In multi-apartment buildings, the presence of a ventilation system with a natural induction of air circulation is a necessary condition, without which a residential facility will not be put into operation.
However, in private construction, the organization of air exchange is often remembered only with the appearance of unpleasant odors and fungal mold on the walls. A well-designed ventilation scheme in a private house will help solve this problem.
In this material we will talk about the features of natural and forced ventilation, the principles of its operation. And also about how to make a draft air exchange system in a private house.
The content of the article:
- Why does the building need ventilation?
- Methods of organizing air exchange in the house
- Types of ventilation systems
Natural ventilation in the house
- How can you increase efficiency?
Features forced air exchange
- Description of the option of mechanical ventilation
- Mechanical ventilation with heat recovery
- System without heat recovery
- Combined system type
- Rules for drafting a ventilation project
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Why does the building need ventilation?
Application in the construction of modern materials and various external enclosing structures the cottage / house makes it difficult for the air to flow naturally between the rooms and the street, and sometimes blocks it. Thanks to the inner and external insulation, mounted plastic windows of the building are sealed.
Such measures help to conserve heat and save energy, but they strongly impede the flow of fresh air. To correct this typical situation, it is necessary to organize an effective system of circulation of air flows.
In the building, ventilation is necessary so that fresh, regular air flows into the bathroom, bedroom, living room and kitchen. the air is not through the wide open windows and doors, but through special devices - anemostats and air diffusers.
According to generally accepted sanitary standards, a properly functioning ventilation system is an indispensable element of the engineering equipment of all residential properties.
A constant flow of air in the house will provide comfortable conditions for a long stay of people and plant maintenance, as well as for the full functioning of all technical systems.
Ventilation is also needed to maintain optimal environmental parameters for the safe operation of various building structures, wooden furniture and interior items.
Circulation of air flows should be organized not only in the living rooms, but also in the premises of economic and technical purposes - bathroom and sanitary facilities, in the kitchen, in the boiler room and the basement.
High-quality ventilation system contributes to the rapid removal of excess moisture and heat. Together with the exhaust air from the premises simultaneously removed harmful microorganisms, accumulated dirt and dust.
The organization of the outflow of polluted air - a preventive measure in the difficult struggle with fungi and mold
That is why it is important even at the design stage of a residential house to think over all the details of the engineering network: kitchen ventilation to make it more powerful than in other rooms, to correctly select the functional elements of the ventilation system in order to ensure an optimal level of oxygen in the interior.
Methods of organizing air exchange in the house
There are different ways to ensure air exchange in a residential building - from periodic short-term opening doors and windows before installing multifunctional systems for the preparation and delivery of clean air to each the room.
From the point of view of ventilation, a healthy and comfortable atmosphere in the house is not only due to the composition of the air. An important role is played by its temperature, uniform distribution and mobility.
Admission of cool air can create a powerful convection flow, which a person will perceive as an unpleasant draft. As a result, even with normal temperature indicators in the room will be uncomfortable.
In old brick buildings, ventilation and ventilation were provided by special vents left during the construction of a residential facility.
The ventilation system in the kitchen of a wooden bar cottage seemed as simple as possible. Unsealed doorways and window units contributed to the continuous circulation of the air flow in the house.
All these methods are still involved in small one-story buildings. Natural air ventilation there is enough. But if we talk about large and spacious private houses, then without additionally installed central air conditioners and fans can not do.
Types of ventilation systems
According to the basic requirements of hygienic and sanitary standards, the ventilation performance of any type should be:
- 3m3 per hour per 1 square meter area for living rooms;
- 25 m3 for separate sanitary facilities;
- 50 m3 for sanitary facilities.
The amount of fresh air that must be supplied to different rooms depends on a number of other factors - the number of people, the nature and frequency of the work performed, the concentration of harmful substances.
In residential premises for one adult enter 35 m3 air, for children under the age of 10 take the rate of 15-20 m3 per hour, children a little older - 25 m3.
Designed ventilation scheme in compliance with these parameters will guarantee a regular stable flow of fresh air and comfortable living in a private house.
