Potato varieties - description, characteristics, growing region

Content:
  • Early ripening potato varieties
  • Zhukovsky early (Russia)
  • Skoroplodny (Russia)
  • Luck (Russia)
  • Cleopatra (Holland)
  • Fresco (Holland)
  • Fambo, Impala, Jarla (Holland)
  • Rosara (Germany)
  • Middle-ripe and medium-ripe potato varieties
  • Nevsky (Russia)
  • Lugovskoy (Ukraine)
  • Reserve, Bezhitsky, Kalinka, Ilinsky, Desnitsa (Russia), Svitanok Kiev (Ukraine)
  • Escort (Holland)
  • Folva (Denmark)
  • Adretta (Germany)
  • Sante / Sante (Holland)
  • Raj / Raja (Holland)
  • Picasso (The Netherlands)
  • Frigate (Poland)
  • Junior, Aziza, Disco, We-Be-Be, Nicolas (Holland)
  • Ulster-Szentor (Ireland)
  • Cardinal (Holland)
  • Romano (Holland)
  • Desiree (Holland)
  • Saturn, Cosmos, Lady Rosetta, Herta, Symphony (Holland)
  • Russet Burbank (The Netherlands)
  • Red Star (America)
  • Gold Raj (America)
  • Openwork

In the Kuban, the choice of potato variety for obtaining a good harvest is crucial. This factor is important for any agricultural crop grown not only in the Kuban. But for potatoes this is important doubly. Variety differences are so great that some varieties do not form tubers at all in our zone, while others can yield quite good yields.

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This is explained by the fact that the soil and climatic conditions of the Kuban are not suitable for growing potatoes. Undoubtedly influenced by such factors as heat, drought, which greatly reduce yields, contribute to their rapid degeneration. Therefore, the description of the variety should include a set of such characteristics that could successfully resist our critical conditions, as well as yield good yields. But, alas, there are very few such varieties, literally one.

For example, the State Register of Selection Achievements for potato growers in the Krasnodar Territory recommends the use of more than 20 varieties of potatoes, but none of them is in demand among the population. All because among them there is not one ideal. Each variety along with positive signs necessarily has some significant disadvantages.

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On the other hand, in recent years a vast stream of foreign vegetables has poured into our region. But these varieties have not been studied at all by us, so choosing the best is also a problem.

As for the varieties of folk selection (Mike, American), then for the last 25 years of permanent cultivation we have been subjected to them degeneration, lost all their valuable attributes, so they have only a local significance, to obtain good harvests already is impossible.

Thus, the potato growing of the Kuban is experiencing critical conditions. There is not a single variety that includes a set of economically valuable traits, and also enjoyed wide demand among the local population.

As a result, truck farmers are forced to buy seeds in the markets or from visiting sellers, either completely unknown, or those that do not fit local soil and climatic conditions. It is clear that under these circumstances, good harvests can not be obtained, too many accidents.

In general, in order to raise the potato industry of the Krasnodar Territory higher, annually it is necessary to conduct a large-scale testing of new domestic, foreign varieties, and the best of them to introduce. Alas, today there is nobody to do this! State variety testing services have almost collapsed, and the Krasnodar Research Institute of Vegetable and Potato Farm has neither the strength nor the means.

That is why, beginning in 1994, immediately in six districts of the province (Dinskaya, Timashevsky, Krasnoarmeysky, Vyselkovsky, Crimean, Anapa) began to carry out tests of widely known, best varieties of domestic and foreign selection. Considered such important economically valuable signs, as yields, commercial appearance for different periods of harvesting, their shelf life, as well as heat resistance, drought resistance, resistance, degeneracy. The tests made it possible to give a clear description of each variety in local cultivation conditions. These characteristics are given below.

