Diseases of tomatoes - description, signs, photos

The most common diseases of tomatoes, a description, advice on treatment, a photo of some (alas, there are many more) the troubles that we can face on our site, if tomatoes do not have enough nutrition or vice versa, overfed. Therefore, we will still be able to get to know them with them. Such knowledge is necessary for everyone who is engaged in their cultivation. This is a brief overview of the disease in tomatoes there is much more.

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Content:
  • Mosaic
  • Bacterial wilt of tomatoes (bacteriosis)
  • Necrosis of the stalk of tomatoes
  • Alternaria or macrosporia (brown or dry spotting)
  • Phytophthora (phytophthora)
  • Chloratic curly leaves of tomatoes
  • Brown Olive Blotch (Cladosporium)
  • Septoria, white leaf spot
  • Gray rot
  • Brown rot (phomosis)
  • Blackleg
  • Root rot
  • Vertex Rot
  • Fret cracking
  • Yellow or green spot near the stem
  • Silvery spots on tomato leaves
  • Oedema (edema) - edema of leaves
  • Phytotoxicity of soil (soil)
  • Twisting (twisting) of leaves on the tops of bushes
  • Signs of a lack of basic elements of a food
  • Because of what yellow leaves of tomatoes

In many publications often write - a tomato - a culture unpretentious. Now I would not say that. Too many sores have fallen on this culture in recent years. What does he need? Light, heat, food, moisture. But even if tomatoes are provided with all this, they do not always succeed. Because it's a matter of small things.

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Mosaic

Mosaic

Mosaic is a viral disease. The disease is quite unpleasant, because the treatment is virtually indecisive. The only remedy is prevention. And then you need to process the seeds before planting. Ill-treated plants are useless to process. The leaves of diseased plants acquire a bright (mosaic) coloring - alternating dark and light green areas. On fruits sometimes develops a yellow patch. If you have tomatoes sick with this disease, it is better to just remove them. Mosaic is mainly affected by tomatoes of open ground. The first source of infection is contaminated seeds. For prevention, seeds are best dressed before planting.

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Bacterial wilt of tomatoes (bacteriosis)

External manifestation of the disease - the bush withers.

This worries gardeners, since the symptoms can appear overnight. On the lack of moisture in such cases it does not go. Everything happens very quickly. When examining the deceased plant in detail, you can see the emptiness inside the stem, the presence of fluid inside it. Internal stalk tissues can acquire a brown tint.

The stem of the patient with bacterial withering of the plant in a section

The disease can not be cured. All diseased plants need to be urgently removed, destroyed. Experts advise to water neighboring or all (even without signs of disease) plants, -1% solution of Phytolavin-300 (volume of irrigation - not less than 200 ml for each plant). You can spray plants with a solution of the same concentration. This will not cure the already diseased plants, but will delay the infection of healthy (2-3 weeks).

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Necrosis of the stalk of tomatoes

Viral disease. The first signs of the disease appear on the stems of well-developed plants, when the first brushes with fruits begin to form. At the bottom of the stem there are small cracks, first a dark green color. Then, in these cracks appear the rudiments of the air roots. Leaves begin to fade, the plant falls, the bush dies. Fruits do not have time to ripen. The source of infection is seeds, contaminated soil. Such bushes should be torn out, destroyed - burned or buried. Soil is treated,% solution of Phytolavin-300.

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Alternaria or macrosporia (brown or dry spotting)

Fungal disease. Affects leaves, stems, less often fruits.

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First, the lower leaves fall ill, which are covered with rounded, large, brown, with concentric zonation spots.

Gradually they increase, merge, the leaves wither.

On the stem stains are oval, dark brown, large with the same zonality.

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They cause death or dry rot of the stem.

The fetuses, more often at the stems, form dark, slightly depressed spots. At high humidity over the spots, a dark velvet sporification of the fungus occurs. The disease on tomatoes is activated at high temperatures, especially at 25-30 ° C.

The fungus is retained on plant residues and greenhouse ceilings. Due to abundant sporulation quickly spreads with rain drops, wind.