Air exchange systems are of three types:
- natural - with the natural inducement of air circulation;
- mechanical - with forced entry and exhaust of air;
- combined - with partial use of mechanical extraction and natural flow of fresh air masses.
In the house it is necessary to organize a continuous automatic supply of clean air. Only the intensity of inflow and removal can change.
The most economical and convenient in operation is a natural ventilation system that functions smoothly without electricity.
But on the other hand, the involved enforcement mechanisms greatly simplify the ventilation of residential and auxiliary premises.
Read how to calculate the ventilation system for the house. Further.
Natural ventilation in the house
For the organization of the natural exchange of air using the concept of vertical ventilation channels. One end is mounted indoors, and the other end out slightly above the roof of the building.
Since the temperature of the air in the house usually differs from the street temperature, warm streams gradually rise through the exhaust duct. A fresh portion enters the rooms from the outside through the window and door frames.
The efficiency of a natural ventilation scheme depends on factors beyond the control of a person — wind and ambient temperature.
Among the main advantages of such a system are simplicity and minimal expenses for arrangement, saturation of rooms with natural air, independence from electricity.
But there are significant drawbacks. So, natural ventilation in a private building will only work until the outside air temperature exceeds 12 degrees Celsius. At high rates, the hood will not be able to fully work.
At first glance, this situation seems ideal for winter, but there is a flaw here that is simply impossible to ignore. With a significant temperature difference between the outside and inside air, the system will start to work faster. All the heat will literally fly freely into the pipe.
Therefore, residents of cottages and private houses spend more energy on heating than normal climatic conditions require.
Unstable work in the summer - the main disadvantage of natural ventilation schemes
To organize this type of ventilation system, separate air ducts are laid from each utility room to a common shaft. From the kitchen you need to build two channels - one from the exhaust grille under the ceiling, and the other from the kitchen hood.
And still it is necessary to pay special attention to all rooms completely / partially located below the ground level in the house. They accumulate toxic radon. To reduce the amount of hazardous gas, you should equip a powerful exhaust duct.
In addition, you need to take care of reliable waterproofing basement. After all, even the most efficient supply and exhaust system can not cope with its tasks, if the basement of a private house or cottage is always damp.
How can you increase efficiency?
There are several ways that will help to improve the effect of the air exchange system with natural motivation:
- install a special valve at the inlet to the channel;
- mount grilles with valves on the inflow and outflow channels;
- use deflector.
The valve equipped with automatic equipment reacts even to insignificant change of humidity of air. It is mounted at the entrance to the duct inside the building. When the humidity in the room rises, the automatic relay is activated and the internal valve opens the channel more.
In the case of lowering the indicators, the device closes the entrance. The sensitive element is a sensor that captures signals from the environment. It is installed outside the house.
In winter, the valve must be further covered. This will minimize the ingress of cold air into a residential building. However, the installation of such a device does not override all the disadvantages of natural ventilation.
Exhaust ventilation ducts are arranged in the main internal walls of the building. It is advisable to combine the air ducts into small groups so that the passage through the roof is organized in one pipe.
Another effective method is the installation of grids with valves on the flow channels and removal of air masses. Manage them only manually. The valve position must be adjusted at least once per season, when the outside air temperature changes.
Strengthening the thrust in the vertical exhaust channels can contribute to the wind. To use natural force, a deflector is put on the upper part of the pipe - a special device that protects the air duct from debris and precipitation, as well as increases traction.
The use of the deflector allows you to increase the performance of the chimney / ventilation duct by 20%
By deflector, one air stream is cut into two or even more at different speeds. It creates a vacuum, which in turn increases the pressure drop in the pipe. As a result, the air duct pulls the exhaust air better.
Features forced air exchange
If natural ventilation does not provide a full renewal of air, a powerful supply and exhaust system is installed in a private house.
It helps to balance the air flow that circulates between the rooms and the external environment continuously. Such ventilation ensures a stable supply of purified fresh air and removal of polluted outside.