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Early ripening potato varieties

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Zhukovsky early (Russia)

The tubers of this variety are pink, oval, aligned, large (almost no small ones), with a smooth skin. It is distinguished by good crabness, delicious, it does not darken when cutting. Starch contains - up to 15%. Low-brewed, medium to good taste. Has a small waste when stored. Resistant against potato nematode, cancer. Weak resistance against late blight. Do not tolerate waterlogging, dense soil due to the possible choking of the tubers. Of domestic varieties, this is the earliest and one of the most productive. Drought-resistant, but with a hot, dry climate quickly - for 2-3 years, degenerates, its yield in the Kuban falls rapidly. Value: stable high yield, plasticity, early commercial output. The potato nematode is not scary to him. Recommended for all regions except North and East-Siberian.

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Skoroplodny (Russia)

A variety for early forcing, winter consumption, and also for the preparation of crisp potatoes. Productivity up to 400 kg / hundredths, with the early digging (60 days after planting) - 150 - 220 kg / sotkas. Weight of commercial tuber is 100-150 g. Starchy 13-15%. The taste is good, the flesh is a boiling type. The shape of the potato is round-oval, peel, white flesh. The flowers are white. Stored well. Resistant against viral diseases, scab, dry rot. Medium-resistant against late blight. Value: early return of products, even pure tubers, the ability to grow on all types of soils. Recommended regions: Central, Urals.

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Luck (Russia)

A sort of dining destination, for summer and winter consumption. High-yielding. In the early hawk (60 days after planting) gives 120-150 kg / weave. Starchy 12-15%. Taste from medium to good. The security is high. The shape is oval, large, weighing 150-400 g. Rind, flesh white. Flesh is low-milled. The flowers are white. Well tolerates waterlogging. Value: high yield, marketability, resistance against late blight of leaves or leaves, good preservation in winter storage. Recommended regions: North-Western, Central, Volga-Vyatka, Central Black Earth, North Caucasus, Middle Volga, Far East. All kinds of soils are suitable.

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Luck (miniclub)

When grown in the Kuban for yields, for marketability, early fertility, grade Luck is much inferior to Zhukovsky early, quickly degenerates.

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Cleopatra (Holland)

One of the earliest high-yielding varieties. He does not degenerate for a long time. Has a fairly high yield (160-240 kg from 1 weave). The potatoes are red, large, oval in regular shape, with superficial eyes, good crabness. Thanks to early tuber formation, 75 days after planting, it forms up to 120-140 kg from 1 hundredth early harvest with a marketability of at least 70%. The cultivation of Cleopatra in the Kuban causes few problems for potato growers, it can be used both for obtaining young potatoes, and for winter storage.

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Fresco (Holland)

Krupklubnevy early. But he does not tolerate the heat, drought, degenerates for 1-2 years. The shape of the potato is round-oval, the skin is yellow, the flesh is light yellow, the eyes are small, the mass of the tuber is 100-130 g. Starch - 12-17%, the taste is good. Has resistance against cancer, potato nematode, medium-resistant against viruses, rhizoctonia, scab. Susceptible to late blight on leaves, relatively resistant to tubers. Value: obtaining early products, nematode resistance, its suitability for processing. Recommended regions: North, North-West, Volga-Vyatka, West Siberian, Far East.

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Fambo, Impala, Jarla (Holland)

Very early protein-breed varieties with high marketability (up to 80% and higher). But by plasticity, resistance against degeneracy is much inferior to Cleopatra. In addition, they show a very unstable yield.

  • Fumbo- mid-ripening, universal use. The plant is semi-spreading, of medium height, the color of the flowers is white. The shape of the potato is elongated-oval, the skin is yellow, the cream is creamy, the eyes are small with a yellow base, the mass is 80-140 g. Starch - 13-16%, the taste is good. Resistant against cancer, virus "A". Medium-resistant against rhizoctonia, scab. Susceptible to late blight. It is recommended for cultivation in the Central region.
  • Impala- oval-shaped potatoes, large, yellow peel, pulp light yellow, small eyes, weight 90-150 g. Starch -10-15%, the taste is good. Stable against cancer, potato nematode. Relatively resistant against viral diseases, scabs ordinary. Susceptible to late blight, rhizoctonia. Value: early production, high yield, good taste, nematode resistance. Recommended regions: North-Western, Central, Nizhnevolzhsky. It is recommended for the North Caucasus region to grow early crops, but here it quickly degenerates.
  • Jarl- short-oval potato tubers, yellow peel, light-yellow flesh, small eyes, weight 85-310 g. Starch - 12-18%, the taste is good. It is resistant to cancer, relatively resistant to late blight on tubers, medium-resistant to late blight on leaves, medium-resistant against common scab. Value: high yield, early production, excellent taste. Recommended Regions: Central, Nizhnevolzhsky.
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Rosara (Germany)