Control measures: for the prevention - treatment with antifungal copper-containing preparations. At the first appearance of symptoms of the disease - treatment with drugs Skor, Ridomil Gold or other antifungal agents. Skor and Ridomil Gold are powerful chemicals - they can treat plants before the ovaries appear, as the waiting period (while you can eat the fruits - 50-60 days). If the symptoms of the disease have appeared, and the fruits are already hanging, then it is desirable to process biopreparations

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Phytophthora (phytophthora)

Phytophthora - fruits
The first signs of late blight

Phytophthora (phytophthora) is, perhaps, the most common disease of tomatoes. They are also sick with open ground tomatoes. Phytophthora is a fungal disease. And the fungal spores, as we know, develop where there is dampness. Sharp changes in air temperature also contribute to the development of this disease of tomatoes. First turn black, leaves wither, then fruits.

Watering greenhouse tomatoes through a bottle

But an experienced gardener can max out the arrival of this disease of tomatoes in time to collect the maximum number of fruits. I use for this purpose ordinary plastic bottles with a cut bottom. I make holes on the side of the nail, insert the bottle with the neck down near the roots of the tomato bush. That is, I will water the tomatoes not on the surface of the soil, but through a bottle. A bottle of water should be covered from above with something, for example, a mayonnaise bucket. At the same time, all moisture will get to the roots, but moisture does not get into the air, the leaves from below will not sweat. That is, by this simple technique, we do not create conditions for the reproduction of mushrooms in the greenhouse.

To prevent the development of phytophthora tomatoes growing in the open ground or greenhouse can be regular (1 time per week) by sprinkling with milk whey. Lactic acid does not allow the development of fungal spores. Also for the prevention of late blight, also use drugs such as Phytosporin, Barrier, Barrier.

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Chloratic curly leaves of tomatoes



Affected plants differ in light green or yellowish color, chlorotic appearance, short stature, curly top. The disease is caused by two viruses - tobacco mosaic virus and tobacco necrosis virus. It is transmitted with seeds and contaminated soil. Control measures are the same as with mosaic - disinfection of seeds, soil. It is better to remove diseased plants.

Very often confuse the chlorotic curly leaves of tomatoes with the appearance of the twisting of leaves on the tops of bushes (the information below).

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Brown Olive Blotch (Cladosporium)

Cladosporium

Brown olive spotting (cladosporium) is also a fungal disease, but it is predominantly distributed in the greenhouse. First, the lower leaves fall ill. On the upper side of the leaf there are chlorotic yellow round spots that will later merge, appear as one single spot. The underside of the sheet is covered with a brown velvety coating - these are spores of the fungus. As a result, the leaves gradually begin to twist and dry up. More often the disease is manifested during flowering or at the beginning of fruiting. The earlier the infection occurs, the more harmful it is. At high humidity of air (up to 95%), length of light day about 10-12 hours and low illumination the disease proceeds more sharply.

In the pictures above, you will see a manifestation of the disease in the process of development - from the moment of appearance of the first signs to the peak of the disease (if you look at the photo from the top down).

Fruits are rarely affected by this disease, mainly only if you do not take any measures. If this happens, then the fruits become brownish-dark, soften - then all the same they will dry up. The cause of the disease can be watering with too cold water, a sharp temperature drop, dampness. Before processing, all affected leaves break off.

Control measures - copper-containing preparations, for example, Bordeaux mixture or Barrier, Barrier.

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Septoria, white leaf spot

Septoria

Septoria, white spotted leaves - fungal disease. Reduces yield, causing premature drying, falling leaves. First, the lower leaves fall ill. First there are single round small light spots. Center spots are gray-white, and the edges are slightly darker. Then a black dot appears in the middle of the spot. The disease first affects the leaves, then the petioles, stems. After a while, the leaves become brown, then fall off. High humidity, warm weather contribute to the rapid spread of the disease. The harmfulness of septoriosis increases in the second half of the summer.

Seeds do not transmit septoriosis.

Process copper containing preparations, for example, Zineb, Horus, copper oxychloride. The earlier the better. Affected leaves are desirable to remove at the very beginning of the disease, even if there is only a growth point at the tops of the stems.

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Gray rot

Gray rot

Gray rot affects the plant organs above the ground. On leaves, buds, flowers appear brown wetting spots, covering in 8-10 hours (more often per night) the whole plant with a copious ashen-gray powder coating - spores of the fungus. On the stems, the spots are brown or gray, first dry, then slightly slaky. They are located more often around the places of wounds, for example, when the stepchildren break off or the branches of the stems. The viability of the spore persists for 1-2 years.

