In order to receive good, stable potato harvests every year, this technology of potato cultivation is needed, which would optimally reduce the effect of all negative factors. In its biology, potatoes are a culture of temperate climate. A short light day, a temperature regime within 18-25 degrees, light sandy or sandy loamy soils are the optimal conditions for its growth and development. This suggests that the conditions of the Krasnodar Territory are unfavorable for the cultivation of this crop. In addition, the Kuban chernozems, heavy in their structure, heat, drought, intensive lighting contribute to a sharp decline in yields, rapid degeneration of varieties..
- Elements of intensive technology of growing potatoes
- Application of fertilizers
- Treatment of tubers
- Terms of planting
- Preparing the field for planting potatoes
- Preparation of potatoes for storage
In the Kuban traditionally for a long time apply the method, the so-called smooth planting of potatoes under a shovel or pitchfork. This technology of growing potatoes has a number of significant drawbacks:
- this method lasts for almost a month the emergence period of shoots;
- soil with this method of cultivation is highly compacted, and this adversely affects both germination of tubers, growth, development of plants;
- & g; Precipitation is strongly overgrown with weeds, against which it is difficult then to conduct an effective struggle.
All these negative factors lead to significant losses in yields, as well as a decrease in the marketability of tubers.
According to many years of research for our local soil and climatic conditions, it is best to use the comb technology of growing potatoes for cultivating potatoes..
On the one hand, even with the use of hand tools (hoe and shovel), this technology is quite simple. On the other hand, it significantly increases the yield of potato varieties, the marketability of tubers.↑ to the contents ↑.
Elements of intensive technology of growing potatoes↑ back to content ↑
Application of fertilizers
As with conventional technology, in autumn organic fertilizer (rotted manure) is applied to the potato field at the rate of 40-100 kg per 1 weave, plowing the soil to a depth of 30 cm.
In the spring, as soon as the soil ripens well, additionally more inorganic fertilizers are added-nitroammophoska at a rate of 4-5 kg per 1 hundred.
In the absence of complex fertilizer, first, before planting, only nitrogen fertilizer (ammonium nitrate) can be introduced, and then, in during the vegetation, after 3 weeks, as soon as the shoots appear, feed them with potassium sulfate, superphosphate in doses, -2 kg per 1 weaving.
Excellent effect gives the introduction directly into the wells of wood ash. Yield of wood ash increases, at least by 40%, improves the friability of potatoes by 1%. Improves the growth, development of plants integrated application of organic, mineral fertilizers.↑ back to content ↑
Treatment of tubers
Whatever sort of potato for planting you choose, it is very useful before planting spraying tubers with a solution of copper sulfate, boric acid, potassium permanganate (, 1 3%) and dusting of tubers with ashes (20 kg / t or 20 g per kilogram of tubers - 2 matchboxes box). Copper sulfate accelerates tuber formation and increases resistance to fungal diseases, boron increases yield, and starchy tubers, resistance to rhizoctonia, manganese plays an important role in the accumulation of starch and vitamin C in tubers.
For a month and a half before the planting, the seed tubers are laid out on layers in layers (3-4 layers), sprouted in a light warm room, where the temperature is 15-20 degrees. At the same time on the tubers appear thick green sprouts of length 1 cm, which when planted quickly sprout, amicably rise.
Like the soil, it is necessary to prepare the seed material. Initially, sorting is carried out, simultaneously selecting as a marriage of tubers with signs of disease, damage, externally bad. The best for planting are small tubers with a diameter of 5-6 cm. Of course, you can use larger tubers, but first they must be cut with a sharp disinfected knife along so that each part has at least 2 buds, After that it is recommended to dip the slices into dry cement or ash. Sections dry, they form a dense crust, protecting the tuber from various diseases.↑ back to content ↑
Terms of planting
When using this technology of growing potatoes, it is very important to determine the optimal time for planting seeds in the soil. This also depends heavily on whether a good or bad crop will be obtained..
