Owners of private homes, usually used to store cellar products. But due to lack of window space devoid of the normal level of ventilation. This leads to high humidity, mold formation mold, rapid spoilage, which is very frustrating, is not it?
Do you want to prevent such a problem, but do not know how? We'll show you a solution - it will help to provide a flow properly organized cellar ventilation with two pipes. And her the strength to do it yourself.
The main stages of the work and construction of the rules discussed in detail in this article. Visual material is supplemented with detailed and fotoinstruktsiyami videorekomendatsiyami on the organization of optimal climatic conditions in the cellar. Having studied that even a novice will be able to understand the basics of ventilation devices in the home.
The content of the article:
- to the arrangement of the basement Requirements
- The principle of operation of the natural system
- Recommendations regarding the selection of ventilation
Equipment for ventilation unit
- Option # 1 - asbestos structures
- Embodiment # 2 - pipe of galvanized metal
- Option # 3 - Plastic pipes
- How to determine the diameter of the pipe?
Rules of installation of air ducts
- Installation of a natural ventilation system
- Photo Installation Guide chimney
- Features a combined system
- Optimum microclimate in the cellar
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
to the arrangement of the basement Requirements
Basement, as a rule, is in every private house. Many residents of the private sector it is equipped utility room, cellar, sauna suit, gyms, lounges, which requires a complex system arrangement mechanical ventilation.
However, most of the basement is used for storage of food supplies, which, although they need a specific microclimate, but do not require forced exhaust device.
In this case, it will be sufficient to make the natural purge ventilation.
Lack or insufficient cellar ventilation is the main cause of the increase of moisture and mold
Nevertheless it to ensure the safety of products and the proper functioning of the cellar, you must follow some rules in the arrangement of the premises.
Let us examine them in more detail:
- To exclude getting into the basement of natural lighting. The basement windows should be permitted periodic use of electric lighting.
- Organize favorable temperature conditions. For this cellar equip such a way that one of its sides is in contact with the outer wall of the house.
- Ensure normal ventilation facilitiesThat provided by the presence of ventilation.
- Maintain the required room humidity. The optimal rate - about 90%. This parameter is also dependent on ventilation.
- Build a good waterproofingTo avoid getting into the cellar of groundwater.
From the above list of requirements for the proper arrangement of the basement it can be seen that two of the five necessary conditions provides ventilation.
But to make it function effectively and to create optimal conditions for storage of products, it is necessary to observe certain rules for its installation.
The most basic ventilation system are air holes that set in the base from opposite sides of the house. They are suitable for small basement space with a ceiling height of not more than two meters. To the cellar did not get the garbage, and climbed rodents holes closed bars
Insufficient ventilation of premises leads to an increase in humidity and the formation of mold, excess can cause excessive dryness of the basement, which also adversely affect the crop protection.
Therefore, one needs to follow the rule of the golden mean, but in order to comply with, it is important to make the correct calculations, which depend on the size and characteristics of the room.
Regardless of the status and purpose of the basement, it necessarily normal air exchange should be organized
The partially or completely recessed in the ground must act room air required for drying and airing screen
From basements and cellars should be freely discharged as much air as is supplied by the supply unit at a time
By way of air flow inducement ventilating systems are divided into natural and artificial. In the first case, the air is moved under the influence of the fans, in the second - at the expense of gravitational forces
Ventilation of cellars and basements prevent infiltration and gradual destruction of building structures, which in the basement of the format function as an underground part of the building foundation
This arrangement of the basement or ground space required for operation in the construction of artificial or office as a residential space, i.e. mechanical ventilation
In the cellars and basements to be used exclusively for the storage of blanks and other reserves, enough to make a natural system
The mechanical ventilation system fan can be installed on the inflow and at the exhaust. But it works or just extract, or inflow
Ventilation - a mandatory system for cellars and basements
Supply opening in the basement of the house
Exhaust pipe of asbestos cellar
Ventilation device for mechanical ventilation
Preventing the destruction of building structures
Ventilation operated basement
Ventilation of cellars with food
Ventilation system with a single tube
The principle of operation of the natural system
natural ventilation system work type based on physical laws. The difference of temperature inside the building and on the street leading to the movement of the air flow and a constant exchange of air.
Warm air trapped inside rushes toward the ceiling, and its place is taken by the mass of cold air coming from the outside.
The figure shows the scheme of sharing the warm and cold airflow in the closed basement using ventilation
In the basement there are no windows or other openings that serve as entry and exit of the air flow. To arrange a constant air circulation in a closed room, it must be equipped with exhaust and supply air ducts.
The first serves to output from the cellar warm stale air, second - ensures the supply of fresh cold air stream from the street.
