Wood is rightly considered one of the most difficult materials to process. Therefore, the scheme and sequence of work with wood were worked out by more than one generation of carpenters. You can still try to plan one workpiece or board, level it in thickness manually. But if you need to prepare several hundred parts, then machining comes to the rescue. Today, none of the carpentry workshops, even at home, can do without planer-thickness machines.
The content of the article:
- What is a planer-thickness machine and its functionality
- What to look for when choosing
Overview of the best jointer-thickness machines
- BELMASH JT-2 204/210 S91A
- Holzstar ADH200
- Robland NXSD410
- Proma HP-250/2-230
- CORMAK PT310+FM300
- JET JPT-310 HH
- HOLZMANN HOB410PRO 400V
What is a planer-thickness machine and its functionality
Usually an experienced carpenter avoids using universal equipment, which has many functions and ways to process workpieces. As a rule, such a machine provides acceptable quality and accuracy only in one of the modes.For example, you can purchase planer and planer machines separately. At the first, it is possible to qualitatively plan the surface. A long hard shaft-mill will remove all surface defects, make the board smooth enough. If the thickness and width of the workpiece do not matter much, then it can be used.
On a thicknessing machine, you can cut the workpiece “to size” in thickness, width, with or without a chamfer. From such boards or slats make full-fledged products. The name "thickness" stuck to the machine due to the fact that in the old days, the control of the dimensions at the exit was carried out using a special template (bracket) or thicknesser. There is no thickness gauge in modern models, it was replaced by more accurate and reliable measuring instruments, but the name "thickness gauge" remained.
On a planer-thickness machine, several operations can be performed:
- Jointing or grinding of the surface (one or two-sided) to such a state that the thickness and width of the board can be measured. In this case, the measurement results will not “float” due to high roughness, knots, “humps” or potholes.
- Cutting the workpiece to size according to the thickness of the board. The operation is possible only after two-sided jointing of the material.
- Cutting material along the end surfaces to a given width of the workpiece. It is usually carried out after finishing trimming of the planes.
In some models of planer-thickness machines, it is possible to trim the planes and the end surface in one go. But in any case, finishing preparation on a jointer-thickness machine is separated into a separate operation and carried out at the very beginning. The simultaneous trimming mode gives low dimensional accuracy, sometimes the geometry “walks”, the edges are obtained with a barely noticeable arc.
This mode is mainly used for simple parts with large volumes of material. For example, you need to cut a plank or a lining blank for wall cladding. If you mess around on a planer-thickness machine separately with each workpiece, then the matter will drag on for several days. It is easier to drive the planks to size immediately along the plane and ends. In this case, the jointer-thickness variant turns out to be more profitable and convenient than two separate ones - a jointer and a thicknesser machine.
True, such a planer-thickness machine for wood (for example, Powermatic WP2510) is quite expensive, usually these are models for industrial and semi-industrial purposes, therefore, they are not considered in the ranking of the best will.
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What to look for when choosing
The quality, accuracy and productivity of workpiece processing on a planer-thickness machine depend on:
- Engine power. With an increase in power, the load on the machine body, the guide plane and the drive increases. The more powerful the planer-thickness machine, the heavier and stiffer the bed (frame and frame) should be. It is better not to consider options on thin legs-supports at all.
- Number and arrangement of milling shafts. In simple jointer-thickness machines, one shaft is used, installed in the plane of the guide. In more expensive and powerful models, another one can be added - top-mounted. So when entering, the board is cut to size in two planes at once.
- Departure of the cutting edge or allowance for processing (removal of the surface layer) in one run, traditionally it is 1-5 mm. The parameter must be adjusted with a screw pair, no pads.
- Shaft turns. They should be as high as possible if it is planned to process soft wood on a planer-thickness machine.
- The number of knives (cutting edges) on the shaft. The more of them, the higher the surface quality and the processing accuracy of the surface planer.
The feed table can be welded from sheet steel and square tube. But it is better to choose models with a working surface cast from cast iron and ground on high-precision equipment. For example, like the PT310 CORMAK machine.
Thanks to the hard and smooth surface, it is possible to feed the board onto the jointer with much less effort. In addition, the accuracy of thicknessing processing is higher. The surface is flat, the board is of the same thickness along the entire length, no waves or ridges.
Sometimes, instead of a continuous smooth surface, the table is made with longitudinal grooves. This technique improves the accuracy of jointing sawn timber with a large pile. Especially if the boards were cut from a raw log on an old low-speed circular saw.
If you have to work indoors, in a workshop or in a garage, then you cannot do without a fan with a dust collector. It is easy to get an allergy, especially when processing such species as larch or acacia.
