Sometimes for the summer resident the long-awaited rain at the height of the season becomes a real natural disaster. As a result of the prolonged summer rainfall, as well as during the spring flood, ‚a real lake can form on the site.
In order to avoid stagnation of water, a system for collecting and withdrawing it from the territory is needed. If the storm sewage system is built with your own hands, then the cost of its construction will be minimal.
The article presented for familiarization contains a detailed description of the principle of the device for discharging atmospheric water and describes the components of the structure. We will tell you how to build it better and how to maintain it. Taking into account our advice, organizing a shower will not cause the slightest difficulty.
The content of the article:
- Options for storm sewer
The main elements of the classic sewer
- Types of sewers
- Why do we need sand traps?
- What are drainage channels?
- How to choose a pipe?
- Where do you need a well and collector?
- How to install a shower?
- Spot diversion of rain and melt water
- Prevention of storm sewage malfunctions
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Options for storm sewer
Storm sewage - specific design. In the water that is discharged through this system, both small and large debris is present. Therefore, there should be a primary cleaning in the shower.
The system may differ in the amount of water it is able to accept, in its design, in the duration of its effective functioning.
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Storm sewage system is a system of canals located in the ground, water intakes, sand traps, inspection and collector wells. It is intended for the collection and removal from the territory of rainwater.
The device of storm sewers will prevent the site from watering during the flood period and during heavy precipitation, which is especially important for areas with clay soils
The seawater will protect the underground parts of the structures from being washed out by water, will eliminate subsidence of the bases due to the soil blurred under them
For the storm sewage system, a wide range of components is now being produced, from which it is possible to assemble a system of any complexity without problems
Dot intake of storm sewer
Construction of canals and installation of storm water inlets
Foundation protection against loosening
Accessories for assembly of storm system
Proceeding from the device of the system, 3 types of stormwater can be distinguished:
- Open. It has the simplest design, easy to perform, inexpensively.
- Closed. This option is more complicated. Here it is necessary to deal with underground pipes, storm water inlets. The system needs to be planned in advance, and the installation will be better done by a specialist.
- Mixed Choose when there is not enough finance to implement option 2, as well as if you need to cover a large area. It is a cross between the first two.
Storm sewers of the first type are made in the form of drainage trays embedded in the floor. According to them, the water enters a specially designated place or simply merges into the garden. The system of the second type is located below the zero point, which involves earthworks in a considerable amount and the corresponding financial investments.
Surface drainage can perfectly fit into the landscape design of the cottage, and even become its decoration. Use the system in small areas
Such a stormwater outlet is equipped mainly during the development of the site, since it is a simpler frost-free version. The system is not buried very deeply - up to a meter maximum, but both in winter and in early spring it is not involved in the work.
To prevent sewage from freezing, pipes are buried below the freezing point. In the third type of stormwater sewage elements are partially and above, and in the soil.
Experts say that the choice of such an expensive option ‚as a closed drainage‚ must be justified. Such a decision can be justified by the high requirements for the design of the territory.
Designing stormwater always individual. There are hardly any areas with absolutely similar conditions. They will always be different, if not by relief, then by planning, by soil properties, by the number of outbuildings.
Water racks are needed both in the enterprise ‚and in private properties. The difference in their design lies in the fact that large-scale systems are combined with the discharge of treated waters, which are used for the needs of the enterprise
The main elements of the classic sewer
Storm sewer is point and linear. The first option involves the collection of water from surfaces that do not absorb moisture, such as a roof, a hard-surface site. In the future, the sewage flows into the receptacles, and then they enter the drainage system.
With the linear method of sewage disposal, water is drained into trays located at the tracks and platforms. The simplified version of the storm sewer consists of the following elements:
- a central pipe laid under a layer of earth and a finishing coating and leading out the collected water to the extreme point of the scheme;
- trays - the main part of the system transporting excess water to sand traps ‚the efficiency of the drainage system largely depends on them;
- a storm water inlet located under a pipe or a low point of the yard for collecting liquid;
- filters and distributors - invisible, but extremely important components.
All elements included in the system are equally important. If any one of them fails, the effectiveness of the whole structure decreases.
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Point drain inlets are designed to receive precipitation at one point. They are cheaper and easier to install, but require underground laying of pipes to drain water into the sewer system.
Storm-type inlets are positioned so that they receive water collected from the roof with a drainage system. Sometimes at these points the stormwater is even connected to the drain.