To ensure optimum indoor temperature and good heat exchange, ventilation channels must be at the maximum possible distance apart.
The longer the distance that the air flow passes, the better and better ventilated room.
Supply and exhaust ducts shall be installed so that air would place "where roam". This will help create a good indoor air circulation and the right temperature conditions for stored products
Recommendations regarding the selection of ventilation
There are a few essential points that need to be considered when designing the system. Job type natural ventilation depends on the climate, typical for the area, time of year, the outside temperature.
It is most effective in the winter because the cold season there is a large difference between indoor and outdoor temperature, thereby providing good air circulation.
Ideally, the ventilation system is developed at the design stage to the liner was laid during the construction of cellars or pouring the foundation for the air vents
If planted in the construction of low-rise house ventilation can not cope with the responsibilities permissible system modernization: increased inflow from additional air holes, installation of fans, construction ducts
If the fan is installed in the supply hole hood is made in a natural way. Re-entering the air simply replaces the one that was in the cellar
If the fan is connected to the exhaust pipe, it works on the "vacuum" of air masses. The vacancy immediately seeking to fill the air from the street coming through the supply opening
Bookmark the vents in the construction process
Amplification and forming ventilation produhi
The fan in the supply opening
Fan with a chimney
But at the same time, there is the danger of an excessive increase in air, which is not good because cold air can lead to freezing of cellars, and accordingly, the products stored there. It is therefore necessary to monitor the temperature and with a substantial lowering, close the air holes.
In summer, when the difference of indoor and outdoor temperature is minimal air circulation can cease completely. Therefore, the supply and exhaust system based on the principle of natural ventilation is not suitable for installation in areas with warm climates.
In such a climate it is necessary to use a combined ventilation system.
Everything for a small cellar ventilation can be limited to one pipe. But that it can simultaneously operate on the output and intake air, it is necessary on the vertical axis to divide into two channels.
Each channel has its own valve set, which controls the intensity and speed of the inflow and outflow of air flow.
Check the operation of such a ventilation as possible, putting a piece of paper to each outlet.
When installing the ventilation pipe is a single pipe is divided into two independent channels, one of which serves to receive the outdoor air and the other for removal from the premises of warm air masses
Equipment for ventilation unit
Everything for ventilation ducts are used various types of pipes - asbestos cement, plastic or galvanized metal - square, less round cross-section.
Option # 1 - asbestos structures
Asbestos-cement pipes are corrosion resistant, well-kept cold and moisture, have a long service life. These tubes are long enough to allow to mount the air duct, without welding.
Pipes made of asbestos have many virtues, but during transportation and installation need to be careful because they are fragile and can break
Embodiment # 2 - pipe of galvanized metal
Galvanized pipes are lightweight and relatively inexpensive, they are resistant to corrosion and easy to install.
Galvanizing is suitable for wet areas, where it will serve as a reliable and long under the right conditions, but if they are violated, the zinc coating is damaged.
Galvanized steel pipe is often used as an air ventilation system in the organization of their own hands. Their main advantage - low weight and ease of installation
Option # 3 - Plastic pipes
Most often used for ventilation of the organization plastic pipes. The smooth inner surface ensures a good cross airflows.
Plastic ducts require no cleaning and no rust, their service life is more than twenty years, and their price is much lower tubes made of other materials.
The main drawback plastic designs - high flammability of the material, so they can not be installed in areas in which it is possible to limit the temperature increase rates
How to determine the diameter of the pipe?
The determining factor is the effectiveness of the ventilation ducts proportionality of floor space where it is installed. Calculate the required size of the pipe is easy.
Experts advise in the calculations adhere to the following rules: 1 sq.m. basement must be 26 square centimeters section.
It turns out that for each pipe diameter centimeter for 13 sq. cm. section. Based on this, we can calculate the required tube diameter the following formula:
(S cellar × 26) ÷ 13
For example, if the quadrature (S) Space is 8 meters, it turns out that for cellar need to purchase the pipe diameter of 16 cm.
(8 × 26) = 208 ÷ 13 = 16 cm.
If a single pipe ventilation installed in the cellar, the duct diameter should be larger. In this case, use of a pipe section of 17 cm for this basement space.
You may also be interested in information about the calculation of the area of the duct considered in our other article.
Rules of installation of air ducts
For the organization of supply and exhaust ventilation system needed two duct. To uniform air circulation was used pipes of the same diameter. Allowed to accelerate the withdrawal of stale air to install the chimney slightly larger cross-section.
The ducts have a considerable distance from each other in opposite walls of the room. Thus creating favorable conditions for ventilation of the cellar.
It is advisable to follow the path of the pipe, as low as possible, and even better there was no owl twists and turns.