In the Kuban spring peculiar. At first it's warm, the sun is shining, and then the cold days come back, often with frosts at night. Therefore, there is always the risk of freezing sprouts, if the vegetables are planted early. A late planting, heat and drought in June and July will cool crop yields. It can decrease 2-3 times. Many years of experience suggest that for potatoes the best dates for planting in the Kuban are the last decade of March. By this time the soil has time to mature - it is ready for processing. By the same date, stable warm days are established, which contributes to the friendly emergence of shoots and the good growth and development of potatoes.↑ back to content ↑
Preparing the field for planting potatoes
On the day of planting, firstly, with the help of a chopper or a manual cutter, loosen the area to the depth of maturity of the soil (up to 12 cm). Then cut the shallow (up to 8-10 cm) furrows. The distance between the furrows is 60-70 cm.
In these grooves every 30 cm carefully, not to break the sprouts, lay sprouting tubers. With the help of the chopper they are covered with an upper loose layer of soil - a small crest (up to 12-14 cm) is formed. Then, every 7-10 days as the soil matures by loosening and hilling, the height of the crest is brought to 20-30 cm.
These simple technological operations give a number of advantages:
- At least 2 weeks earlier shoots appear;
- Until the end of vegetation, a loose soil structure is maintained, which promotes better aeration and moisture protection from evaporation;
- Effective control of weeds is ensured.
All this contributes to an increase in yield by 60%.↑ back to content ↑
Finally, the most important element of the comb technology of growing potatoes is irrigation. Traditionally in the Krasnodar Territory potatoes are grown on dry land without irrigation. At the same time, all the hard work of the trucker-potato grower is made dependent on accidents: there will be rains in May-June-there will be a harvest, they will not pass-there will be no harvest. And if we take into account that the heat and drought in our region is increasing year by year, then with a frivolous approach to technology, one can generally remain without a crop.
Potato is a culture that shows high demand for moisture supply. Optimum growth, development of plants are observed at 70% of soil moisture during the entire growing season - before harvesting. Especially high demands in moisture are manifested in potatoes during the period of planting, growth and development of tubers. The absence of moisture during this period reduces or completely destroys the positive effects of all other agrotechnical methods, which affects the sharp decline in both productivity and marketability tubers..
Therefore, following the recommendations of the intensive potato growing technology so as not to risk, but annually to receive good, stable yields in hot, arid seasons, especially since the budding stage, which in most varieties coincides with the beginning of tuber formation, it is necessary to hold at least 2-3 glaze. The best way to water is sprinkling. In the absence of sprinklers, you can successfully use inter-row watering.↑ back to content ↑
The last agro-technique of intensive technology of growing potatoes is harvesting. In our region, as a rule, potato growers start harvesting in the first half of August. It is not right. Potatoes must be cleaned when the leaves are withered 60-70% of the leaves. This, as a rule, happens in the first half of July. At this time, the tops are mowed first, and after 10-14 days, when the dense peel forms on the tubers, they immediately start harvesting.
In our climatic conditions, in any case, you can not delay with cleaning, transfer it to August-September. Under the influence of high temperatures in July and August, the tubers heat up strongly, become withered, lose their appearance, begin to germinate very early, which makes it very difficult to store them in winter.↑ back to content ↑
Preparation of potatoes for storage
The excavated crop must be spread out in boxes, put them in the shade under the canopy, where the direct rays of the sun do not fall. Ideally, the place with the harvested potatoes should be blown, for example, with a draft. After 20-25 days, the surface of the tubers becomes hard, the peel will cease to be easily scraped off, you can transfer everything to storage in a ventilated cellar. The best temperature regime for storage is 3-5 degrees. A higher temperature leads to an earlier germination of tubers, which is highly undesirable..
Thus, potato growers should remember that the Kuban conditions are unfavorable for the growth, development of potatoes. In order to count on good harvests every year, it is necessary to strictly, consistently fulfill all the requirements of the intensive technology of growing potatoes. It is better to grow potatoes in smaller areas, but to apply good technology than on large areas to put all of their work in dependence on accidents.