Gray rot - affects tomatoes in late summer, when it gets cool, it's cold rains. This is one of the most common mushroom diseases of tomatoes. It arises with poor ventilation, when the greenhouse is poorly ventilated, with high humidity, a violation of the temperature regime, when it comes to growing in a greenhouse.

The first signs of gray rot on tomato leaves
The first signs of gray rot on green tomato
The first signs of gray rot on ripe tomato

While on fruits such mild whitish concentric spots they are suitable for eating. Special problems with fruits that have time to blush on the bush will not be. But the problems will begin (if not taken in time) at the end of the summer, that is, when it is necessary to collect the green fruits for the dosage. Then such fruits first will start to spoil and can infect healthy fruits in boxes. Therefore, if you notice yourself having fruits with such whitish concentric circles, it is better to cut off the tops of bushes so that the fruits can catch up on the plant.
One way to combat this disease is to remove the affected leaves, until the disease has gone further, has not penetrated the trunk. It is desirable to remove leaves in sunny weather, so that by the evening the places of leaf pruning have dried up, and the spores of fungi do not hit the trunks. Try not to water sprinkling irrigation immediately after removing the stepsons or leaves.

For the prevention of gray rot, spraying the plants with garlic infusion is useful - 30 g of chopped garlic (you can use the arrows) to insist 2 days in 10 liters of water.

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Brown rot (phomosis)

Brown rot

Brown rot (fomoz) - develops near the stalk. Outside it may be a small speck, but the core of the tomato will be all rotten. To save your harvest from this disease, you should also avoid feeding with fresh manure.

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Blackleg

This is a fungal disease. Occurs in greenhouses or greenhouses. Its harmfulness depends on the conditions of cultivation.

Spores of fungi penetrate into the root neck of weakened plants. The stem at the root darkens, thins over 3-5 cm, then rotes. And the plants wither, die in 4-6 days from the beginning of the binding.

With sudden changes in temperature, high humidity, thickened sowing in the land that is used indiscriminately, and lack of ventilation, the disease is rapidly progressing.

The main source of infection is contaminated soil. The disease spreads with plant remains, clumps of soil, partly with seeds.

Control measures. Growing seedlings on soil free from infection. As accumulation of pathogens - a change of soil or its pre-plant decontamination.

Recommended:

  • podsypka planted sand with a layer of 2 cm, contributing to drying the soil, the formation of additional roots;
  • liming of soil in greenhouses or greenhouses;
  • loosening of the soil;
  • systematic ventilation;
  • watering the soil with manganese-sour potassium (3-5 g + 10 liters of water).
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Root rot

Root rot - this disease affects both tomatoes and cucumbers. The main reason - poorly prepared soil - a lot of not reparted manure, wet moist soil. To get rid of it, sometimes you have to change the whole soil in the greenhouse.

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Vertex Rot

Vertex Rot
Vertex Rot Rose Icicle

Vertex rot is a disease that affects only the fruits of tomatoes, on which black spots on tomatoes appear from the bottom. This is not even a disease, but the physiological disorders of plant development. Most often caused by irregular watering or insufficient intake of calcium in the fruit in the initial stages of their growth.

But this does not mean that there is little calcium in the soil. At high temperatures, calcium simply can not be absorbed by tomatoes. Therefore, if tomatoes grow in a greenhouse, you should monitor the microclimate, often ventilate.

Vertex rot can also occur when there is a lack of moisture or excess nitrogen. Perhaps you overfed the plants, for example, with liquid manure.

In the event that the microclimate in the greenhouse is normal, and the fruits with signs of damage to vertex rot have appeared, then it is possible to feed the plants with calcium.

Eggshell (crushed), ash, dolomite flour - the main element of calcium. You can sprinkle one of them when planting seedlings. Note that this method works only as a means of prevention. If signs of failure appear, this method will not work.

Also from the vertex rot protect tomatoes helps a mixture of onion husks and eggshells. But this is also like prevention. If there are already damaged fruits, then this method does not help. In spring, pour on a handful of chopped mixture of husk with the shell into the planting holes of tomatoes and peppers.

