Cherry steppe is a hybrid that was obtained as a result of crossing the shrub and garden cherry. If you decide to plant this particular variety of berries on the site, you should first become familiar with the description, namelyto understand the peculiarities of this variety, in what conditions it grows best, what soil is most favorable for it. In addition, it is worth remembering a few important features of caring for this plant, but still about everything in order. First of all, it is necessary to find out what kind of species it is and what qualities it possesses..
Table of contents
- Description of the steppe bush cherry
- History of breeding
- Regions of growth
- Description of the appearance
- Characteristics of the tree
- Fruit quality
- Resistance to frost
- Advantages and disadvantages of the steppe cherry
- Features of planting and care
- Watering and fertilizing are the key to a good harvest
- Variety varieties: Ashinskaya, Bolotovskaya and others
- Diseases and pests
Description of the steppe bush cherry
History of breeding
The composition of the state international registryThis species was introduced in early 2002. This type of cherry belongs to successful hybrids between the shrubs of the shrub and common type.
The authors-scientists who worked on the derivation of this species areAnastasia Efimovna Pankratova, Kabir Kadirovich Mullayanov, Vladimir Ilyich Putyagin, I.G. Zamyatin.
Regions of growth
This cluster species of cherry is widespread in all regions of Russia and CIS countries.Steppe cherry grows in the areas:
- In the Urals region;
- In the Caucasus;
- In the Kuban;
- In the Volga region;
- In the Nizhny Novgorod region;
- In the Rostov region;
- In the Voronezh Region;
- In the Yaroslavl region.
Description of the appearance
Characteristics of the tree
The trees of the steppe cherry have the following characteristics:
- Varieties of this typehave slender trees, there is no connection of crowns;
- Height of treeis from, to, meters;
- BODY SIZEis approximately 20-45 centimeters;
- The crown is strong and thick. The shape of the crown is cylindrical and elongated;
- On kroons there islarge number of leaves;
- ShootsThey have oval, slightly rounded forms; there may be a small amount of fuzz on them;
- Coloring of shootsbrown-gray with silver color;
- Length of shootscan reach up to 30-45 cm;
- Lentils are of medium size, are located in small quantities;
- The kidney is bent, long enough, has average dimensions. Feel smooth, smooth;
- Foliageon trees has a dark, rich green tint;
- The shape of the leaves is round, slightly narrowed, oblong, has a slight upward bend;
- The sizelength on average can reach up to 8 cm, and the width - up to 4 cm.
Berry steppe cherry has a number of characteristics:
- Form of berriesOval with slightly rounded edges;
- Weight of ripe fruitsis from, gram to 5 grams;
- Ripe fruit coloringmaroon, inside the structure of the pulp has a vinous hue with a bright red juice;
- Peeled cherrybrilliant enough dense, but soft;
- Pedunclehas a retracted shape with a length of about 4 cm;
- Shape of the peduncleDirect, oblique, with a fine structure.
Inside the fruit there is a bone of round shape with a cream color.Size of bone thicknessis about, see.Bone lengthcan be about, cm, width cm.
The stone easily leaves the flesh of the berry, has a smooth surface, so when used, it does not cause cuts and damage in the mouth area. The average weight of the stone is about, 7 0 grams.
Kinds of cherries of steppe type are considered self-fertilizing. They have partial independent pollination. thereforeWhen planting varieties of steppe-type cherries, it is possible not to plant pollinators nearby, it will grow peacefully and produce crops without pollinators.
The duration of flowering is medium, fairly stretched in time. Flowering is usually observed on May 20-31.During this period, flowers appear on the trees, which have the following characteristics:
- Flowers are small in size, they are located on a short pedicel;
- In one inflorescence can be about 5-6 flowers;
- All the petals are spacious, at a decent distance from each other;
- The shape of the petals is oval with a wide forked upper part;
- Upper calyx enlarged with bell-shaped form, weakly serrate;
- Corolla is made in the form of oval-saucer-shaped;
- Stamens are located above the stigma of the pistil, their number can reach up to 26 pieces.
Cherry of the steppe type has a stable yield level. Trees give high yields every year.
Fruits have late maturation.Complete ripening of the berries occurs around August first. Berries ripen at the same time. With increased precipitation, the berry may crack.
The full fruiting begins on 4-5 year of a life after landing of saplings.One tree can bear fruit well for 35 years..
Resistance to frost
Trees of the steppe type cherry are well tolerated by severe frosts.Plants can safely tolerate freezing up to -48 degrees Celsius.