The rainwater collected by the point sewage system is discharged through a pipeline laid in the ground. This circumstance minimizes the priorities of easy installation of water inlets
The disadvantages of a point storm system are the possibility of subsidence of the soil with a change in the slope of the pipeline, the difficulty of determining leakage in the event of its occurrence and the need to protect pipes in the form of equipped paving platforms
Point type storm water inlet
Connection to the drainage system
The principle of spot sewers
Paving site with rainfall
Types of sewers
The purpose of the gully - collection of moisture coming from the pipes, yard coverage. This element first assumes the entire volume of water coming from the drain pipes. Choosing a storm water inlet, they are guided by such data as the average volume of precipitation, their intensity, relief, the area occupied by storm sewers.
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The method of installation of storm sewer depends on the type of water intake device selected for its construction
The system with point water intakes located directly below the risers is arranged in the form of pipes laid in the ground.
Linear water intake pipe is a network of channels closed by a steel alloy, plastic or cast iron grate, depending on the required carrying capacity.
Both point and linear water intakes overlap with protective-decorative grids. They are needed for the convenience of moving around the site, preventing accidents and protecting the system from clogging with foliage, branches, and dust.
Line water intake
Rainwater Point System
The device trays storm sewer
Protective decorative grille
You can buy iron or plastic inlet. The former are preferable in the case of large loads, and the latter are attracted by moderate cost, low weight, simplifying installation. A cheaper option is to make a storm-water well for storm sewage at its dacha with its own brick.
The walls of the pit are lined with bricks, leaving a hole for the pipe, then plastered from the inside. And even better - leave a gap between the wall of the soil and the cover and pour it with concrete. The bottom of the gully necessarily concreted.
Not a single stormwater is without a storm water inlet. It preserves both the foundation of the building and the covering around it. If you try to save on its installation, then the water falling on the foundation ‚will lead to shrinkage and cracks on the walls of the building
This important element is also made of concrete rings. Then the bottom ring can be purchased with a ready bottom and do not have to fill the plate. Sometimes factory storm water inlets come on sale complete with a basket ‚siphon‚ a decorative lattice.
Most often used for private construction, storm-water basins of plastic or composite materials are produced in the form of a cube, in which each side is equal to 30-40 cm. There are adapters for insertion of pipes below and on all sides of the product.
Grilles for stormwater inlets may have different quality and cost. You should always proceed from the expected loads on them during operation.
In order not to litter the pipes with debris entering through the lattice cells, the inlets are manned with baskets. As soon as they are filled, they are taken out and cleaned, then returned to their place.
The construction of the plant inlet provides partitions that divide its internal space into compartments and create a water seal. As a result, the unpleasant smell of decaying organic matter does not penetrate.
The efficiency of the point inlet depends not only on its volume, but also on the installation site. It should be under the drain or in a place where moisture is constantly collected. If it is installed under the pipe, the jets must accurately fall into the center of the grate, otherwise some of the water will fall on the foundation or the covering of the yard in the form of splashes.
Why do we need sand traps?
Rain and melt water in any case contains a certain percentage of insoluble particles. If sand traps are not included in the scheme, mud will settle in the sewage system and it will cease to function in full. Flushing the system is expensive.
A sand trap is a camera installed behind point receivers in places where water is discharged into underground pipes. It is designed so that the flow of water ‚falling into it‚ reduces speed.
As a result, under the influence of gravity, suspended particles fall to the bottom, and the liquid freed from them leaves through a special opening. The shape of the sand trap is a trap with a number of cameras located horizontally or in a vertical camera.
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The point inlets are equipped with devices for holding sand and filtering water. In fact, such a system does not need additional sand-catcher components.
In combined stormwater systems on linear sections and prior to discharge to the collector / absorber, the sand catchers establish
Dimensions and volume of sand traps depend on the volume of water collected and the class of the storm sewer
Regardless of the size, all types of gates are equipped with devices for collecting sand, allowing a simple and affordable way to empty the device
Sand trap is built into the storm water inlet
Sand traps in combination systems
Sand trap for public rainwater
Home appliance trap
What are drainage channels?
If a blind area around the house already completed, but did not take care of the drainage system ‚as a way out of the situation, drainage gutters can be used, which are also called linear storm water inlets. Channels of concrete or plastic are laid outside the blind area parallel to the tracks and overhangs of the roof with a certain slope.
Water enters the linear drainage canals from roofing drains and from the entire yard, covered with asphalt or slabs. Such sewage can cover a lot more objects than the point one. When buying ready-made trays, it is necessary to pay attention to such important parameters as the class of permissible load and the limit of mechanical strength.