Overview of the best jointer-thickness machines
The range or machine park for planing and thicknessing operations is oversaturated with all kinds of models of both well-known brands and relatively new and little-known manufacturing companies. Conventionally, everything that is presented on the market can be divided into 2 large groups - planer-thickness machines with a price tag of 180-250 thousand rubles. rubles or equipment at the level of 50-140 thousand rubles. rubles. Machines of the first group are purchased for a carpentry workshop operating at full capacity.
The second type of equipment is bought mainly by lone carpenters for the home workshop. They are most often considered in reviews. These can be inexpensive desktop-type machines. The majority chooses equipment for jointer-thickness operations from the top of the most popular, with “aiming” at the best quality of processing, even at the expense of performance and the availability of additional functions.
BELMASH JT-2 204/210 S91A
A simple compact planer-thickness machine of a budget level. Produced by one of the oldest machine-building enterprises in Belarus. Designed for domestic use, so the weight is only 29 kg. Collector motor 1500 W, produces 9000 rpm.
The light weight of planing equipment is explained by the fact that the design uses a large number of cheap units and parts made of aluminum alloys. The price of the machine is 33 thousand rubles. rub, 1 year warranty.
- Double-knife shaft with a diameter of 51 mm with removable blades.
- The drive to the shaft from the engine is made using a V-belt transmission.
- The maximum board width is 20.4 cm, workpieces up to 10 mm thick can be processed.
- Due to the high speed of rotation of the cutterhead, the surface quality is high. True, for low engine power you have to pay with a reduced depth of planing in one pass - 1.2-2 mm.
Among the shortcomings can be noted a small rigidity of the desktop. In addition, if thinning treatment of increased accuracy is required, then it is necessary to use a special device for additional adjustment of the reference plane.
For relatively thin workpieces, up to 30 mm, the power of the planer-thickness machine is enough. The manufacturer recommends using the machine for preparing lining, plywood blanks, manufacturing small-sized parts for wall cladding or lathing for roofing.
Warranty 12 months.
German brand. The company develops equipment for wood and metalworking. This is a desktop model, so the dimensions are small. Table length - 800 mm, height - 400 mm. Weight - 29 kg.
- Electric drive power - 1500 W.
- High-speed shaft - 8000 rpm. With a correctly selected feed, the planer-thickness machine provides a surface quality at the level of polished.
- The maximum depth of cut in a single pass is 2 mm, both for jointing and thicknessing. Accuracy within 0.4 mm.
- The machine can process workpieces up to 20 cm wide and up to 17 cm high.
- It is possible to make beveled side edges within 30-80O.
The design provides for a fan assembly of dust and chips. Waste is sucked in by a fan into a dense synthetic filter bag. The volume is enough for processing up to 2 m3 lumber. That is, you can work on a planer-thickness machine indoors.
A significant drawback of the model Holzstar ADH 200 - prefabricated frame. According to user reviews, the frame must be properly reinforced with sheet steel scarves. In this case planer-thickness machine can be used without restrictions.
A model that will interest many carpenters, both amateurs and professional craftsmen. The planer-thickness machine is manufactured at the machine-building enterprise of the company in Belgium, known for the high quality of the machine park. The quality of mechanics of Robland NXSD 410 is higher than that of inexpensive jointer-thickness machines manufactured in China.
Robland NXSD 410 features:
- Electric motor power - 3750 W, 5500 rpm, mains power 380 V.
- Shaft 70 mm with three knives. Blades can be removed for sharpening. To reinstall the knives, a special tool is used.
- Cast iron frame and base, weight 320 kg.
- The machine is two-shaft, 2 shafts and 2 cast-iron cast tables are installed in the design.
- There is an automatic feed of the workpiece at a speed of 10 cm / sec. In manual mode, you can enable protection against the reverse ejection of the workpiece towards the operator.
- Planing depth up to 4 mm in one pass.
In one processing, the planer-thickness machine is able to simultaneously process 2 planes. The maximum height of the workpiece is up to 23 cm. In addition, it is possible to cut the end edges at an angle of up to 45O. Both shafts are driven by a V-belt drive, the equipment operates quite quietly and does not require personal noise protection equipment.
The planing depth is set with two handwheels. The set size is reflected on a mechanical counter-indicator located in the center of the disk. This is much more convenient than traditional rulers or metal carpenter's thickness gauges, which are usually not very accurate.
The design was developed in the Czech Republic, produced in the People's Republic of China. Jointing and thicknessing machine for use in home carpentry workshops and carpenters by individual entrepreneurs.
The capabilities of the equipment are enough to get a floorboard, lining, facing rail and even furniture boards. Price - 120 thousand rubles. rub., weight - 115 kg.
