Types of electric toothbrushes

  • Design Features
  • Rigidity of the brush head
  • What are the bristles made of
  • Standard
  • Sound
  • Ultrasound
  • What to look for when choosing

Electric toothbrushes, in comparison with traditional, nonmechanical analogs, show higher values ​​in the care of oral cavity, it is better to remove dental plaque, it is more effective in fighting the symptoms of gingivitis (both in the long term and in the short term term). But with all the comfort and convenience, to achieve the maximum therapeutic and preventive effect and not damage teeth, the decision - which is better to choose an electric toothbrush - will require consideration of a very large amount parameters.

Design Features

Structurally, an electric toothbrush consists of the following parts:

  • handle - in it there is an electric motor with a power supply, and also a control unit.
  • The stem-holder, on which the head of the brush is attached.
  • The brush head (nozzle) is the most important part of the brush. In budget models, they can only perform reciprocating movements. The more expensive the model, the more functions the head can perform, for example, perform rotational or pulsating motions, plus - different intensity cleaning modes. Models of middle and premium-class are completed with several types of heads - for polishing teeth, for massage gums, for delicate mode (required for teeth with increased sensitivity), for bleaching, for double cleaning. There are special models of heads that can replace dental floss.

Rigidity of the brush head

The advantage of an electric brush for teeth can also be considered the moment that you can buy one device, and removable heads are already selected based on the characteristics of dental care for each member families. The main parameter of the brush head is its rigidity. There are five standards:

  • super soft - recommended for young children, as well as those who suffer from dental diseases and frequent bleeding gums.
  • soft - such rigidity should be chosen for people who are prone to stomatitis and who have small wounds in the oral cavity.
  • average - for people with strong healthy teeth that do not have serious dental problems.
  • hard - is indicated by the fact that he wants to restore the whiteness of teeth, for example, lovers of strong tea and coffee, as well as smokers. In addition, this option is suitable for people who have a tendency to develop tartar. Do not overuse the hard nozzle and constantly monitor the condition of teeth, because with systematic use can occur thinning of tooth enamel.
  • super-hard - completely counter-indicative for daily use. They can be used periodically for people who have braces or dental plates - super-rigid nozzles perfectly remove the dirt accumulating around them. Too frequent use can lead to damage to the enamel and cause caries.

What are the bristles made of

The bristles are made of synthetic nap - it is inexpensive and very smooth, has a long service life and no pores. Especially for allergy sufferers, heads with natural pile are produced, but they have a number of significant drawbacks. First of all, they quickly wear out, therefore they have a short service life. They are soft, so their quality of cleaning is much worse. At the same time they are significantly more expensive and not very hygienic - natural nap is a breeding ground for intensive bacterial reproduction.



The bristles eventually wear out, so the head must be periodically changed. The need for replacement can be judged by the color of the bristles - as soon as they become dull and faded, you should buy a new head. On average, the nozzle should be changed every three months.


Depending on the type of electric toothbrush, teeth cleaning can be carried out by moving the head, or - due to the vibration (vibration) of the bristles themselves (the head itself remains motionless). There are three types of dental electric brushes.


They are also called mechanical. In such brushes, the electric motor drives the brush head (nozzle) through the transfer element, which can perform both translational (forward backward) and circular motions (both clockwise and in the opposite direction direction). It is due to the movement of the head with bristles fixed on it that the teeth are cleaned. The speed of rotation for different models can vary from 5 to 30 thousand revolutions per minute.

The advantages of standard mechanical toothbrushes include the affordable cost and soft tooth cleaning, which does not lead to damage to the tooth enamel. But at the same time on the quality of purification this type of brush is much inferior to the sound and ultrasound analogues.


In electric toothbrushes of this type, the head remains stationary, the bristles themselves move directly. A special membrane transforms the rotation of the electric motor into sound waves. Their vibration is transmitted to the villi brushes, which begin to vibrate with a high frequency. Thanks to this, a uniform foam is formed, consisting of toothpaste, air and water - this allows efficient and gentle removal of plaque even in the most inaccessible places. In this case, there is a double cleaning of the tooth surface - both directly due to the action of the bristles, and due to the influence of sound waves.

There are other advantages:

  • Cleansing occurs gently, without traumatizing tooth enamel.
  • the use of a sound electric brush does not affect the fastening of brackets, veneers, does not cause the loss of seals.
  • due to gum massage, microcirculation improves.