The tray, at first glance, the product is very simple, but if it is wrong to make their calculation, the system will not work fully. It is necessary to take into account the capacity of the storm water outlet, the type of coating, and the degree of pollution of the diverted water.
The weakest products are labeled A15. This means that their use is permissible with a maximum load of up to 1, 5 tons. They are installed around the perimeter of the house ‚in pedestrian and cycling areas. The trays of class B125 cope without damage to their integrity with a load of up to 12.5 tons. They will not be damaged by the weight of the car, so they are relevant in the garage area.
For private construction you should not buy massive concrete gutters ‚plastic trays are quite suitable here. They have a class of strength A, B, C. The material for their manufacture is polyethylene or polypropylene.
An important parameter in the selection of trays is the hydraulic section, denoted by the abbreviation DN. It must correspond to the diameter of the pipes supplied to these elements. For plastic gutters, the DN value ranges from 70 to 300.
The length of the standard tray is 1 m. Products are supplied with a locking system ‚with the help of the gutter it is possible to line up one line‚ attach them to pipes or branch off. The rational choice for giving, a private house - models from DN100 to DN200.
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Manufacturers of sets for the assembly of storm sewers offered an extensive selection of trays, differing in capacity and material used in the manufacture
For arrangement of sites with a pedestrian load, the components of the storm sewer system are made of galvanized steel. This is not the most durable option, attracting mainly simplicity of construction.
Concrete and polymer products will last at least 50 years. No problem keeping the transport load, including the weight of cargo units. However, due to the weight of the trays and the need to apply construction equipment in laying they are rarely used in the private sector.
Trays of frost-resistant polypropylene are actively demanded in the landscape arrangement of suburban areas. They do not deform and do not lose strength in the range of -40º - (+ 65º) C. Ideal for self-improvement territory
Trays with different throughput
The construction of stormwater steel parts
Concrete Drain Trays
Practical plastic option
How to choose a pipe?
For storm sewers according to SNiP, you can use metal pipes, asbestos or plastic. Most often for a private house and cottage the choice is stopped on plastic pipes. They are light, decorative, do not corrode, their installation is simple, but the mechanical strength of the material, compared to metal, is small.
Choosing the material, you need to decide on the diameter of the pipe.
The initial value is the largest volume of rain and melt waters. Determine this parameter by the formula:
Q = q20 × F × Ψ
Here: Q is the required volume, q20 is a coefficient that characterizes the intensity of precipitation for 20 seconds. (l to sec. on 1 hectare). F - area of the estate in ga, if the roof is sloping, the area is calculated on a horizontal plane. Ψ is the absorption coefficient.
Different surfaces have their own absorption coefficient. For independent calculations, its value can be taken from the table.
Based on the calculated value and using the tables of the Lukins ‚not only the diameter but also the slope of the system is found.
Most often, domestic storm sewers are made using pipes with a diameter of 100 mm. The optimal slope of the drains can be taken from this table.
With the proper selection of the pipe diameter, the storm sewage system will cope with the task even at the moments of the most heavy rainfall. If streams from several troughs enter the pipe ‚all summarize them. Professional practitioners for pipes with a cross section of 110 mm and grooves of the same diameter usually use a slope of 20 mm / bar. M.
If the pipe is connected to the gully ‚the slope value is slightly increased in order to avoid liquid stagnation, and when entering the trash box the slope is reduced. This slows down the flow of water, and suspended particles settle to the bottom in larger quantities.
Water in the sewage system of this type drains by gravity, which is due to the formed slope of the drainage pipe. There are no pressure pumps here, so it is not necessary to look for a team of professionals in the country house or in the suburban yard for the installation of storm sewers.
The owner will be able to perform all the work independently. Details about the calculations for the organization of storm sewers written in the article, the content of which we recommend to read.
Where do you need a well and collector?
As in any system consisting of underground pipes, there must be a well in the storm sewer.
Installing it is advisable in the following circumstances:
- if 2 or more flows converge;
- when it is necessary to radically change the bed height, the direction of the pipeline or its slope;
- when it is necessary to move to a larger pipe diameter.
Provide wells and set intervals of straight sections of the system. If the well diameter does not exceed 150 mm, then the next one is placed at a distance of 30 to 35 m. With a diameter of 200 mm, from 45 to 50 m, and if the diameter is 0, 5 m, the interval is increased to 70-75 m.
The diameter of the well of a private house does not exceed 1 m. The deeper the well, the greater must be its diameter.
Some owners lay out wells in the old manner of brick or concrete rings. Others prefer more advanced materials - plastic and fiberglass. By design, wells are collapsible and solid.
