Siphon is one of the essential elements of connecting plumbing equipment to sewer networks. It always contains a small amount of water, a water seal, - for sewage it is simply necessary, because prevents the spread of negative odors. To pick up the siphon, it is necessary to understand this issue, right?
We will talk about how the water seal performs the duties assigned to it. The information presented to your attention will help you to easily determine the most appropriate types of device for you. Reliable information will provide an opportunity to evaluate the practical side and make a balanced purchase.
The article is extremely accurately outlines the structural differences of various models, describes the specifics of the installation. Independent masters in the work will help step-by-step briefing, photographic images and video tutorials.
The content of the article:
- The principle of the trap
Types of hydraulic valves for sewage
- # 1: Knee modification features
- # 2: The Benefits of a Bottle Device
- # 3: Double-trap device
- # 4: Corrugated model - pros and cons
- # 5: Overflow principle
- # 6: Dry Shutter Design
- Landmark selection guidelines
- Installation instructions for automatic siphon
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
The principle of the trap
In whatever place of the sewer network there is no hydraulic gate, its purpose remains the same:
- block hydraulic shocks to reduce the load on sewers and pipes;
- prevent the penetration of unpleasant peculiar odors into the living quarters.
If the water lock (or siphon) is chosen correctly, the house has a favorable atmosphere, and the sewer network for a long time without repair.
Constructions of hydraulic locks of different types differ, however all of them somehow represent pipes with bends of a certain shape, sometimes equipped with additional dead-end or dynamic devices.
One of the most important conditions for the functioning of a water seal is the constant presence of water in its cavity, which plays the role of a barrier against the penetration of gases and unpleasant odor.
The water barrier is constantly siphoning. If you do not use the device for a long time (kitchen sink or toilet), the water will evaporate, and over time it will appear foul odor in the bathroom or kitchen.
The same will happen when, after a long absence, you first make a wash. But with constant use, the volume of water in the water seal is constantly updated, which prevents stagnation, respectively, and the appearance of an unpleasant "flavor".
The design features of hydraulic locks are directly related to their purpose. For example, the following construction is typical for toilet bowls: the drain is straight and the outlet leading to the sewage pipe is sloped.
All sewer devices are interconnected. For example, proper organization fan stand prevents the disruption of the shutter - a phenomenon where the water does not linger in the water seal, but immediately goes into the pipe. In this case, the plumbing device loses a protective barrier, and unpleasant odors go outside - directly into the apartment.
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A hydrolock is an artificially created column of water not less than 10 cm high that prevents the backflow of foul-smelling volatile substances and toxins washed off into the sewer system.
Both internal sewer networks and external autonomous and public systems are equipped with hydraulic locks.
For the formation of a water seal on the sewer pipeline are installed fixtures in the form tanks or knees tubes in which water is retained, not allowing the sewer smell back into the room
Devices with a bend of a pipe or a container are installed at the outlet from one as well as from a group of devices. Models for the second option are different from the first
A device to prevent the reverse flow of negative odors can be purchased ready-made or assembled from pipes and angle elbows on site
In the care and maintenance it is more convenient to make factory-made siphons, the design of which thoroughly thought out the possibility of analysis to remove pollutant sediment
The selection of the siphon - a device that creates the conditions for the formation of a column of water, is made in accordance with the type of plumbing and the distance from the floor to its bottom. For shower let out siphons with a low glass of a hydrolock
External sewer branches and water seals of toilet bowls in public institutions establish audits for the possibility of cleaning if necessary
Water lock in the sewer connection
Arrangement of access to the external branch
Design features of a water seal
The device of a hydrolock for group of devices
Pipe bend with hydraulic lock
Convenient device for cleaning
Installing a siphon on the shower tray
Installation of revision on the water seal
Types of hydraulic valves for sewage
Classification of devices is made taking into account several factors, but the main are structural features. On the basis of technical nuances, it is possible to distinguish six main types of hydraulic locks, we will dwell on each of them in more detail.
# 1: Knee modification features
Knee seal can be identified by appearance - it resembles the letter U. The advantage of this type is strength, which allows to withstand the maximum pressure in the pipes. The capacity of the device depends on the cross section of the pipe, which should not be less than the release of sanitary equipment.
The main points of the sewer system in which the installation of knee traps is appropriate - bathtub plums and toilet bowl. Sometimes, instead of one, two siphons are connected.