Description of the option of mechanical ventilation
Modern multifunctional installations of supply and exhaust ventilation make the most of the energy of the supplied air flow and convert it into heat.
Such systems produce deep purification of fresh air, completely filtering from dust, various allergens, bacteria and other harmful microorganisms.
Additional processing is created with the use of filtration equipment, highly efficient noise absorbers, ionization and wetting devices, sometimes using flavoring devices.
Airflows that have undergone treatment are distributed through the house through special ventilation boxes. Prepared clean air enters the bedroom and children's room, study, living room, kitchen and bathrooms, ancillary rooms, and is removed from there by exhaust system
The functional elements of the system with forced induction of air exchange are filters and heat exchangers, fans, exhaust hoods, control devices and, directly, the ventilation unit.
Built-in electronics allows you to selectively set the optimal user modes of the system in terms of temperature and humidity, over time. Greatly simplify the operation of the remote control and smart controllers.
Mechanical ventilation helps prevent the formation of unpleasant odors in the kitchen, prevents the appearance of dampness and the spread of multi-colored mold, solves the problem of constant humidity in the bathroom and condensation on the surface of the heated floor, double-glazed windows, door blocks.
Powerful units with integrated filters, special sound absorbers and heaters take up a lot of space. To locate them, you need to free up space in the attic or in the basement of a private house.
Modern multifunctional forced-induction ventilation systems are often combined with intelligent control and monitoring complexes. Such measures optimize the work of the equipment of all installed engineering systems in the house, allow you to organize user-friendly remote control of equipment via the Internet.
Mechanical ventilation with heat recovery
In schemes with heat recovery for air exchange in the building meets the supply and exhaust stationary installation. The air from the environment enters the system, after which the filter is cleaned of dust, pollution and sent for the main heating to the heat exchanger.
Air masses heat up to the required temperature in electric /water heater and through strong galvanized steel ventilation ducts distributed throughout the house.
The system with heat recovery will provide high quality air in a residential building all year round. At low speeds of operating fans, the supply and exhaust stationary installations operate almost silently.
Automation gives you the flexibility to control the operation of the equipment: to regulate the flow of air, set a comfortable temperature, change the speed of air flow.
Recovery - the rational use of heat energy of exhaust air for the subsequent heating of the supply air. This allows you to reduce up to 85% of the cost of heat for heating the air flow from the external environment in the winter period.
Maintenance of such an installation is a regular change of filters. New elements for air purification from dust are recommended to be replaced once a quarter.
System without heat recovery
In order to organize a functional supply and exhaust ventilation without an air recuperator, several exhaust systems and a central supply unit are used at once. The outside air is heated or cooled, then cleaned in the filter, and then distributed through the network of canals to the living rooms.
Removal of waste heavy air masses produced hoods in the premises of economic and technical purposes. Such systems make partly natural and partly forced. They function due to natural thrust and due to channel fans.
Supply and exhaust circuits without heat recovery provide heating and purification of air entering the house, but spend a large amount of energy on the continuous processing of air flow.
Combined system type
Combined ventilation is implemented mainly in the form of a scheme with a natural influx and mechanical, that is, forced, exhaust exhaust masses.
Fresh air enters the rooms through valves due to the vacuum created by the exhaust fans. In this case, preheating of the inlet air masses is not performed. But this is not a problem if you install a correctly selected heating element under the valve - an open radiator.
Mechanical exhaust in a private house is performed by fans, as a rule, duct fans. There may be several of them, but sometimes one is enough.
To ensure effective circulation of air flow, exhaust fans must operate without interruption. In order to save energy resources, speed controllers with automatic / manual control are connected to the system.
Air flow into the house is organized in a natural way. To do this, use wall or special window inlet valves. The design of such devices does not provide for the presence of moving parts.
Specialists characterize combined ventilation as functional, relatively inexpensive and easy to operate. The location of related equipment does not require much space. In addition, all functional elements require minimal maintenance.
Among the drawbacks of the combined type of system, it is worth noting the lack of filtration and heating of the supply air, as well as minimum air exchange rates.
