Performance of any types of electrical installation activities carried out in accordance with the project work. It contains instructions on the placement of equipment and electrical elements at the facility.
The symbol of sockets and switches in the drawings has a single standard. This eliminates confusion and clearly demonstrates any nuances of installation work.
The content of the article:
- Regulatory documents
- Main types of sockets
- Equipment protection degree
- Conventionally graphic designation
Main types of household switches
- Product Classification Principles
- Ways of switching and installation
- Contact closure options
- Number of poles of switches
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
So that a specialist of any category could navigate the project, SNiPs and GOSTs were developed, which Regulate including the designation of various types of sockets and switches on the drawings and electrical schemes. One of them is GOST 21.210-2014.
Everything types of devices
Conventionally, the graphic designation of a single-button switch with an open installation on the concept and electrification plan has a significant difference
However, the presentation of electrical wiring is made in different types of documentation and has some differences. For example, the type of outlet and switch on the construction drawing and wiring diagram has a significant difference, since these documents have different purposes.
Main types of sockets
An electrical outlet (power outlet) is a device that allows you to quickly turn on and disconnect from the network of various devices.
Its main elements are:
- contacts - provide electrical connection and plugs;
- block - ceramic housing for contacts and fasteners installation box (podzetnika);
- body - performs a decorative and protective role.
In the general sense of the word, the product can perform other functions. For example, to connect and disconnect telephone communication, radio, Internet and even water supply in sanitary devices. Consequently, there are many constructive and functional varieties of this type of connection.
The main types of outlets used in everyday life vary:
- depending on the method of installation, there is a waybill and built-in;
- by the number of nests - single or a block of two, three or more;
- by the number of connections - with and without grounding contact;
- to destination - antenna, for phone and the Internet, for household appliances, for powerful equipment.
Simple and versatile to install is surface-mounted device. It does not require making deep holes in the wall, which is convenient for temporary placement or in industrial premises. The body together with the block is attached to the desired surface and is connected to an open electrical wiring.
Since the installation is not carried out in the installation box, the usual dowel-nails will fit for a secure fastening on the plane
The built-in installation option has a more aesthetic appearance, since the main part of the product is immersed in the wall, and only the protective case remains outside. Thus, nothing interferes with the perception of the interior space.
Posting in this case, too, rather hidden. For this type of fixing, a cylindrical hole is cut into the wall into which the installation box is mounted. It securely and securely fix the wall outlet.
According to the rules it is recommended to install the device with a grounding contact at a distance of at least 500 mm from the gas pipeline
The option with two sockets is designed to connect two plugs to the network at once. When flush-mounted, the pad fits on one side.
To increase their number (more than two), you will have to make an additional hole in the wall and combine the body with one frame, if a hidden installation is supposed. If the model is a consignment note, then modular pads are added.
The European standard provides for the installation of electric points at a height of 30 cm from the floor. This allows you to quickly find it in the dark to the touch and comfortable to use a person of average height.
Modern view of the outlet - with grounding contact. It is used in networks with a grounding wire, which are safer than networks of the "phase, zero" type.
Additional terminals are attached to this wire. They are primarily in contact with the plug plug, which eliminates the defeat of dangerous voltage and current of faulty household appliances. It also protects equipment from network interference and electromagnetic interference from other devices.
Antenna has no voltage. It serves to connect the TV with the antenna cable. The external difference is only the type of inlet in the housing.
It makes sense to place the socket strip behind the TV, if its installation location is predetermined, in order not to overload the space with cables
A computer socket is used for connecting to the Internet and local networks. You can also connect a telephone cable to it.
Internet and telephone cable connectors are identical in shape - RJ45 and RJ11 / 12, respectively. The first uses 8 pins, and the second 4 or 6. But to connect to the Internet through a telephone jack will have to use a modem that uses a dial-up connection.
Internet cable manufacturers do not recommend spinning a twisted pair cable of more than 13 mm when connecting to avoid internet connection problems.
Such devices can be made in a compact case or have the appearance of the usual 220 V. To connect a phone with a connector of the old model will have to install a wall outlet with the appropriate input.
Equipment protection degree
Sockets, like any electrical equipment, have a different level of protection against contact of live parts with solid particles and water. This ensures safe use by humans under various conditions.
For marking the degree of protection, a combination of two letters (IP) and two numbers is used. IP - International Protection, which translates from English as "international protection". And the numbers characterize its level.
For example, the degree of protection IP20 according to GOST 14254-2015 can be decoded as follows:
- the first digit 2 - the current-carrying parts of the product are inaccessible to objects 12.5 mm thick or to fingers;
- the second digit is 0 - water can get inside the device.
The degree of protection IP23 means that the fingers do not get inside, and the safe drop angle on the case is 60 degrees.
Conventionally graphic designation
GOST 21.210-2014 unifies the image of electrical elements on the diagrams. Makes them universal throughout Russia.
The designations of the sockets presented in this document can be divided into several signs:
- open installation;
- hidden installation;
An open network connection does not imply hiding the pads in the plane of the wall. There are varieties with two and three poles, with protective contact, as well as dual or single. Usually surface placement is used in rooms with open wiring.
The degree of protection of such devices ranges from IP 20 to IP 23. They are exposed to moisture and small objects penetrate the inside of the case.
A concealed connection differs from the previous one with a socket strip immersed in a wall or other surface. It connects to the hidden wiring contacts.
According to the degree of protection, open and hidden items do not differ among themselves. And placing inside the wall does not make them more dangerous.
The only difference in the graphic image of hidden rosettes from the open is a vertical line inside the semicircle, perpendicular to the bottom plane
Devices with waterproof housing are usually installed in places of high humidity. This may be a bathroom, a kitchen or places that are poorly protected from moisture outside the building.