Fruiting kidneys in winter can withstand medium frosts, almost as well as trees up to -45-48 degrees Celsius. Inflorescences and buds have frost resistance just above average.
Advantages and disadvantages of the steppe cherry
The merits of steppe cherry include the following qualities:
- High yield. From one tree it is possible to collect almost 12 kilograms of ripe berries;
- Resistance to droughtand frost;
- Long lifetrees, almost 35 years;
- Big berrythe same size;
- High resistance todiseases;
- Reproductioncan occur in various ways;
- Ripe fruits haveexcellent taste qualities. In addition, they have a high level of useful components that are useful for the full functioning of the digestive system, as well as they improve the human hematopoiesis;
- Ripe berry can be used for cookingjuices, jams, jams, compotes, jam and other winter preparations.
However, there are also negative qualities:
- Late maturity, at the beginning of the last month of summer;
- Fruiting occurs only after 2-4 yearsafter planting seedlings;
- Soft structure of ripe fruitsoften damaged by precipitation and during transport.
Features of planting and care
To begin with, it is worth highlighting the main ways of reproduction of the steppe cherry:
- With the help of cuttings;
- At the expense of the tree;
- With the help of vaccination.
In the beginning of June it is necessary to prepare shoots. It is important that they are with a reddish tinge, with a slight hardening at the base.
The length of prepared shoots should be more than 30 cm. Circumcision should be done in the evening or early morning. The weather should be cool.After the stems are cut off they need to be placed in the water. In order to accelerate the process of origin of the root system, it is desirable to use special chemical growth regulators.
As a growth regulator, heteroauxin. 100 ml of this product are diluted with water and ethyl alcohol. Then you need to tie the cuttings and lower them into 1 liter of this solution. Cuttings should be kept in this mixture for 18 hours.
The planting process has certain nuances that should be strictly adhered to:
- It should bedig through the soilremove all weeds and unnecessary plants, form beds;
- All seizures should befill with peat and sand, the layer size should be about 10 cm;
- Furtheroverflowing river sand, all loose, leveled and tamped;
- After thatthe earth is watered abundantlyand fed superphosphate;
- Cuttings should be planted in a vertical position, the distance between trees should be at least 7 cm;
- Planted should benot more than 3 cm deep;
- After that, allseedlings are covered with a plastic bag;
- In the further period isensure good watering.
Watering and fertilizing are the key to a good harvest
During intensive growth, appropriate watering should be provided. It is held 2-3 times.For each watering for one tree it will take about 3-5 buckets. The first watering is done immediately after flowering, additional feeding is done, the second is performed immediately after the ovary, the third during the ripening of the berry.Before the beginning of floweringorganic and mineral fertilizers are introduced, then they are introduced already after flowering and at the time of the ovary of the fruit..
Variety varieties: Ashinskaya, Bolotovskaya and others
In order for the choice not to cause difficulties, all the same it is necessary to know what sorts belong to the steppe cherry.Below, we consider the most popular varieties:
- Generous. Has a high yield, from one tree can be removed to 11 kilograms. Flowering period from May 18-25. Fruiting begins with 3-4 years of life after disembarkation. It has high drought resistance and frost resistance. Life expectancy 32 years;
- Bolotovskaya. High-yielding late variety. Fruiting begins with 2-3 years of life after disembarkation. Life expectancy up to 30 years;
- Ashinskaya. High-yielding late variety. Fruiting begins with the beginning of August. Fruiting begins with 4-5 years of life after disembarkation. Life expectancy is 30-32 years;
- Maksimovskaya. High-yielding variety with late fruiting. The fruit ripens from the beginning of August. Fruit-bearing young trees begin only for 3-4 years after planting them. The average life expectancy of trees is about 30-35 years.
Diseases and pests
Grades of steppe type have increased resistance to the effects of various diseases and pests.Trees are practically not susceptible to a fungal variety of diseases - coccomicosis. And also other varieties of fungal lesions in the steppe cherry were not observed.
Steppe cherry has good qualities, for which many gardeners and gardeners appreciate it.It has good yields, is resistant to frost and is practically not susceptible to disease. And its crops are always pleasing every year and in large numbers. But still, in order to obtain the desired result, it is necessary to take care of the varieties of this plant - watering, fertilizing, carrying out autumn and spring digging of the earth near the stem. Only this way you can grow a cherry, the yields of which will please every year..