For the manufacture of knee devices previously used cast iron and even bronze, but now it is more expedient and It is cheaper to use modern material - polypropylene, which is light, reliable and simple montage
There are various types of knee siphons. Some of them are a single plastic device that can not be adjusted. If it breaks, it must be dismantled completely.
Other devices consist of several parts, so if necessary, you can increase the length of the pipes and change their position in order to adjust the volume of water. The position of the pipes is fixed overlaid with plastic clamps and nuts.
The knee has two kinks - at the entrance and exit. The point of the second inflection should be slightly below the point of the first (5-6 cm). Sometimes for a more reliable lock use S-shaped design, the principle of its work is the same.
Knee structures are cleaned in two ways:
- by completely dismantling the device;
- special flexible cable.
Some polypropylene modifications are provided with an inlet for the drain hose of a washing machine or dishwasher.
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Knee models are installed mainly in catering kitchens and enterprises engaged in the manufacture of semi-finished products
Buying a knee device in full factory configuration, you get a set of parts and seals, which you just need to assemble in accordance with the attached manual.
Using the parts included in the kit, it is possible to assemble a structure for connecting to an outlet in a wall or floor.
Attached to the product is a clamp and an anchor screw with a dowel, required for fixing the device on the wall
Knee siphon model
Complete set of knee device
Assembly option for lateral connection
Assembly with the lower connection to the sewer
# 2: The Benefits of a Bottle Device
This type of water seal is popular in kitchens to equip sinks under sinks for dishes. In the process of washing plates and pots, a part of food waste penetrates into the system, which is fraught with obstruction.
The design of the bottle model detains food residues, which contributes to the preservation of sewage performance. In addition, the bottle device retains its main purpose - preventing unpleasant odors from appearing in the dwelling.
In addition to the pipes, which form the basis of any hydraulic seal, these types are equipped with an additional element - a “bottle”. This is a kind of container for collecting food garbage. The sump is located below the level of the drain pipe, so get to it if necessary is easy.
The connection of the two parts of the bottle model is done in the following way: first, the vertical pipe enters the located below the sump, then the horizontal pipe goes to the side towards the sewer pipe
Bottle device is made of polypropylene, but the strength is considered weaker than the knee analog. The fact is that unreliable connections can not withstand the strong pressure of water, so this type is used exclusively in the kitchen and is absolutely not suitable for equipping a toilet or bath.
A blockage in the water seal occurs when a dense mass of food residues completely clogs the settling tank and blocks the water path. Thanks to the bottle configuration, it is very easy to remove the blockage.
It is enough to unscrew the consignment nut, which joins the sump, and shake out the accumulated garbage. Then you need to install the “bottle” in place and tighten the nut more tightly, otherwise water may leak.
Bottle designs are also useful in terms of preserving items that accidentally fell into the drain. Reckless hostesses often got their rings out of the sumps, slipping from the fingers while washing dishes with soap.
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Bottle-type siphons are the most popular option in everyday life, attracting with efficiency and ease of disassembly
Bottle siphon is structurally more complicated than knee models, but it is much easier to assemble and install
In the bottle siphon set there is a drain with a funnel in which the grille is mounted. It catches large particles that can clog sewers.
For connection to the sewer outlet there is a corrugated pipe in the kit, which can be connected both to the side outlet and to the floor drain
Bottle Siphon Housing
Complete set of the bottle device
Drain with catching grate
Corrugated Discharge Pipe
# 3: Double-trap device
The design of the double-turn hydraulic seal resembles a knee device, but differs in a more complex configuration. The drain pipe is connected to the outlet of the plumbing fixture, and at the junction it is equipped with a filter grid for trapping waste, hair and other debris.
Then it smoothly passes into the knee, which ends in connection with another pipe. The last element is directed to the drain and is at a slight slope.
Some double-turn models are equipped with an inspection hole for pipe cleaning, tightly closed with a stopper. The hole function is sometimes performed by a removable fragment of the knee. The hole is usually located at the lowest point, and the removable part is at the top.
Domestic double-turn constructions were previously made of cast iron, now of polypropylene. Cast iron counterparts can only be used in industrial plants with increased volumes of effluent and high pressure in pipes. Chromed parts look more presentable, which are close to polypropylene in their technical characteristics.
If you compare this model with a bottle alternative, then the second option is easier to maintain. However, a double-turn device is more reliable in terms of leakage protection and, thanks to its simple, adjustable design, can be installed even in narrow places.