Rules for drafting a ventilation project
Full operation of the ventilation system is directly dependent on the exact calculation of technical parameters and well-designed project of circulation of air flow in the house.
The development of equipment layout and pipe routing makes it possible to lay channels in the project for extracting stale air. In addition, it will be convenient to adjust the height of the ceilings in the premises, taking into account the additional space for laying the exhaust pipes.
Calculation of ventilation and aspiration should be carried out at the stage of architectural planning of a residential facility.
If, however, to carry out the installation of ventilation during the redevelopment / reconstruction of the building, you need to specifically wall the walls under the ventilation ducts or install massive side shafts that do not look aesthetically pleasing.
It is at the stage of engineering design of the air exchange system that the basic technical solutions are determined:
- the method of distribution of air flow in the house;
- type of ventilation and exhaust shafts;
- availability of filtration equipment.
However, when calculating the ventilation system, infiltration is not taken into account, since the contribution to the circulation of air flows is negligible.
Some building materials and enclosing structures can pass air without special devices. They call this process active natural infiltration, which must be taken into account when developing a house heat supply scheme.
The quality of air in residential and utility rooms is influenced by many factors. In developing the design of ventilation, in addition to the design features of a private structure, take into account various generally accepted standards and objective indicators. Also an important role in this process is played by the personal preferences of the home owner and the affordable budget.
The design of ventilation systems is performed according to the following plan:
- At the initial stage of the technical task.
- The second step - the choice of the optimal concept of air exchange in a private house.
- The next stage is the development of a scheme with the calculation of the level created by ventilation, noise, the calculation of the section and the selection of air ducts with the required parameters.
- This is followed by the preparation of the drawing for approval by the customer.
- The last stage - the final design and delivery of the finished ventilation scheme.
It is necessary to exclude situations when for carrying out repair work or periodic inspection of equipment it is necessary to dismantle parts of building structures or decorative trim. Therefore, it is better to place filters, heaters, fans and other system components in a special technical room.
It will also solve the problem of organizing effective noise isolation of a working ventilation unit.
In the process of developing project documentation, it is necessary to further study the future operation and maintenance of the ventilation system.
If you do not follow the patterns, but develop an individual concept of ventilation arrangement for a specific construction object, it is possible to provide a stable supply of clean air to all interior rooms and exhaust polluted.
When developing a ventilation scheme, you need to focus on some technical features:
- the volumes of exhaust and intake air masses must be balanced;
- fresh and clean air is supplied only to the living rooms, and the waste air is removed from the outbuildings;
- It is not allowed to combine exhaust hoods from the kitchen and bathroom into one ventilation channel;
- the speed of the air flow in the exhaust pipes and main ducts should not exceed the mark of 6 m / s. At the exit of the grille, the maximum indicator is 3 m / s;
- ventilation shafts that pass along the street need to be insulated with insulation materials not less than 5 cm thick.
Experts recommend choosing a principled supply and exhaust circuit. Organized ventilation of this type will effectively cope with the supply of fresh air and internal filtration.
The correct approach to the device of circulation of air masses will help to create a favorable and comfortable microclimate in the house.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
The video explains why ventilation is needed in every private house and why one should not allow mixing of supply and exhaust air flows:
This video clearly shows how to properly organize the flow and evacuation of air with a natural ventilation scheme of a country house:
A video on how the supply and exhaust ventilation of sufficient power with heat recovery using the example of the profi-air system of the German manufacturer FRANKISCHE:
Having studied the principles of operation of ventilation systems, properly organize the air in a small one-story building on their own is quite real. but design and installation of ventilation in spacious country houses it is better to entrust professionals. After all, the installed system should not only work, but also cope with planned tasks.
Competently equipped ventilation will solve the problems of standing air and the unpleasant feeling of stuffiness in a private house.
Do you have any questions, have found any shortcomings, or want to share useful information on the arrangement of ventilation in a private house? Please leave your comments, ask questions and share your experience in the box below the article.