Early maturing, dining appointment. The potatoes are oblong-oval, with a red skin, yellow flesh. They contain a bit of starch (12-16%), so they practically do not boil. Has not bad resistance against nematodes, cancer, poorly susceptible to phytophthora, scab. On productivity, the heat of drought resistance is much inferior to Cleopatra. Recommended regions: Volga-Vyatka, Central Black Earth, Middle Volga, Far East.

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Middle-ripe and medium-ripe potato varieties

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Nevsky (Russia)

It is characterized by high plasticity, heat and drought resistance. The most widespread variety of potatoes. Cultivated from the Far East to the North Caucasus. However, in terms of productivity, in terms of marketability, Nevsky significantly inferior to Cleopatra. A hot, arid summer shows such a negative sign as the germination of unripe young potatoes in the bushes. In addition, he does not tolerate the breaking off of the shoots during planting.

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Lugovskoy (Ukraine)

Positive features: excellent taste, good heat resistance, late blight resistance. However, it has a longer vegetative period than that of Nevsky, the structure of its harvest consists of an average, shallow fraction. Recommended for all regions except Srednevolzhsky.

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Reserve, Bezhitsky, Kalinka, Ilinsky, Desnitsa (Russia), Svitanok Kiev (Ukraine)

All these varieties of potatoes are plastic, yielding, marketable, heat and drought resistant inferior to Nevsky. In addition, the structure of the crop, as a rule, consists of an average, shallow fraction.

  • Reserve (Russia)- potatoes for dining purposes. The potatoes are light beige. Eyes small with a noticeable eyebrow. The flesh is white. Corolla white with purple veins on the outside. Weight of commodity tuber is 80-90 g. Multi-club. Starchy 14-17%. The taste is good. Can be stored in a collar way. Relatively resistant against late blight, alternaria, bacteriosis, mechanical damage. Slightly affected by rhizoctonia, scab. Has a fast starting growth, amicable appearance of shoots. Value: stable yield, relative resistance against a complex of diseases, good preservation in winter storage. Recommended for the North-West, Central regions.
  • Bezhitsky (Russia)- tubers are pink, eyes are colored, small. Flesh white, not dark when cutting. Corolla red-violet. Weight 70-110 g. Starchy 13-15%. The taste is good. Preservation from medium to good. Medium-resistant against viral diseases. Moderately susceptible to late blight. Resistant against rhizoctonia, weakly affected by scab. Excessive waterlogging affects negatively. Suitable for two-crop crops. Value: resistance against potato nematode, rhizoctonia. It is recommended to potato growers of the Ural region.
  • Kalinka (Russia)- tubers round, pink, with white flesh. Weight 80-100 g. Starchiness 15-17%. Well stored, resistant to viral diseases, scab. Relatively heat is drought-resistant. Suitable for the Black Earth zone, southern regions. Excellent taste. The processing area is chips.
  • Ilinsky (Russia) - the tuber is oval, the peel is red, smooth. The flesh is white. Weight 54-158 g. Starch -1, -1,%. The taste is good. Resistant against pathogens of cancer, susceptible to golden potato cyst-forming nematode, late blight on the tops, moderately susceptible to tubers. Value: stable yield, good taste, high marketability. It is recommended to potato growers and truck farmers of the Central Chernozem, Nizhnevolzhsky regions.
  • The Hand (Russia)- tubers light yellow, round-oval. The type of peel varies from smooth to slightly waxy. Flesh is light yellow. Starchy - 1, -1,%. Purpose: processing for crisp, mashed potatoes. It is characterized by low accumulation of nitrates. Resistant to mechanical damage. Suitable for mechanized cultivation. Flexibility - from satisfactory to good. Resistant to potato nematode, mechanical damage. Medium-stable against late blight, viral diseases. Susceptible to a black stalk, circular, wet rot. Value: high yield, excellent taste. Recommended for potato growers in the Middle Volga region.
  • Svitanok Kiev (Ukraine)- tubers round, large, pink peel, pulp cream, small eyes. The yield is high, the marketability is good, the starch content is 16-19%, the taste is excellent. It is resistant to cancer, relatively resistant against late blight, rhizoctonia, medium-resistant against mosaic viruses, common scab, black leg, susceptible to leaf curling virus. Value: excellent taste. It is recommended to potato growers, gardeners of the North-Western, Central, Volga-Vyatka, Middle Volga, Ural, West Siberian, Far Eastern regions.
Svitanok Kiev (miniclubs)
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Escort (Holland)