The principle of operation of ultrasonic electric brushes as a whole coincides with the operation of sound brushes. Their fundamental difference is in the frequency of the villous oscillation. The electric motor converts the energy of electricity into waves of high - ultrasonic frequency, as a result, the device generates in a minute from 96 to 192 million vibrations. The depth of propagation of ultrasonic waves from the bristles is no more than 5 mm. Due to the created vibrations, tartar is effectively destroyed and removed, various incrustations on the teeth - mineralized and pigmented. Also, pollution is eliminated in even the most inaccessible places, where the villi of the usual brush do not reach. In addition, ultrasound affects microbes, preventing their reproduction.

The use of an ultrasonic electric brush leads to heating of the dental tissue - this can generally be considered a positive moment, because the increase in temperature leads to an acceleration of blood circulation in the gums. Other advantages of ultrasonic dental scores include:

  • The highest quality, in comparison with other types of electric brushes, is the quality of teeth cleaning.
  • economical expenditure of toothpaste.
  • from the user is not required to exert any effort - the brush just needs to be brought to the teeth.

However, the use of ultrasonic electric toothbrushes has a number of limitations:

  • bristles that vibrate with a very high frequency can cause the loss of seals due to the destruction of the binder component.
  • ultrasonic brushes can not be used by pregnant women, people with established pacemakers and bleeding gums. In addition, they can not use children under 3 years old, those who have undergone oncology operations in the oral cavity, with high mobility of teeth, insufficient enamel density.
  • It is not recommended to use ultrasonic electrobrushes for people who have crowns, veneers and other structures - a high frequency of vibration can cause them to break.


Before buying an electric toothbrush, you should always consult your dentist. Which, based on the condition and characteristics of your teeth and oral cavity, will recommend the optimal version of the electric brush.


What to look for when choosing


An electric toothbrush can have several power options:

  • from the network - the least common option, since it significantly limits the consumer's mobility.
  • from the battery - in this case, together with the device in the kit, a special charger is sold, where the electric brush should be installed after use for recharging. On average, full charging of a new battery is enough for cleaning one person's teeth within a week - 20-30 minutes of work. The battery itself is fully charged for 2-5 hours (depends on its capacity), this will not cause inconvenience to the user, the time between brushing the teeth will be quite enough.
  • from the batteries - the brush is powered by ordinary finger batteries. This option is suitable for those who travel a lot or move. The disadvantage can be considered the moment that you need to keep a spare kit at home so that you can replace the old batteries.

Brush handle

To ensure that the brush does not slide in the wet palm, it is desirable that the handle has rubberized inserts.

Additional functions

To make tooth cleaning as comfortable and safe as possible, manufacturers equip electric toothbrushes with additional functions:

  • timer - precisely controls the compliance with the cleaning time, which is especially important for ultrasonic brushes.
  • pressure sensors - signal excessive pressure on the teeth / tooth enamel. This function allows you to prevent the erasure of enamel and damaging the gums.
  • wear indicator - serves to notify you of the need to change the brush head.
  • some models are equipped with special nozzles for cleaning the tongue.
  • in some models the function of habituation is realized - it is suitable for those who first bought an electric brush. It consists in the fact that the load on the teeth grows gradually, in the first days the cleaning is very delicate and gentle, so as not to cause discomfort.

The weight

The weight of a toothbrush should not be more than 200 grams, more massive models are very hard to hold in your hand. For children, they produce special, more compact and light models, but most importantly, before choosing an electric toothbrush for a child, you need to find out the rotation speed - it should not be more than 18 thousand per minute. Otherwise, an additional load will be created, which can destroy the fragile enamel on the children's teeth.


Choosing a manufacturer, it is worth giving preference to well-known and well-proven brands in the market. Such companies not only manufacture toothbrushes, but also constantly conduct oral hygiene research, so they can offer the most advanced and effective solutions. It is very important that for the manufacture they use only high-quality materials. If we talk about some specific brands, then no doubt - it's Oral B, which is widely represented in all price categories. Of other manufacturers worth noting Philips, Panasonic, Asahi, Donfeel. For children there are special models from the Japanese company Hapica, with an additional built-in ionizer.

Use a toothbrush (especially ultrasonic) can be no more than 1 time per day, so an ordinary manual (manual) brush still have to buy.

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