The tubes are further apart, the better the air circulates around the basements
The exhaust pipe is installed in one of the corners of the basement. Its lower end must be near the ceiling (about 1.5 m from the cellar floor) to all the warm air on his way to the upper part of the premises, fully bringing out.
Duct passes through all the premises of the house and removed the roof on a hill and a half meters above the ridge.
During the passage of air in the pipe is accumulated condensate and winter frost forms inside it. To avoid this, you should insulate the duct, located on the street.
To do this, put on top of the tube larger, and in the space with fit any insulation.
The exhaust opening is closed fine grid. But the best thing on the tube headroom install ventsAround which an artificial vacuum that helps to increase traction.
If the air intake duct is output through the roof, it is necessary that the intake opening is positioned below the edge of the exhaust pipe
Fresh air duct placed in another corner of the cellar, its open end must be lifted above the floor of the basement of 40-50 cm. It is necessary that the inflow opening exhaust pipe was below one meter. Pipe can be put through the house and to make access to the roof of the building.
Thus it is necessary to consider that the intake supply opening roof must also be below the exhaust, in this case It creates a large difference at the inlet and outlet air pressure, which contributes to the thrust and improves air flow. Therefore, the outer edge of the pipe on the roof is raised no higher than 20-25 cm.
Intake opening out through the wall outside the house at a distance of about 30 cm from the ground
Often in the regeneration of the basement under the residential house, the air intake duct fed through the basement ceiling in a hole made in the outer wall of the structure.
Outside on the supply pipe is put lattice which prevents dust and debris opening and does not allow to get into the cellar rodents.
Inside the basement in each duct, you must install a special valve, opening or closing of which is governed by the intensity of the income and outflow of air.
The inflow pipe can be deduced from the basement and set it outside the house. In this case, the duct hole is raised above the ground by about 80 cm
Installation of a natural ventilation system
Ventilation system, it is desirable to design and install the construction stage home. During this period, all work carried out is much easier than to mount the air duct in the finished box.
However, this is not always possible, frequently duct installed in a ready-made design.
If ventilation gasket made during the construction of the cellar in the ground is a recess for laying the exhaust duct. The brickwork is left a hole where the pipe is led
If the installation of the ventilation is carried out in a separate cellar, then make holes where the output chimney in its roof. It strengthened inside and outside the premises in accordance with the recommendations given above.
At arrangement cellar ventilation, located under an apartment building, the exhaust duct should be installed in a place where the obschedomovoy vent overlooking the roof of the building.
On the opposite side of the basement in the ceiling or in the upper part of the wall bore holes for installation of the supply pipe. In a separate cellar pipe is led to the roof below the level of the suction channel.
In the cellar under the apartment house concludes the outer wall of the structure. Inside the basement pipe is lowered to a distance of 30-50 cm from the floor.
Exhaust channel basement located underneath the house is usually built into a common duct, and the inflow pipe is led through a side wall
After mounting the supply and exhaust air ducts must close their outer openings and install the damper inside the tubes. The outlet channel even with insulation in extreme cold condensate may accumulate, so the bottom of the pipe is recommended to set the tap for draining water.
To check the operation of the ventilation system, to the inlet need to make tissue paper. If the duct is working properly, the leaf will sway.
Photo Installation Guide chimney
Consider implemented in practice variant amplification cellar ventilation by setting a high chimney.
According to calculations by the decision made earlier to increase the hood, also allow to get out of the wind stagnation zones created by adjacent buildings and trees. As planned by the pipe is installed in the ventilation duct:
To increase the acquired drawing polymer tube and fasteners. The tube was cut to 2.1 m, because it will be installed in the exhaust duct
In order to protect the vent from insects, birds suspended in the air of dust and grime to the upper edge of the pipe is fixed baffle
Stepping from top of the pipe about 1/4 of the entire length, fixed clamp, which will be attached to the brace. Shown in Example clamp composed of two ordinary, taken only parts with hinges
On the surface of ventilation duct marked hole required for installing a vent tube
On the roof transferred everything necessary for the formation and arrangement of holes for the pipes
According markup sawed a hole in the ceiling ventilation ducts
If the hole is not determined the vent pipe vertically, it is corrected
In order to avoid damaging the polymeric tube during installation in the hole is set asbestos guide
Step 1: Purchase of accessories to enhance the extraction
Step 2: Install the deflector for protection against external influences
Step 3: Fixing clamp with loops for stretch marks
Step 4: Elevation of the apparatus Designated pipe
Step 5: Carrying on the roof of tools and accessories
Step 6: Formation of the hole using a grinder
Step 7: Adjusting the holes if necessary
Step 8: Install the hole guide
Upon completion of the exhaust pipe assembly and directly opening device to be mounted to a mounting start.