Distinctive features: high heat drought tolerance, resistance to degeneration. Good taste, excellent shelf life. The escort surpasses the regional Nevsky, but is inferior to Cleopatra. To get an early harvest, the escort is not suitable, but it can be successfully used for winter storage.

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Folva (Denmark)

One of the most fruitful. In addition, he shows a high resistance to degeneration. However, due to the multi-clubiness (up to 20 potatoes), the vegetation period is stretched, the structure of its harvest is up to 70% average, the small fraction of the tubers.

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Adretta (Germany)

Belokklubovy yield, with excellent taste, good heat resistance, drought resistance. As a rule, Adrett ripens in 60-70 days. But she has a disadvantage: tubers can not hold in a compact way, because of what constantly fall under the spade's edge when digging out. Color - yellow, pulp slightly yellowish. Tubers Adretta oblong, eyes are almost invisible.

Adretta

When cooking friable, tasty. Best can be used for winter storage. However, in the absence of early-ripening varieties, Adrettu can also be used to produce early crops. Value: rapid growth of the tops, early tuber formation, excellent taste, relative resistance against viruses. Along with positive signs includes two significant drawbacks: the first - with heat, drought before 50% of the tubers of the crop lose their germination capacity; the second - at winter storage of a tuber very early germinate. It is recommended to potato growers of the Middle Volga, West Siberian, East Siberian, Far Eastern regions.

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Sante / Sante (Holland)

Positive signs: high potential yields, resistance against phytophthora, excellent taste qualities, can be used for making french fries. Well stored, does not germinate. But due to the multiclubness, the stretching of the vegetation period does not have time to form a good crop before the heat-drought, and the second - it is shallow. In addition, Santa quickly (within 2-3 years) degenerates. It is recommended to potato breeders of the North, North-Western, Central, Volga-Vyatka, Nizhnevolzhsky, Ural, West-Siberian, Far Eastern regions.

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Raj / Raja (Holland)

Krasnoklubnevy yielding with an extended period of vegetation, universal use. The taste is good. The tubers are round, the rind is red. Flesh is light yellow. Starch - 14-22%. Productivity 460 kg / honeycomb. Complex resistance against diseases. Poorly tolerates dry seasons, rapidly degenerating. Practical value for cultivation by the Kuban potato breeders does not represent. Recommended region - Volga-Vyatka. From the reviews of the potato grower in the Kirov region: "The tubers of the" rajah "are bright red, with yellow friable flesh. However, I do not advise you to plant her lovers of early potatoes - Raj grows later. "

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Picasso (The Netherlands)

Middle-late. The maturity period is 125-140 days. Tubers are large, oval in shape. The color of the peel is yellow with bright pink spots. Pulp of cream color.

Picasso

Starch - about 10%. Do not boil during cooking, but a little shake the pan - and here it is boiled, crumbly potatoes! It is characterized by increased resistance to diseases and pests: it is practically not exposed to scab and late blight, is not affected by cancer and potato nematode. It is recommended to potato growers of the Central and Central Black Earth region. From the responses of the Kuban potato growers: "The variety easily tolerates heat and yields a stable crop even in drought." Well stored without germination. Suitable for winter storage. Feature: requires compulsory fertilization, without additional fertilization may deteriorate taste.