They have the shape of a cylinder with a completely sealed bottom and a hole at the top. To connect the pipes have connections. Several wells are used as wells.
All fluid flows are redirected to the collector after they are combined into one. The choice of material for this element of storm sewers is individual and depends on the preferences and capabilities of the owner.
A collector is included in the system to redirect collected water to ground treatment facilities or to a gutter. Sometimes his role is big plastic well. It is turned into a storage device by hermetically closing the outlet pipes. To use water, use a submersible pump.
Under the collector, large-section pipes are also used - reinforced concrete or plastic with all pipelines connected to them. In the construction market can be purchased and ready-made capacity for underground use. There are multi-chamber reservoirs where rain and melt waters are being cleaned on the same principle as in septic tanks.
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If the site has no conditions for disposing of the collected water in the ground, then the stormwater is redirected to the public system or the gutter located outside the site.
If the conditions and dimensions of the site allow, collected rainwater is disposed of through an absorbing well. When constructing a well in sandy soils, walls are collected from perforated rings to increase the outflow rate.
Practically free, but quite suitable for rainwater discharge option - filter well of old tires
The easiest way is to collect and divert rainwater into a public gutter. She does not need a serious after-treatment.
Manifold well for redirection of water
Absorbing well of perforated rings
Budget option absorbing well
Discharge of rainwater into the gutter
How to install a shower?
Downpour is installed using the same technology as a conventional sewer system. In any case, the device of the storm sewage system is preceded by a calculation, selection of necessary materials. Before entering the pipes, rainwater is collected on the roof of the house, so it is logical that the construction of the drainage system starts from the top of the building.
For gutter installations on the roof mark the upper and lower points, between which they stretch the fishing line. On this route will be installed gutters, taking into account the slope. The direction of their installation depends on the location of the pipes for drainage.
To fix the gutters and pipes install the brackets, securing them with screws. In order for water to fall into the drain ‚funnels are needed in the lower points. Assembling trays and pipes, sealant is applied to the joints. Sometimes there are factory seals on the edges of the parts ‚then during their joining a tight connection is obtained.
Water collected from the roof of gutters, through the vertical drain pipes enters the storm sewer. The cycle of works on the device of linear stormwater, regardless of its technical complexity, includes a number of traditional steps, it is:
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For the device of the storm sewerage we develop a trench. We dig the soil by hand, we destroy asphalt with special equipment or with ordinary scrap
The bottom of the trench is filled with movable concrete to the depth of the tray in such a way that the shelves of the tray are flush with the surface. Attach the bottom of the trench slope 2 - 3 cm by 1 m, should be sent to the side of the collector well
Having repulsed the storm sewer lines stretched with twine between the pegs, we assemble a system from trays with a protective-decorative grid. Align the channels according to the design grade of the slope, until the concrete began to freeze
In the places designated in the project we install sand traps, connect them to channels laid in trenches
On the side of the trench we construct a formwork from the board and pour the concrete solution between it and the tray laid in the trench.
During filling the free space in the formwork with concrete, we level the flooded massif. At the same time, we check the slope, if necessary, adjust the position of the trays
We expect the solution to harden for at least 14 days, it is better to wait 28 days. At this time, it should be covered with polyethylene and periodically sprinkled with water.
Upon completion of the technological break, dismantle the formwork, level the area with sand and gravel, we build it with paving tiles or with a covering like
Stage 1: Development of a trench manually or using machinery
Stage 2: Laying the concrete solution to the bottom of the trench
Stage 3: Assembling the storm sewer tray
Stage 4: Installing and connecting sand traps
Stage 5: Formwork construction and concrete pouring
Stage 6: System Leveling During Fill
Step 7: Technological break for solidification
Step 8: Paving the site with the selected coating
Spot diversion of rain and melt water
The first step is to mark the pipeline consisting of channels, receivers, wells. Pegs are driven into the points of location of all elements. To see the full picture between the pegs lay the cord. The second stage is the digging of a trench and small depressions under the inlets. At the bottom arrange a sand pillow.
If there is a threat of root germination in the pipeline laying areas, the bottom is covered with geotextiles. The installation process begins the installation of wells, collectors.
Further, smaller elements - storm water basins, sand traps, trays. All this is combined with pipes of the calculated diameter under a slope selected from the table or recommended by SNiP. Sagging is not allowed when laying the pipeline.