The degree of protection ranges from IP44 to IP55. In the first case, this means that objects with a thickness of more than 1 mm will not fall inside, and protection against moisture is a resistance to rain. In the second - protection from dust and safe work under weak jets of water.
The plastic flip cover of the protective case protects not only from moisture, but also from dust and fine abrasive
Separately, it should be said about the classification by the number of poles. They can be from two to four. In Russia, bipolar sockets with protective contact are mainly used.
All household appliances are powered by this type. Multipole, namely with three poles, power industrial equipment: machines, pumps, electric furnaces. They are used in three-phase networks.
Disconnect the plug should be a smooth movement, holding the protective case, so as not to break the mount to the wall. This may cause electric shock.
Main types of household switches
Developing a plan of electrification of the room, it is necessary to accurately determine the type of switches. The market presents a mass of such products of various shapes, purposes and devices.
Product Classification Principles
Structurally, the switch has similarities with the outlet. Their components are similar: contacts, shoe and protective cover. But if the socket is used to connect to the electrical network, the switch is designed to open this connection by manually acting on the change-over contact.
He opens the only (phase) wire, calling on him, unlike the outlet. And also closes by pressing the button again. Like sockets, switches have several levels of protection: from IP20 to IP23 and from IP44 to IP55.
On the plan, the designation of the switch is depicted as a slash with a circle at the base and a hook on the opposite side. The number of hooks means the number of keys
To clarify the choice of suitable options, it is enough to systematize them according to several principles.
For example, there is a classification by the following features:
- switching method;
- type of installation;
- on the type of off and on.
In addition, they can be divided according to the principle of operation: one-, two-, three-pole and switches in two directions without a zero position.
The image of elements on the plan is made with the help of the simplest geometrical figures, having insignificant and hardly noticeable at first glance differences
All versions of the legend, expressed in letter and graphic form, given here. We advise you to get acquainted with useful information.
Ways of switching and installation
The variant of connecting the switches with the current-carrying wire can be screw and screwless. In the first case, the contact is provided by pressing the wire to the switch plates with a screw. About the time such a connection may weaken, which leads to heating of the element. Periodically, it must be tightened until tight.
In the second case, the phase wire is fastened with self-clamping terminals. This makes the connection much easier and faster. The connection quality in the terminal is more reliable and does not require further disassembly of the switch to enhance the contact.
Depending on the placement of the wiring, the switches can be embedded in the wall or overhead. In residential or office premises with concealed wiring for the sake of appearance, switches are mounted in the wall. If the wiring is open, when there are no stylistic requirements for the interior of the room, switching devices are attached openly to the surface of the wall.
The European standard prescribes the installation of switches at a distance of about 10 cm from the door and 90 cm from the floor
Contact closure options
The most common type of domestic switch - keyboard. The principle of its operation is based on opening and closing the contact by switching the key on which the frame is fixed. In the on state, it touches a static contact and closes an electrical circuit. Under the wiring diagram, they are of flip and cross type.
Pushbutton switches work in the same way as keyboards. In everyday life, they are most often used in table lamps and floor sconces. The button can be locked when turned on or short circuit only when it is held.
Switches of this type can be with one button or two. With one or more light control modes
In wall sconces or in technical rooms, where the allowable height of electrical equipment does not allow to reach with hand, products with a cord are used. On the device, they are basically similar to the button.
Rope switches give interesting tactile sensations when turning on the light. They are much easier to find in the dark to the touch
Rotary types of switches, as a rule, open mounting. They began to use more than a hundred years ago, and they worked only in the on / off position and had a very exotic look.
Even today, these devices work in old buildings and museum houses. And recently received a second wind and are used in the design of interiors, stylized retro or steampunk, finding a wider functionality.
It fits perfectly with interiors stylized as the eighteenth and nineteenth century, in addition, can serve as a dimmer light
The opposite of the turntable has become a touch switch. This new trend of technology has not only received a futuristic design and a fundamentally new way to control, but also increased the reliability and safety of use.
After all, these semiconductor devices do not have a switching mechanism - electronics is responsible for everything. They are actively used in the management of the "smart home" system. Devices work both on pressing, and on its intensity, on approach of a palm and even on a voice.
Touch switches equipped with a remote control allow you to control several lighting groups at once and be equipped with a variety of additional functions.
Motion sensors in them eliminate the discomfort of entering a dark room, including the light automatically, and the temperature sensor allows you to synchronize the switch with the fireplace. The latest models are able to respond to gestures and smoothly change the brightness of the lighting.
Number of poles of switches
According to GOST R 52565-2006, the pole is an element of the switching apparatus, which is connected to only one independent part of the circuit. In simple words, the pole closes only one line, for example, a light bulb.
There is some confusion about the poles of the switches and their purpose. To understand it, you first need to separate the concepts of automatic and ordinary lighting switch in the room.
Automatic switches are equipped with one / four poles when the three phases and the neutral wire close. Such switches are placed in the power panels of the room to protect against overloads and short circuits.
If we talk about light switches, the number of poles means how many lines can be switched on separately from each other. For example, several groups of lighting in a room can be turned on with one three-key switch. For the same purpose, you can install three single-pole devices, which is less convenient.
Three-key products control the combination lighting, groups of light bulbs in a multi-level chandelier, and also serve to enable individual household appliances.
A two-way switch is used when designing complex circuits for controlling light from several places.
These devices may be in zero (neutral) position. This is convenient, for example, when lighting long corridors or staircases, when turning on the light at the beginning, you can turn it off at the end.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Overview of electrical components on the example of the floor plan:
When installing electrical equipment, masters of any level and direction should not have any misunderstandings with the designer who developed the power supply plan. Therefore, with all the variety of electrical products and methods of its application, symbols on the construction drawings and diagrams should have one common form and standard.
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