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Frigate (Poland)

The shape of the tuber is round-oval, the skin is yellow, the flesh is light yellow, the eyes are small. Starch - 14-21%, the taste is good. It is resistant to cancer, potato nematode, viruses "U "L medium-resistant against late blight, black leg, annular rot, susceptible to scab. Value: yield, resistance against viruses "U "L nematode resistance, suitability for processing - chips. Recommended for potato growers in the Central region. In the Kuban there is a small yield, an instability to degeneration. It does not represent any interest for the Kuban potato breeders.

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Junior, Aziza, Disco, We-Be-Be, Nicolas (Holland)

In the Kuban these varieties are unstable against drought-heat, low-yielding, characterized by a high rate of degeneration. It does not represent any interest for the Kuban potato breeders.

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Ulster-Szentor (Ireland)

Low-yielding, unstable to degeneration.

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Cardinal (Holland)

Krasnoklubnevy srednespeliy with excellent taste qualities, good lezhkostyu. Because of the length of the vegetative period, the structure of the crop consists of a shallow, middle fraction of tubers. Great production value for the Kuban potato breeders is not.

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Romano (Holland)

Krasnoklubnevy potatoes with excellent taste, good storage in winter storage. On early maturity Romano lags behind Cleopatra (two weeks), so to get an early harvest is not suitable. It can only be used for winter storage. The shape of the tuber is short-oval, the skin is pink, the pulp is light cream, the eyes are of medium depth, the mass is 70-80 g. The starch content is 10-13%. It is resistant to cancer, relatively resistant to mosaic viruses, medium-resistant against late blight, rhizoctonia, leaf curling virus, susceptible to scab. Value: good leveling of tubers, good taste. Disadvantages: rapid degeneration in the conditions of the bog (non-poured lands), as well as in poor agricultural practices. It is recommended to potato growers of the Central, Volga-Vyatka, Central Black Earth, Far Eastern regions.

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Desiree (Holland)

High-yielding red-club medium-ripening variety of potatoes. On early maturity, he lags behind Cleopatra for 15-20 days. Desiree can be cultivated on any type of soil, making it widespread in Europe, as well as in tropical, subtropical countries. Resistant to cancer, medium-resistant against late blight, susceptible to scab, leaf twisting. Negative sign of Desiree during cultivation in the Kuban - when the heat period, drought gives way to rain, more than 80% of young, not yet ripe potatoes begin to intensively germinate. This significantly degrades the quality, making it difficult to store in winter. It is recommended to potato growers of the Middle Volga region.

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Saturn, Cosmos, Lady Rosetta, Herta, Symphony (Holland)

They are united by low yields, low heat resistance and drought resistance. Practical value for cultivation in the Kuban they do not represent, but, of course, gardeners with regular watering give good yields.

  • Saturn- tuber oval-rounded with small eyes of medium depth. The rind from smooth to slightly rough, yellow. Flesh is light yellow. Weight 90-114 g. The starch content is 1, -2,%. The taste is satisfactory and good. Purpose: the production of chips, flakes, straws, fries, crispy. Tradeability 84-93%. Shelf life 89%. Resistant against the causative agent of cancer, golden potato cyst-forming nematode. According to the VNII phytopathology, moderately susceptible to the causative agent of late blight.
  • Space- tubers are large, oval in shape, yellow with light yellow flesh. The starch content is 1, -1,%. Resistant against cancer, susceptible to late blight of leaves, relatively weakly affected tubers, slightly affected by viral diseases, resistant against virus "y medium is affected by ordinary scab. Not resistant against nematodes.
  • Lady Rosetta- skin color: red; color of flesh: light yellow. Type of preparation: uncomplete / slightly friable. Very suitable for the production of chips, cereals, straws, fries, crispy. The storage period is 4-6 months, the starch content is 14-22%, the taste is good.
  • Herta- potatoes oval-rounded, yellow peel, flesh light yellow, small eyes. Purpose - processing - chips, fries. Resistant against cancer, potato nematode, relatively resistant against late blight, medium-resistant to annular rot, scab. Recommended for potato growers in the Central region.
  • Symphony- oval tubers of medium size with a smooth red skin, small eyes. Pulp is light yellow, however, when cooking, the color becomes lighter. Potato Symphony has excellent taste qualities. Ideal for cooking, crumbly. The value is a rather high dry matter content, plant resistance to many potato diseases. It is resistant to phytophthora. Also Symphony is not afraid of the virus Y, scab. There is high resistance against the gold nematode. In this Symphony is not susceptible to mechanical damage. When grown in the Kuban yields low yields. Recommended for potato growers in the Central region.
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Russet Burbank (The Netherlands)