The assembled design is tested. Water is poured at each site to check the tightness of the joints. The amount of water poured in and out should be about the same. Such a defect may appear, as sagging, as indicated by a significant difference in the volumes of water inlet and outlet.
If the tests do not reveal problems, the system is covered with a sand-cement layer and soil. Sometimes some parts of the storm sewer are combined with a drainage system. In this case, the pipes of the first must be on top of the second pipeline, but they can fit one manifold.
The combination of storm sewers with conventional household can not be allowed. This can lead to an overload of the second with all the negative consequences.
Let us consider an example of the construction of storm sewers with point water intake devices. They built it from ordinary sewer pipes. The reason was the stagnation of water on the surface, which is formed due to the practical absence of infiltration into the earth, associated with the clay structure of the soil.
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The device drainage system at the site dictated the need for the organization of stormwater. The water collected by the drain was dumped on the ground and did not soak into the ground for a long time.
We are digging trenches perpendicular to the foundation under the drainpipes and roof corners so as not to develop a wide output and reduce the volume of earthworks
At a distance of about 1 m from the walls of the house we dig a trench, laid along the walls of the building. In it will be laid the main pipes Ø160 mm, to which we connect the outlets from the drain, collected from sewer pipes Ø110 mm
In order to form a slope in the direction of the current of the collected water, the bottom of the trench was covered with sand and rammed with the required slope. On the main sections it turned out to be 3 cm of slope per meter, on the branches approximately 10 cm
On the vertically arranged pipes, which later will be connected to the drainpipes, temporarily set plugs. So we will protect the system from sand falling during work.
We cover the storm sewer trench with sand. We do not use "native" soil, because he is clayey In this way, we will partially create conditions to accelerate the descent of snow cover during thawing.
We lay the trunk pipes so that the slope is formed in the direction of the movement of water to the discharge. As a result all main sections should be inclined. According to the rules when turning, it is necessary to install turning wells for cleaning, but in the example they were not used
If it is impossible to connect the drainage section of the shower at a right angle, connect it under the sharp. but take into account that the angle should be directed towards the water flow
Step 1: Organized sewage without storm sewer
Step 2: Development of trenches for stormwater installation
Step: 3 Forming a trench around the perimeter of the house
Step 4: Laying the sewer pipes on the bed
Step 5: Install the plug on the sewer
Step 6: Backfilling Short Trenches
Step 7: Laying the trunk pipes with a slope
Step 8: Corner connection of the branch pipe
We assume that we laid the highway as it should with a bias, connected the taps to them, observing the tightness of the connections. Tightness in this case is needed not to protect the enclosing soil from rainwater, but to prevent sand from entering the system.
We will continue the work, now we have to connect the drain to the pipe leading to the absorbing well:
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Check the slope of the unfilled sand sections of the trench. If necessary, adjust the slope, pouring sand under the pipes with tamping
To the pipe that receives water from all sections, we connect two main pipes and one angled tap from the corner of the roof. We connect pipes with corner fittings in series.
We connect a sewer pipe to the assembled unit, which will lead the water to the filter well
We put the discharge pipe in a sloped trench designed for it. We carry it to the absorbing well. In fact, with observance of inclination, we cut the discharge pipe into the wall of the absorber
Step 9: Change the slope by adding sand under the pipes
Step 10: Assembling the unit for connection to the discharge pipe
Step 11: Connecting the Assembly to the Discharge Pipe
Step 12: Putting the storm sewer into discharge
Prevention of storm sewage malfunctions
Having independently installed the storm sewage system of a private house or a dacha, one should not forget that it needs constant care. Preventive measures include cleaning trays and point inlets from the accumulated debris in them.
If you neglect this procedure, the system will fail. The ideal option is to use the system all year round.
Self-regulating cable is able to heat a large area. The basis of its design is a semiconductor matrix ‚located between two copper conductors. Such cable will prevent freezing of any pipes in the period of lowering the temperature
In the cold season, thaws occur ‚during which water from the drainage system. Then it moves to the storm sewer,
where it freezes, it turns into ice.
To prevent the formation of ice jams in the rainwater, self-regulating heating cable plant in the water inlets located under the drain pipes. So in the heated system will not create ice jams, and in the case of their formation, you can quickly get rid of them.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
You can learn about the purpose ‚the device and the consequences of the failure of the drainage device‚ from the video:
The process of installing a storm sewer will not seem so complicated after viewing this material:
Despite the fact that the storm sewer is a complex engineering system ‚its creation is within the power of even a person who is not burdened with deep knowledge in the construction business. It should exactly follow all the tips and storm sewer around a private house will work flawlessly.
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