# 4: Corrugated model - pros and cons
Among the propylene modifications, there are also corrugated models - strong, flexible, sometimes just necessary for arranging the sewage system in small-sized premises. Due to the plasticity of the pipe, the corrugation is placed in places where it is difficult to place other types of structures.
It can be rotated at the right angle and sent in any direction, while the firmly fixed plastic has only a few options.
A corrugated water seal is often placed under the bath, as less flexible models do not fit in the narrow space between the bottom of the tank and the floor. One end is connected to the drain hole, the second - to the release into the sewer pipe
However, when choosing a corrugated option, it is worth knowing about its only, but significant disadvantage. The ribbed walls of the pipe seem to have been created to collect garbage: remnants of food, hair, pieces of soap, sand, and other dirt get stuck in them. Given this, when installing the corrugations of the drain must be provided with a filter in the form of a fine-meshed lattice.
If the corrugated water seal is not cleaned for a long time, under the influence of dirt and excess weight, it loses its strength and elasticity. Over time, the folds wear out, begin to crack and allow water to pass through.
Having established a flexible siphon, be sure to monitor its condition and clean it in a timely manner. One can guess the pipe pollution by sags, which are formed in places of accumulation of fat and debris.
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Gofrosiphon is the simplest version of the device that provides water trap for sewage. It includes a minimum of parts that do not need to be assembled.
This version of the siphon consists of a drain with a filtering grate and the pipe itself, which is installed with a characteristic bend.
In fact, it is easy to make a gofrosiphon from a conventional corrugated pipe, securing it in place of bending with insulation wire
Use corrugated traps as independent plumbing fixtures, and as part of double-turn siphons
Gofrosiphon for plumbing connection
Siphon of corrugated assembled
Craft formation of a water seal
Use in a two-turn siphon
# 5: Overflow principle
Another type of siphon - with overflow - can also be divided into a separate category, since it is necessarily equipped with an additional pipe. The main purpose of the overflow equipment is to protect the apartment from flooding, if for some reason, when the tap is open, the water stops flowing into the drain.
The sinks on which this device is installed have an additional hole — in the upper part of the bowl, under the mixer. When the level of water accumulated in the sink reaches a critical level, the liquid begins to flow into this hole and then into the water trap (+)
Be sure to overflow system equip baths. This method prevents flooding, but, unfortunately, does not contribute to savings. If you want to take a bath and forget to turn off the tap in time, the water, having reached the overflow level, will safely leave the tank and go down the drain - along with your money for utility bills services.
On the market are presented as economical plastic options, yet more durable, but less elastic metal models. Cons brass-bronze equipment - in the complexity of installation and high cost.
When choosing a device, do not forget to inquire about its bandwidth. If the overflow does not cope with the amount of excess fluid, it is useless and even dangerous.
# 6: Dry Shutter Design
The design of the so-called "dry" shutter is radically different from the hydraulic counterparts. It works on the principle of the “nipple” and is a threaded pipe, inside which a check valve is installed. As a result, water entering the device cannot flow back, just like the smell has no chance to leave the pipe.
Installation of such devices is justified on the lower floors of multi-storey buildings, as well as in places where water is used less frequently (in baths).
Dry closures are not fundamentally installed in kitchen sinks, the use of which maximally provokes the creation of blockages. But such devices with water lock work efficiently and serve for a long time in self-made shower cabins.
The shutter of the "dry" type does not need the constant availability of water inside the case. Even if it functions in conjunction with a knee device, it does not need to be controlled or adjusted.
There are several types of dry devices:
- membrane, overlapping after draining the water elastic membrane;
- pendulum, to instantaneous closure, if no fluid flows;
- float, closing the hole when the water leaves the drain (acting on the type of fittings cistern).
The latter are often made independently, equipping the sewer layout in the baths.
The simplest is the principle of operation of the float valve. Light weight keeps the float on the surface of the water. As soon as it drains, the float drops down and overlaps the drain.
If a sewer line suddenly dries out due to its rare use, thanks to the dry gate, an unpleasant smell will not bother you.
Landmark selection guidelines
If you install or change plumbing fixtures (bathtub, sink or toilet), you will definitely need a siphon.
To select a device that is fully appropriate plumbing, you must consider a number of factors, including:
- device dimensions in the collection;
- siphon type;
- material of which pipes and fixture are made;
- the number of drains or additional connections;
- protection against blockages;
- diameter of the inlet and outlet;
- presence or absence of overflow.
