In the garages or workshops, in order to save, it is not uncommon to install a stove for testing instead of an expensive boiler: do metal parts with their own hands, weld them and get a model resembling a “stove”. However, when choosing a design for the manufacture can be faced with difficulties. Do you agree?
We will tell how to choose the optimal scheme and personally assemble an economical, but very efficient heating device. In the article proposed by us, the popular options are examined in detail, the effect of which has been tested in practice. There are tips for the construction and subsequent operation of the stove.
The content of the article:
- What is oil working?
- Why are used oil ovens popular?
Projects for self-production
- Sheet Metal Model
- How to make a furnace from a gas cylinder?
- Rules of operation and TB
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
What is oil working?
Working or used oil is a product that remains as a result of the functioning of an automobile engine. Motor, transmission or other industrial oil accumulates in large quantities at stations stations, in automotive workshops, as well as ordinary car owners.
In the process of using the oil loses its useful qualities, accumulates salts, slags, resins, the smallest particles of metal, however, people and this illiquid product have been used.
It is forbidden to discharge the work into the ground, since the most dangerous product for nature completely destroys all life. Alternative - delivery of the waste material to special collection points for further processing.
In small quantities it is used for household needs:
- grease the working tool (for example, chainsaws);
- impregnate wood (sleepers for railways);
- lubricate rubbing parts of light vehicles (scooters, bicycles);
- used as a liquid for kindling a fire;
- cover surfaces filled with bitumen.
As at the end of the last century, mining is used as fuel for stoves installed in conventionally residential premises - garages, utility rooms, workshops. If you build the stove yourself, then with constantly replenishing stocks of used oil the heating of the room will be practically free.
Other effective ways to organize economical garage heating presented in an article fully devoted to this issue.
Why are used oil ovens popular?
The main reason for people's love for homemade stoves is the low (or zero) cost of the unit itself and the fuel to it. Some homegrown craftsmen make such heaters as an experiment and at the same time a useful device.
With the advent of a homemade kiln on waste oil, there is no solution to the question of "attaching" recycled materials.
For especially advanced craftsmen, the manufacture of garage furnaces for working off has become another business option. They design custom models and sell them to interested, but not so skillful garage owners.
How does the unit to work out? The process consists in splitting heavy fuel with impurities, which has a rather complex composition. In another way, the process in which there is a shortage of oxygen and the burning of not the fuel itself, but its vapors, is called pyrolysis. Operating principle pyrolysis equipment described in our recommended article.
In order to start the process, it is necessary to evaporate the fuel, then heat the resulting vapors to a temperature of about + 300-400 ºС, after which combustion will occur spontaneously. It will remain to wait for complete combustion of the fuel.
There are 2 schemes that are used in the independent production of stoves:
- filling the tank with oil and igniting it, as a result of which the vapors evaporate and begin to burn;
- the use of a burner, in which the three zones (pyrolysis, ignition and afterburning) are combined and make the combustion process more efficient, regulated and safer.
The second scheme is more complicated, requires serious refinement of the fuel and manufacturing accuracy, so we consider the simpler models from the first group.
Diagram of a simple model of the furnace for testing. The air needed to support the combustion process enters through the neck with a damper. The same valve can partially regulate the force of combustion
The advantages of using the stove for oil-tested garage:
- ease of design and maintenance of the device;
- fuel economy is about 1.5-2 liters per hour;
- the absence of soot and soot;
- safe storage of mining stocks;
- it is possible to connect an air or water heating circuit;
The compactness of the unit is also extremely important for small spaces.
Disadvantages are also available:
- the need for regular cleaning of the stove and chimney;
- mandatory element - a vertically disposed flue with a height of at least 4 m;
- for furnaces with nozzles, use only purified oil (the approximate cost of the filtered product is 8-12 rubles per liter);
- One of the conditions for storage of mining is positive temperature, that is, it is necessary either to heat the room during the winter period or to use a tank buried in the ground.
Before making / buying a finished oven or boiler to work it is necessary to consider all the pros and cons of home-made devices, and then make the final decision.
Projects for self-production
Variants of manufacturing furnaces to work out a great many. They are made from metal blanks or used containers (cylinders), with pyrolysis and turbo-burners, with drip feed or blowing. We will focus on two popular models that are more suitable for self-design and assembly.
Sheet Metal Model
In the garages and in the surrounding area, you can often find unnecessary metal parts, cast iron plates, steel sheets, pipes. Among them there will probably be several items suitable for welding the stove.
For example, to make a simple model, you need the following material:
- old steel sheet 3.5 mm thick;
- a piece of steel pipe with a wall thickness of 4.5 mm;
- tin pipe for chimney with a diameter of 110 mm.
In addition, you will need a tool that is usually available from any garage owner: welding machine with electrodes, circular saw with cutting and grinding discs, hammer, pliers. Required - a set of working protective clothing for welding with glasses and gloves.
Before the welding process prepare some parts.