- Drive power - 2.2 kW, 220 V asynchronous motor. The transmission is carried out by means of a steel multi-link chain.
- Three-knife milling shaft with a diameter of 75 mm, performs 4000 rpm.
- Depth of wood removal - 3 mm for planing mode, 1 mm - for planer. Finishing accuracy of 0.2 mm on a hard dry board with a minimum workpiece feed.
- Cast iron table, steel and cast iron frame, prefabricated structure.
- The maximum dimensions of the workpiece in width - 250 mm.
The planer-thickness machine is interesting in that it can be used in two modes. By using Proma HP-250/2-230 plane workpieces quickly with high feed. Surface quality and accuracy are average. If you set the shaft to high speed and minimum feed, then the surface quality will noticeably improve.
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Jointing and thicknessing machine for a small furniture workshop with a staff of 2-3 carpenters. The layout is standard, a cast-iron table 120 cm long is mounted on a welded structural steel frame. To drive the shaft, an asynchronous motor 3000 W, powered by 380 V is used.
- The rotation speed of the three-knife shaft is 5300 rpm. With a cutting blade diameter of 75 mm, the cutting speed is 10 cm/sec.
- The limiting depth of cut during planing is 5 mm, while thicknessing is 3 mm.
- Workpiece width - up to 30 cm, height - 22 cm.
Thanks to the massive body and bed, the cast iron table, the design of the machine dampens all vibrations well. Therefore, the equipment does not have to be mounted on a concrete floor, like most floor models. Moreover, the developers additionally provided for the possibility of transporting the machine using a special trolley. That is, the machine can be removed from the premises during downtime.
JET JPT-310 HH
The machine of the Swiss equipment manufacturer "JET", is produced both in Switzerland and in China. Refers to planer-thickness equipment of the middle class with increased accuracy. Price - 275 thousand rubles. rub., weight - 230 kg. This type of machine is traditionally used in small private workshops for the manufacture of wooden furniture.
- Engine power 3.5 kW, at 5.5 thousand. rpm Supply voltage - 380 V.
- For processing, a milling shaft with a diameter of 70 mm is used, with 48 carbide blades-knives. Due to this, the planing error is minimal - 0.1 mm.
- The length of the working table made of cast iron is 180 cm, boards up to 250 cm long and 30 cm wide can be processed on a planer-thickness machine.
- The depth of cut during planing is up to 3.5 mm, with a finishing thickness gauge - up to 1.5 mm.
- The minimum workpiece thickness is 5 mm.
On the machine, you can process packages of blanks and even make veneer blanks. The design has an automatic feed system, the speed can be adjusted depending on the operating mode and the required processing accuracy. The automatic feeder can be turned off and the workpieces can be advanced manually, for example, in the case of planing a tree with a pronounced “twisted” fiber structure of the wood.
The drive from the engine to the shaft is belt, therefore JET JPT-310HH is one of the quietest in operation. An aspiration dust removal system is used to collect waste. The filter bag can be reused after special cleaning of the filter cloth.
HOLZMANN HOB410PRO 400V
One of the best models of jointer-thickness machines for a small carpentry workshop for 2-3 workers. Designed and manufactured by an Austrian company HOLZMANN, a leading manufacturer of woodworking equipment. Price - 370 thousand. rub.
The bed is based on parts made of cast gray iron and steel. The guide table is also cast iron. Therefore, the weight is 420 kg. To drive the milling shaft, a 380 V asynchronous motor with a power of 5.5 kW at 4700 rpm is used.
- The maximum dimensions of the workpiece are 41 cm wide, 20 cm high.
- In planing mode, up to 5 mm is removed in one pass, with precise thickness planing - up to 4 mm. It is possible to cut the end at an angle of up to 45O.
- The length of the working table is 180 cm, the total height of the planer-thickness machine is 110 cm.
- The maximum speed of pulling the workpiece is 12 cm/s. There is an automatic board feed.
Machine Accuracy HOLZMANN HOB410PRO 400V on dry hardwood is 0.3 mm at maximum feed. The design uses a chain drive from the engine to the shaft, so the equipment is very noisy. There is a wood dust removal (aspiration) system with a replaceable filter. Users note the reliability and stability of the processing characteristics of the HOLZMANN HOB410PRO.
Even the best planer planers require constant adjustment of basic planing parameters such as thickness and feed. Even for semi-industrial floor models, cutting parameters under load can arbitrarily “sag”. And desktop ones need to be adjusted after every 200-300 processed blanks. In addition, the exact operation of the equipment depends on the experience and skills of the operator.
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Tell us about your experience with planing equipment. What models of machines, in your opinion, turned out to be the most convenient for a small carpentry workshop?