The best way to make the necessary dose of calcium, so that it quickly absorbed, is spraying with a solution of calcium nitrate (-1%). The main thing is to process the smallest fruits, even if they are the size of a pea, so spray the tops. Affected fruits are removed, they can not be saved.

Regular watering, calcium nitrate under the root, calcium nitrate or Brexil Ca (Brexil Ca) on the sheet - on your tomatoes there will never be signs of vertex rot.

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Fret cracking

Cracking fruit is not a disease, but a consequence of improper care.Usually this happens with uneven irrigation, with sharp transitions from dry to wet soil and vice versa.

But, if you notice on the fruits such cracks (see. photo below), then the reason for their appearance is completely different. Such cracks in tomatoes in the people called "a little grin" or "cat face". the cause of their appearance is an overdose of nitrogen or an incorrect application of pollination stimulants.

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Yellow or green spot near the stem

Very often this phenomenon is a varietal feature. But sometimes it appears on the fruits of those varieties and hybrids, which in previous years did not show such signs.

Below are two photos. The first is a green spot on the peduncle - a feature of the variety, the so-called greenback - fruits with a green patch near the stem. They are characterized by uneven staining. By the way, there is an opinion that tomato varieties containing high sugar content often have such a feature.

The second photo shows the fruits of the Cio-Cio-San variety. Here we are not talking about varietal features. The high air temperature in summer violated the process of lycopene formation, so the process of formation of carotene appeared. Therefore, this is not a disease, there is nothing to it here either. This is the effect of heat during fruit ripening. Pigment (red color of the fruit) burned off from the heat. Avoid this phenomenon can only shade plants from the sun.

Variety Watermelon
Grade Cio-Cio-san
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Silvery spots on tomato leaves

Recently, the questions of truck farmers growing tomatoes in greenhouses, about incomprehensible spots on the leaves of plants of silvery color, have become more frequent.

Experts on plant diseases came to the conclusion that this is not a disease, but a physiological disturbance of plant development, deviations from the norm. The reasons can be two:

  • sharp fluctuations in daytime and nighttime air temperatures;
  • genetic deviations of hybrids, when, as a result of selection work, poorly developed hybrids are produced in production with great haste.
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Oedema (edema) - edema of leaves

Oedema on tomato leaves

There is such a phenomenon, or rather, the state of the plant - oedema (edema) - edema of the leaves when the irrigation regime is violated. It is not contagious, it is not a disease. It appears on leaves, stems, when the leaf blade is oversaturated by moisture as a result of the fact that the liquid continues to move upwards along the plant under the influence of intra-root pressure.

Most often this happens when the soil is warmer than the air temperature (for example, in cool weather), when the humidity is high. Such conditions contribute to the development of oedem. With her on leaves, on stems appear convex spots, similar to white mold, sometimes solid spots, sometimes punctate, there are stems and leaves crouches, "breaks". More often they say it's from overflow. But it is not always the case. Not less important is not only the humidity, but also the air temperature.

In this case, it is advised to ventilate the plants more often in order to normalize the humidity level, to increase the illumination (the sun is not enough), to raise the temperature of the air (heat too is not enough).

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Phytotoxicity of soil (soil)

This is not a disease, but a change in the properties of the soil as a result of inept, unprofessional use, for example, of pesticides, other substances that instead of positive action start to have a depressing, poisonous effect on tomatoes or other plants. It can manifest in different ways.

We know cases of the appearance of spots on the leaves with a dark purple tint, which then dry.

Pay attention to the last picture. The defeat of the leaves goes from the bottom up. This suggests that, most likely, when watering the food norms were violated, apparently the soil contains some nutritious elements that depress the tomato.

Other possible causes are high soil moisture, too low air temperature, soil.

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Twisting (twisting) of leaves on the tops of bushes

This is not a disease, but, rather, a violation of the conditions of keeping, plant nutrition. Experts call several reasons for the appearance of swirling leaves on the tops of tomato bushes:

  • strong overflow - the roots do not have enough air in very wet soil;
  • poisoning of plants with herbicides (accidental fall on plants leaves);
  • sprinkling growth stimulator Tomato (often found on sale unbalanced in composition preparations - sin on Central Asian producers). By the way, with increased dosage, any stimulants become herbicides.