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Cut the blanks from a metal sheet: for the chamber for oil filling - 350 mm x 350 mm (ends 350 mm x 150 mm); for the plate - 350 mm x 620 mm (ends - 350 mm x 120 mm)
Steel and cast iron are suitable for the burner pipe, which will be further perforated, but the steel part is more practical. Pipe length - 360 mm
Drill a 10 mm metal drill with a drill on the previously marked surface of the pipe: 8 equidistant rows of 6 holes each, that is 48 holes in total
For the manufacture of legs in the amount of 4 pieces, we use a metal corner and small fragments of steel sheet. We weld, giving them a sustainable construction.
Metal workpiece size
Steel or cast iron pipe
Drilling holes on the pipe
Four legs for stove
When part of the parts are prepared, we proceed to welding, but the circular saw is far from being removed - it can be useful for cutting or cutting off individual fragments.
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In the metal blank for the combustion chamber cut out the window, which will simultaneously serve to fill the oil and adjust the burning force
To the other end of the same billet we weld the burner (pipe), and then the walls and the bottom. As a result, a brick-shaped chamber should be welded along all the joints.
In a similar way, we weld a second chamber from separate blanks, which will function as a stove, and then weld the burner on one side, and the chimney pipe on the other.
Pre-prepared legs (4 pieces) are welded to the bottom panel of the chamber, designed to fill the casting. Make sure that the length of the legs after welding remains the same.
Install the finished oven on a previously prepared and cleaned place. A good option - at the entrance, near the wall, as the chimney will be displayed outside through the wall.
We take the elements of a tin pipe (straight, angular) and assemble a construction from them, part of which will be inside the room, and part will be brought out
We take a section of the chimney, substitute it to the wall in the zone of the intended exit, and circle it. The hole in diameter (slightly larger than the diameter of the pipe) is punched by a drill or a perforator
Weld the inside of the pipe to the stove, take a small horizontal element through the wall to the outside and fix it on the wall of the garage the rest of the pipe (using clamps)
Step 1 - design of the upper part of the chamber for testing
Step 2 - welding the working chamber and welding the burner
Step 3 - Weld the plate and weld to the rest of the parts.
Step 4 - welding the legs to the lower chamber
Step 5 - installing the stove in a permanent place and fitting
Step 6 - Making a chimney from a tin pipe
Step 7 - Making a Chimney Hole in the Wall
Step 8 - Welding the chimney to the chimney and bringing it out
To prevent precipitation and debris from getting into the chimney, we fix a cap on the end with screws. The safe height of the chimney is about 4 m. Combustion products removed above the roof will quickly dissipate into the atmosphere and will not harm people or plants.
After the completion of the assembly and installation works, it is necessary to carry out testing and, if flaws are found in the work, try to correct them. The verification of the quality of combustion is carried out in the following order.
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Take a small amount of oil and gently pour it into the hole in the combustion chamber. Remember that you have to wait until all the fuel burns through. Oil will not tan without adding 30-40 ml of solvent or kerosene
For ignition is best to use an ordinary matchbox. A fire match just throw inside the camera with working out. The main difficulty - to achieve evaporation
We carefully observe the burning process. To find out the speed of burning fuel, note the time. Open / close the damper to check the adjustment of the burning force
After some time, it will be possible to check how the upper chamber - plate - works. To do this, we place a container with water on a heated surface. If the water soon began to boil, everything is done correctly
Stage 1 - pouring the waste oil into the combustion chamber
Stage 2 - burning the oil with a match
Stage 3 - check the combustion and heating of the furnace
Stage 4 - check the functionality of the plate
In the process of designing and welding, the following errors can be detected:
- too thin walls of chambers and pipes (rapid wear, inability to keep warm for a long time);
- not large enough hole for pouring oil and adjusting the burning force;
- poorly chosen installation location of the furnace;
- different diameters of the stove pipe and chimney (for the connection will have to use an adapter);
- inaccurately fitted dimensions of parts for welding (the seams will be loose and will not last long);
- Ignition with gasoline - an explosion is possible, it is better to use solvents (White spirit and the like).
If you cook the oven according to the rules, it will last a long time and will easily heat a room of 20-30 m². With options for organization heating to work will introduce an article dedicated to this difficult issue.
How to make a furnace from a gas cylinder?
The second option, which has become popular due to the successful assembly scheme, is an oven from a conventional gas cylinder, cleaned of its contents.
It is possible to connect a heat exchanger with a self-made air swirler and a fan to the body from a cylinder, and use a freon bottle as an oil container
At first we make the scheme of the furnace.
Construction details: 1 - base of the case; 2 - perforated pipe; 3 - heat exchanger tube; 4 - partition; 5 - visor; 6 - evaporator for butter; 7 - clutch; 8 and 10 - tube for the supply of mining; 9 - ball valve; 11 - tank for testing; 12 - swirl; 13 - fan
The volume of the cylinder - 50 liters. The thickness of the walls of metal pipes is 4-5 mm, the internal cross section is 100 mm. For a partition between two chambers and making a visor, it is better to use pieces of metal sheet with a thickness of at least 4 mm. A brake disc is used as a reservoir for the oil from which evaporation occurs.