Suppose for a sink in the kitchen the most suitable option is a bottle model that detains food particles. A knee device can also be used, but then all the waste will flow into the sewer pipe, and over time there is a risk of blockage.
Both for sinks and baths, overflow models that prevent flooding of rooms are considered more effective. The recommended material is polypropylene, but for finishing the exterior parts it is better to buy models with chrome-plated parts.
If the project installation of a sink or washbasin with two sinks, useful device with two points of drain. The principle of its operation is the same, the only difference is in the design.
Before buying, be sure to measure the amount of space where the installation will be performed. It so happens that the siphon simply does not fit in the allotted place (this especially applies to the close gap between the bathroom and the floor). If you choose the water seal correctly, problems with its installation and repair will be much less.
In case the hydraulic lock is pulled out of the siphon into the sewage system, the system is upgraded by installing vacuum valve:
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Vacuum valves are designed to normalize the work of the sewer system, they are released for installation on the drain pipe and on the release of sanitary devices
Sewer vacuum valve stabilizes the pressure in the system, prevents water from being drawn into the drain riser during use of the device
The valve passes outside air into the system to form a working pressure, but eliminates the return flow of polluted air.
It is especially important to install a vacuum valve on the sewer line if the diameter of the pipe is increased due to the connection of the toilet bowl.
Types of Vacuum Valves
Protection of water trap from flushing down the drain
Connecting the bath to release into the sewer
Vacuum device at the entrance of the system in the toilet
Installation instructions for automatic siphon
It is rather simple to install the bottle hydraulic shutter under the sink of the kitchen sink, under the bathroom it is a bit more difficult due to the inconvenient location of the drainage system. We present the installation instructions for an automatic bathroom siphon - an advanced device that can be installed by yourself.
The complete set can be purchased at the nearest plumbing store. It consists of three significant parts: 1 - plastic construction of hydrolock + corrugated pipe; 2 - details for the registration of overflow; 3 - fastener elements for draining
First equip the overflow hole. To do this, take the elastic gasket, which is included, and insert it into the hole on the wall of the bath. Silicone sealant can be used for tighter contact.
Fasten iridescent structure in the hole, twisting the chrome-plated element from the outside. It is equipped with a rod on which the lamb will hold
Then we take the next detail - the lamb - and try to carefully fasten it to the rod with a bolt. This will require a small flat screwdriver that can penetrate a small hole in the side of the lamb.
We put the lamb on the rod, insert the end of the screwdriver into the side hole and with a little effort, but very carefully tighten the fixing bolt
Next, go to the bottom and take the fittings for clearance drain.
We thread the plastic part under the bathroom and insert the end with a rubber gasket into the hole. From above, in the formed hole we place a standard chrome-plated part with a mesh.
Among the fasteners, we find a long fixing screw, which is responsible for fixing the siphon, and screw it in from the top side, holding the structure underneath.
First, tighten the screw with your hands, then tighten the key, but very carefully, so as not to disrupt the thread. After the end we check the installation strength
It remains to fasten the water seal element. First, we put a rubber gasket on the plastic outlet of the drain, then insert the knee paddle. Tighten the outer plastic nut - the design is ready.
The appearance of the installed automatic siphon. Two pipes run out of the drain hole: one (corrugated) - to the overflow hole, the second (curved) - the knee seal itself.
Last of all, we attach a polypropylene pipe (straight or corrugated) to the water seal, leading to the sewer pipe.
We test the system - we pour a full bath of water and check the operation of the overflow and the drain hole. We look for leaks. If we find a leak, we tighten the nuts more tightly, and seal the joints with sealant, but under the condition that they do not have to be opened in the future to clear the blockage.
In detail with the sequence of work and rules installation of a siphon under the bath read the article, the content of which we recommend to read.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
For the installation process to run smoothly and without errors, haunting home amateur plumbers, we offer to view useful videos.
Video # 1. The best option to equip kitchen sink:
Video # 2. Installation of the siphon when installing the bath:
Installing a sewage siphon is a process that can be overcome even by a non-newcomer unskilled in sanitary matters. If you correctly determine the type of hydraulic seal and carefully study the instructions, you just need to fasten a few parts. Work for half an hour - and a comfortable atmosphere in the house and the absence of an unpleasant odor - for years.
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