasteners are twisted together with a survey device. We clean all the tubes for soldering a new device.
Stage # 2 - measure ohmic resistance
In order to verify the operability of the component, we will carry out an external inspection, as well as testing and checking its individual components. First, we inspect the condition of the motor. This can be done using a multimeter or ohmmeter.
As mentioned earlier, the power cable is initially checked. If he is a worker, we examine the supercharger itself. To do this, use the tester.
The correctness of the operation of the compressor can be checked by the artisanal method with the help of charging: we put minus probes on the body of a 6-V lamp. Plus we connect to the upper leg of the power winding and touch each of them with the base of a light bulb. If they are in good condition, they should give the backlight to the lamp.
First of all, remove the protective unit and remove the content, disconnect from the starting relay. Next, with the help of multimeter probes we measure the wires in pairs.
We compare the results with the table, which shows the optimal performance for this particular compressor model.
The data of a working device in the standard version will be the following: between the top and left-hand contact - 20 ohms, top and right-hand - 15 ohms, left and right-hand - 30 ohms. Any abnormalities indicate breakdowns.
The resistance between the feedthrough contacts and the housing is checked. Indications of a break (infinity sign) indicate that the instrument is in good condition. If the tester gives any indicators, most often it is zero - there are malfunctions.
Stage # 3 - check the current strength
After checking the resistance, it is necessary to measure the current. To do this, connect the starting relay and turn on the electric motor. Ticks the tester clamp one of the network contacts leading to the device.
When working with a compressor, it is initially inspected for breakdown of the housing, since there is a possibility of electric shock if the winding gives voltage to the body
The current must be identical to the engine power. For example, a 120 W motor corresponds to a current of 1.1-1.2 A.
Stage # 4 - we prepare tools and equipment
To replace a faulty refrigerator compressor, you need to prepare the following set of tools and materials:
- portable station of regeneration, refueling and evacuation;
- a welding machine or torch with a gas MARR balloon;
- compact pipe cutter;
- Hansen coupling for hermetic connection of the compressor with the filling nozzle;
- copper pipe 6 mm;
- filter absorber for installation at the entrance to the capillary tube;
- copper alloys with phosphorus (4-9%);
- solder drill as a flux;
- cylinder with freon.
You should also focus on safety measures when working with repair equipment. First of all, you need to equip the insulating platform and disconnect the cooling unit from the power supply.
Dismantling the old compressor, it is necessary to prepare and clean up all the copper pipes for subsequent soldering with the new device.
After each filling with freon, before soldering the room is ventilated for a quarter of an hour. It is not allowed to turn on the heating devices in the room where repairs are being made.
Stage # 5 - we mount a new compressor
The first step is to attach a new supercharger on the traverse of the refrigeration unit. Remove all plugs from the pipes coming from the compressor and check the pressure of the atmosphere in the device.
Depressurize it no earlier than 5 minutes before the soldering process. Then we carry out the docking of the compressor nozzles with the discharge, suction and filling lines, their length is 60 mm and the diameter is 6 mm.
During the soldering process, do not direct the fire of the burner into the inside of the pipes, since there are plastic elements on the suspension and the blower muffler
Soldering tubes is performed according to the sequence: charging, discharging excess refrigerant and injection.
Now we remove the plugs from the filter drier and install the latter on the heat exchanger, inserting the throttle tube into it. We seal the seams of the two contour elements. At this stage we put on a Hansen coupling at the filling hose.
Stage # 6 - we start the refrigerant in the system
For filling the refrigeration system with freon, we connect a vacuum to the filling line with a clutch. For the initial start-up, bring to a pressure of 65 Pa. Having installed a protective relay on the compressor, the contacts are switched.
Vacuuming process - creation of a compression level below the atmospheric one in the cooling unit. By reducing pressure in this way, all moisture is removed.
Connect the refrigerator to the power supply and fill the refrigerant at 40% of the norm. This value is indicated in the table located behind the device.
The unit is turned on for 5 minutes and the connecting nodes are checked for tightness. Then it needs to be disconnected from the power again.
The refrigerant is charged in a liquid state. The required quantity is specified by the manufacturer in the parameters of the refrigeration unit located on the back wall.
Perform a second vacuuming to a residual value of 10 Pa. The duration of the procedure is at least 20 minutes.
Turn on the unit and make a complete filling of the circuit with freon. At the final stage, we preserve the tube by clamping. Remove the clutch and sealed pipe.
Useful Soldering Guidelines
Soldering two pipes made from copper, is an alloy of copper with phosphorus (4-9%). Docked elements are placed between the burner and the screen, heating it to a cherry color.
Heated solder is dipped into the flux and melted by pressing the rod to the heated docking station.
Inspection of the solder joints is carried out from all sides using a mirror. They must be holistic, without gaps
For soldering steel tubes or from its alloy with copper is used solder with silver content. The soldering element is heated to red.
After the seam has hardened, it is wiped with a damp cloth to eliminate flux residues.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
The tools and materials that will be needed to replace the compressor, as well as all the stages of the work are described in video on the example of the Atlas refrigerator:
Basic rules for evacuating the cooling system:
The compressor service life declared by the manufacturers is 10 years. However, its damage is inevitable. In this case, when you equip the necessary equipment You can reproduce the replacement of a broken compressor yourself, having familiarized yourself with all the safety rules and stages of the upcoming work.