The oil enters the evaporator through a ½ inch pipe. The part of the pipeline above the ball valve can be flexible to ensure ease of installation. A ball valve is installed to always have the ability to shut off the fuel supply in emergency. For the manufacture of swirl selected a pair of metal corners, welded to each other.
Next, we consider how to make a compact furnace on waste oil for utility room or garage.
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Before starting work, we release the remaining gas from the cylinder, leaving it open for some time valve and then remove the condensate by drilling a hole in the bottom and washing the inside with a large amount of water
On the one side of the body of the future furnace, we cut out two openings of different size: in the upper part, larger in size, there will be a combustion chamber with a heat exchanger, in the lower one there will be an evaporator. Then you can wash the inner walls again with water.
Cut from a metal sheet with a thickness of 4 mm round billet according to the diameter of the body. In the center of the blank we make a hole for the burner, also round
For the manufacture of the burner take a steel pipe with a diameter of 100 mm and a length of 200 mm. So that it functions correctly, we drill 10 mm holes across the entire surface. Grind the surface and edges. Weld the burner to the metal circle, which is installed between the chambers
We take the brake cast iron disc and make the bottom - we weld the steel circle. On the other hand, weld the lid, but so that there is a gap for the air intake and to provide the necessary thrust.
To make the coupling adapter between the burner and the pan, cut a small fragment out of a 100 mm pipe. We install it on a pallet, not welding to the base
Just above the pallet we make a hole, insert a metal tube into it to supply oil and weld it. For emergency shutdown of the supply of working on the pipe install valve - ball valve
Weld 100-mm tin pipe to the upper part of the body, the other end of the output on the street. To do this, we make a hole in the wall, which we equip with a fireproof metal cuff. Raise the pipe above the roof, set the protective cap
Step 1 - flushing the gas canister
Step 2 - hull preparation
Step 3 - making the bottom for the upper chamber
Step 4 - prepare and install the burner
Step 5 - Making the Oil Pan
Step 6 - Making the Coupling
Step 7 - Provide Oil Supply
Step 8 - Chimney arrangement
In order for the heated air to circulate through the room, it is necessary install heat exchanger. This is a steel pipe with a diameter of 100 mm. The most suitable place is inside the case, between the burner and the smoke pipe. To hold the flame to the top of the heat exchanger, we weld a metal pad, cut from a 4-mm sheet.
Forced air supply will be organized using a duct fan. It can be made automatic by applying a thermal switch. In order to keep the heat better, we place a swirl inside the pipe - a structure of two welded metal corners, the shelves of which are cut and turned in the form of blades.
Then from the cylinder from under the freon do tank storage and supply of mining. The advantage of the tank of this design - needle valve, convenient for adjusting the fuel supply
It remains to make two doors, each of which has nuances. For the upper part of the mandatory is a strong lock that provides a reliable closing for the period of operation of the furnace. At the bottom of the second door we make a gap so that the air can freely flow into the body and maintain the oil burning.
After the manufacture of the furnace we perform testing. Pour some oil into the pan, then put a small piece of sponge soaked in solvent there. We set fire to the sponge. The oil warms up, begins to evaporate, a flame appears in the burner.
Gradually, we feed the oil through the tube to the evaporator. If it is necessary to stop the combustion, shut off the flow of mining (close both valves). As soon as residues in the pan are burned, the burning process will stop.
Schemes and rules for the manufacture of the stove for working out of the pipe given here. We recommend to get acquainted with useful information.
Rules of operation and TB
No matter how much they talk about the safety of improvised stoves, they remain devices that if improperly handled can lead to burns or burning of surrounding objects. As a result, there are a number of prohibitions.
The following actions cannot be performed:
- use other types of fuel instead of used oil;
- use faulty equipment;
- install a heating device in a room without well-adjusted ventilation;
- light a fire if the oven is not equipped with a smoke outlet;
- block the hole in the burner;
- leave the room with a working oven for a long time;
- place flammable liquids or objects near the heated body;
- spray oil or water on a hot surface.
Only adults, children or animals are allowed to use the stove during the operation of the unit.
As an interesting and original example of a stove for working off, we suggest to consider it from the beginning potbelly manufacturing technology. This is also a very effective model, available for self-production.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
The process of creating and launching a heating device is much easier if all safety measures are taken and the nuances of manufacturing and installation are taken into account. We offer videos with useful recommendations.
Video # 1. How to start the oven correctly:
Video # 2. Overview of the operating furnace. Operation Tips:
Video # 3. Tips for device and use:
Solve the issue of recycling can be quite easily, having built a metal furnace in the garage. The self-made heating device working on cheap fuel, functions not worse than purchased expensive models.
But if you are not confident in your abilities, it is better to ask for help from experienced craftsmen who are familiar with the nuances of making and installing oil furnaces.
Those who wish to share their own experience in the construction of a stove for working off are invited to leave comments in the block below. Perhaps you have information on the topic that will be useful to site visitors? Please write in the block below, ask questions, post thematic photos.