Overflow will help frequent loosening and hilling of tomatoes. It will help to normalize the air exchange in the soil. But the second and third reasons are much more serious. It is unlikely that plants will recover after treatment with herbicides, most likely they will have to be removed.

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Signs of a lack of basic elements of a food

If you have tomatoes growing with some deviations from the norm, then the disease can not be the cause, but the lack of some elements of nutrition.

First of all, we need to look at which part of the plant the problem is at the top of the bush, on the young leaves, or below, on the old ones.

If the problem starts with the lower leaves, then most likely it is a shortage of the following batteries.

NitrogenIs one of the main elements necessary for the growth of tomatoes. He responds both for the leaves, so for the fruits too. With its lack, everything becomes shallow, pale. But nitrogen can be harmful when its excess. Tomatoes can simply "burn" - the leaves will become huge, fat, the trunks thick, and the fruit will be small or they generally can not be tied.

Phosphorus- responsible for providing the plant with energy, for developing the root system, resistance to colds, mechanical damage.

Potassium- an element of youth of cells. It increases resistance to diseases, frosts, droughts, makes plants stronger, stronger, improves fruit quality.

Zinc- Responsible for phosphorus metabolism, synthesis of vitamins. Zinc deficiency will be helped by spraying with zinc sulfate solution.

The top of the bush with symptoms of zinc deficiency

Magnesium- increases the intensity of photosynthesis, the formation of chlorophyll, is necessary throughout the growing season. Recommendations: foliar top dressing (spraying), -1% magnesium sulfate solution.

The color of tomato leaves suggests magnesium deficiency

Molybdenum- regulates almost all metabolic processes - phosphorus, nitrogen, formation of chlorophyll, the process of fixing nitrogen from the air.

And now let's see what our tomatoes might lack if problems started from the top of the bush, that is, from the young upper leaves.

Calcium- its lack can provoke the development of vertex rot. It also stimulates the development of the whole plant, its root system.

In the photo below are fruits with traces of sunburn. But experts believe that this can be manifested on the fruits and an acute lack of calcium.

Bor- This element is responsible for pollination, fertilization, it also participates in carbohydrate, protein metabolism, increases resistance to diseases.

Sulfur- is a building stone for protein, is a part of proteins, is one of the initial products for the biosynthesis of amino acids. With its lack, the stems become thin, brittle, rigid.

Iron- its lack meets not very often, mainly there, where the lime was transferred. But, nevertheless, iron is one of the main food items of tomatoes. Its deficiency is manifested in leaf chlorosis. They become more light, yellowish shade. It is necessary to carry out treatment with iron-containing complex preparations.

Not enough iron

Chlorine- its deficiency is also rare, but, nevertheless, can lead to the withering of young leaves.

Manganese- participates in photosynthesis, carbohydrate, protein metabolism, activates enzymes. Its lack can often be confused with viral mosaic.

On the bushes of tomatoes we can face a simpletwisting of leaves.

But this has nothing to do with the illnesses of tomatoes, nor the lack of any nutrients. It's all about the big difference in night-day temperatures, and also that we have removed too much the number of stepsons and lower leaves too sharply. Most often it comes from the heat.

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Because of what yellow leaves of tomatoes

On tomatoes, the leaves began to turn yellow. But somehow strange, uneven. First from the middle, then the yellowness covered the entire leaf plate, and came across those that immediately yellied without transitions. Because of what is this happening?

If the leaves began to turn yellow from the middle, this is a signal to the fact that the plant needs top dressing with any potash fertilizer. You can apply, for example, ash. Take 1 glass of ash, dilute in 10 liters of water, pour immediately under the root on, l. Also yellowing of tomato leaves can occur due to the aging of leaves, they just need to be regularly removed from the bush.

Two photos below: the plants of the week look like two or three after planting in the open ground or a greenhouse, if in the soil in the root zone there is an increased concentration of salts.

Specific tomatoes were planted in the soil generously fertilized with cow dung, and it just contains many salts of sodium and potassium. Councils of experts: the soil should not be oversaturated with organic, and if this happens, you should water the plants more often in small doses to wash out excess salt from the soil. Over time, these patchy leaves will dry up, they will fall off, but new ones will grow without signs of oversaturation with salts.

This concludes, perhaps, our review of some of the troubles that we may face when growing tomatoes.
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Additions were made on 08/07/2017.

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