Late potato variety with late tuber formation, with large tubers, covered with brown peel, having white flesh. Used for cooking french fries, chips, fried potatoes. Today it is allowed for us as food, widely used by McDonald's networks. When making potato chips, dark-colored chips are obtained because of caramelization of sugars. Tubers have high antioxidant activity.

When cultivating in the Kuban there is a low yield, the prevalence of the small fraction in harvesting.

The press reported that under practically the same name (Russet Burbank), a genetically modified, transgenic potato variety (GMO), resistant to the Colorado beetle, was tested.

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Red Star (America)

The shape of the tuber is oval, elongated-oval, the surface depth of the eyes, the red color of the peel, yellow flesh, the same size, high yield. It is easy to clean the peel, the surface is smooth. Table consumption, french fries, chips. Very tasty, beautiful, in great demand in North-Western Europe. It is insensitive to the phytophthora of the tuber, the formation of dark spots from strokes, mechanical damage. Resistant against the golden nematode, scab. Resistant to cancer. Slightly sensitive to the phytophthora of the stem. It is completely unstable to heat, drought, therefore it is not recommended for cultivation in the Kuban, because its yield is very low. With prolonged heat, up to 90% of young tubers germinate.

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Gold Raj (America)

Krasnoklubnevy potato variety with excellent taste, high potential yield. However, it does not tolerate the heat, drought - while the germination is suppressed, the growth and development of plants slows down. Just like Desiree, when the season is dry, up to 80% of young tubers begin to germinate. It does not represent a practical value for cultivation in the Kuban.

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Openwork

Krasnoklubnevy middle-aged variety with a light yellow flesh. Productivity is excellent. The taste is excellent. Suitable for sale as a young potato. Drought-resistant, therefore suitable for cultivation in the Kuban. The chief agronomist of the company SeDek shares his personal opinion:

But from Azhur I myself, an agronomist with experience, are delighted. He planted 10 tubers in his garden and in early August from one bush received 21 tubers weighing from 150 to 200 grams! A simple calculation showed that the yield of Azhur is about 80-100 t / ha.
A. AND. Osihov
http://agropromyug.com/images/pdf/2016/36-37%20444-445.pdf

The period of ripening (vegetation): 70-85 days. The first time you can dig up after 45 days after emergence. Starch content: 14-16%. The surface of the tubers is smooth, lined, the eyes are small. There are practically no small tubers, the potatoes are lined in size.

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Thus, it can be concluded that the vast majority of the above varieties do not tolerate heat, drought, that is, in the Krasnodar Territory, loses many of its positive signs, quickly degenerate.

Of these, only the early ripe Cleopatra, the midwinter Escort tolerate the critical growing conditions fairly well, show not a poor yield. Therefore, they are recommended to the Kuban potato breeders.

From my own experience I believe that the Picasso variety is suitable for the Kuban climate. Delicious, beautiful potatoes. Just do not forget when planting in the hole add a pinch of superphosphate and a little ash.

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Good yield, high resistance to degeneration shows the mid-day German Adretta.However, with prolonged hot dry weather with unsatisfactory agrotechnics, up to 50% of tubers either do not germinate at all, or form thin sprouts. Therefore, you can use Adrettu potato growers provided that the seed is regularly updated.

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