High pipe will be reinforced braces, which will help it to withstand gusty winds:
On the anchor washer, available in a complete set, is changed to a stronger version
For the location of anchors choose the most suitable point. They drilled holes, set anchors, and treated with a sealant around
Threaded through the eyelet of the anchor metal wire and rigidly fix it using a tie bolt with two
With the use of cables turnbuckles fastened to the yoke is fixed on the tube, which makes it possible to pull them in the event of weakening
Around the pipe the mounting clearances blown foam, and trying to fill the space between the guide duct and overlap, and the gap between the plastic pipe and asbestos
Until the frozen foam of the piping can be slightly adjusted. It must be strictly horizontal
Waiting for foam curing, cut off the excess, trying to give it the shape of a truncated cone
After completing the trimming of excess foam, the original cone treated bitumen mastic
Step 9: Replace the washer on the anchor to a strengthened version
Step 10: Install anchors at the most appropriate points
Step 11: Attaching the wire ropes through the eyelet of the anchor
Step 12: Securing the cable in the pipe by means of turnbuckles
Step 13: blowing holes with foam
Step 14: Alignment of design if necessary
Step 15: Trim excess foam
Step 16: Processing base construction mastic
Home handyman, to develop and to realize this idea in the supply opening as fan put-ons. In this way he has improved breathability, so quickly get rid of the moisture in the waterlogged during the freshet period cellar.
Features a combined system
In cases where natural ventilation is not such as to perform its functions, used more advanced combined ventilation system.
In its operation is not affected by various environmental factors, it does not depend on the temperature difference inside and outside the building and can operate efficiently year-round.
Combined ventilation settling as well as the natural: with the help of supply and exhaust pipes.
Additionally, the exhaust duct is mounted a fan which promotes rapid blowing out of the cellar stale air, instead of which clean air is outside the cellar.
In larger rooms, the unit is also installed in the supply air. In the basement of a small area to put a fan on the input channel for continuous operation is economically inexpedient, since it will be a large consumption of electricity.
When the fan assistance, set in the opening of the supply duct, can quickly drain the room, if natural ventilation is poor cope with this task.
The figure shows how the channel fan must be installed in the exhaust air duct
For the arrangement of the combined system uses fans rated at 100 watts. To install suitable axial channel and device. The first are convenient in that they are different economical operation and do not require a lot of energy. They can be installed anywhere in the air.
Among channel fans are the most effective instruments with amplitude engine.
Axial fans provide a more powerful air flow, but also the energy they require significantly more. When installing this type of devices, it is advisable to also mount tube check valveWhich stops in the cold air space.
Optimum microclimate in the cellar
For the safety of the products you want to create a favorable microclimate in the cellar. Of great importance is the level of humidity of the room.
ventilation system cellar equipment - this is certainly important, but not the only condition for maintaining optimal humidity and temperature conditions required.
It is necessary to make a good basement waterproofing and periodically conduct a series of activities for its drainage. There are several ways to get rid of excess moisture.
When high humidity is necessary to frequently ventilate the cellar. This is especially true in the summer, and if the cellar is set natural ventilation.
To get rid of dampness and reduce the level of humidity in the basement, you need to be sure to ventilate it, opening the access hatch
To dry the basement you can use a simple but effective ways. For example, well absorb moisture ordinary table salt and coarse quicklime. They can be put in the cellar and left there for some time.
Another old method, which was used even by our grandmothers: put a lighted candle near the chimney. Flame creates a strong desire in the duct, thereby accelerating the circulation of the air flow.
This method only works in a small cellar, and even in this condition on the premises will take a few days to dry.
To prevent falling candles, it must be placed on a flat metal surface
Dry cellar is possible by means of the electric heater, heat gun or fan, which are installed in the middle of the room. But all these methods are rather expensive, because require a large electric power consumption.
Sometimes, on the contrary it needs to increase the humidity in the cellar. In these cases, water can be sprayed using an atomizer. A good method - put in the basement box with damp sand or sawdust sprinkled floor, they must be periodically sprinkle water.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
How to equip the basement ventilation natural type, can be found in the following video:
Various methods of drying basement presented in following video:
How to install the fan in the duct, you will learn from the following video:
Cellar - closed unventilated room, which creates unfavorable conditions conducive to the formation of mold, mildew and dampness.
Get rid of negative processes is only one way - provided with efficient ventilation system. Why do not necessarily have the expertise to cope with this task can practically every man.
You know another way of arrangement of ventilation and using it for several years effectively? Your cellar ventilation system is different from the options discussed in this article? Please tell us about her people, who for the first time faced with this question - leave your comments here.