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When spring comes to the earth, the slopes and meadows are dressed in a green outfit. Wherever you look, everywhere we are surrounded by plants, among which the host lurks. This unpretentious beauty is able to grow rapidly, covering the earth with a magnificent carpet.
It was first discovered in the countries of the Far East. Its name was awarded to the honor of the Australian scientist N. Hosta. Also sometimes it is called the old way - funk, by the name of the German biologist G.Kh. The funk.
When the host appeared on the British Isles in the 18th century, only a few appreciated its beauty. But, having moved to America, gained real popularity. Over time, the plant spread throughout the planet. In some eastern countries, the flower of the funk is considered sacred. And the leaves are taken for food.
Hosta loves moisture, so it grows on the riverside and near small streams. It can be found on mountain slopes and forest glades.
General description of the plant
Hosta belongs to the family "Asparagus" and is a perennial ornamental plant. Its main ornament is the leaves.
Depending on the variety, they differ:
- Dimensions. Small, length from 5 cm. The average is 15 cm. Large - up to 40 cm.
- Form. Narrow versions with pointed edges, long-petioled, cordate and rounded. Grow from the root.
- The different surface of the plate. The leaves are smooth or textured with bright veins. Some of them are glossy and with a metallic tint. Original matt options look original. In addition, wrinkled, wrinkled or waxen specimens are found.
- Color. In nature there are hosts with leaves of all shades of green or blue. There are species in which white or cream leaves.
- Painted pattern. Especially impressive plants with a painted leaf plate and with an original frame.Intricate strokes, stripes or spots are the highlight of this plant.
Due to the rapid growth, the host is often used as a ground cover ornamental plant. In a short time, it can occupy an area of 1 m², so it is used for garden design.
The flower reaches a height of 50 cm to 80 cm. However, new giant varieties have already been removed - up to 2 meters. As well as dwarf species - a height of 5 cm.
Charming bell-bellied or funnel-shaped flowers the hosts stately rise above the plant.
They are located on stable peduncles in the center of the leaf outlet. Inflorescences are collected in one-sided brushes, which blossom in mid-summer. Some of them are terry, others are simple. By color there are:
After flowering, shoots appear on the shoots. They are a trihedral trunk, in which a lot of seeds are stored. Similarity persists to 1 year.
Decorative plant - the host is considered unpretentious, because it perfectly tolerates cold and drought. In addition, it perfectly suits in the shade. Can stay on one site for up to 20 years, without losing its pristine beauty.
In landscape design, the host is often used as the main background for garden flowers or low shrubs.
A unique variety of lush beauty
In the natural environment, there are more than fifty different types of hosts. They are taken as a basis for many decorative varieties bred by breeders. Some of them amaze with their grace and beauty.
A low plant, growing to 30 cm, differs oblong ovate leaves. Their length reaches 20 cm, width - 13. The edges are wavy. In the center, the leaf plate is painted white or interspersed with green.
Inflorescence of light-violet color grow up to 80 cm above the leaf socket. They resemble a lily that gives it elegance. In nature, the host grows in forests, where there is a fertile soil.
This sort of flower grows over half a meter. Its original leaves resemble a heart. On the edges they are cast in gold, and in the center - in green. Under a certain light, a blue tint appears.
Flowering hosts occur in August. Tsvetonos rises above the foliage to a height of 50 cm.
Sometimes such a variety is called a narrow-leaved beauty. The perennial grows up to 40 cm. Leaves are usually lanceolate. The edges are pointed. In the sun shine. Color is dark green.
Violet buds rise above the bush by half a meter. It begins to bloom in August, the last inflorescence throws out in the middle of autumn.
Variety of Zybold
Low shrubs height of 30 cm, often pleasing to the eye in the suburban areas. Originality of the species is that its leaves are dense and wrinkled. Their color is pale green, but the top plate is covered with a wax coating.
Peduncles ascend above the bush to a height of 50 cm. Buds are pale violet. Blossom from June to September.
Dwarf plant, which grows only up to 30 cm. The plate is wide, but thin. The form is lanceolate. Color - dark green with a white frame.
Inflorescences rise above the plant to a height of 30 cm. Buds are lilac, white or lilac. It starts to bloom in July. The last flowers in late August.
This type of hosts reaches up to 50 cm in height. It is distinguished by large round leaves of bright green color.
Huge buds are almost always white. They give a pleasant, persistent fragrance. Begins to bloom in July, pumping at the end of summer. Thermophilic variety.
The plant grows to 70 cm in height. The leaves have wavy edges. Color two-color. Green center, and the edges are painted with a white wide line.
Bloom in the middle of summer. Inflorescences rise above the bush to 50 cm. Color buds - light shades of purple.
Low shrubs up to 45 cm look original in the garden. The diameter of the plant is 55 cm. The leaves are characterized by a sharp tip, about 15 cm long and 8 in width. The color is richly green, along the edge is painted with a white border.
On tall peduncles (about half a meter) buds are blossomed, lavender color. Blossoms mostly in the summer.
This garden giant has large heart-shaped leaves. Their length reaches 25 cm, and width - 20. The tips of the plate are pointed. Color - rich green.
From the center of the leaf outlet rose up a 1 meter slender flower spike. At its top are delicate purple buds.
All sorts of hosts are classified according to the color of the leaves and the size of the bushes. They come in color: green, blue, yellow and bicolour. In size: miniature, dwarfish, small, medium, large and giants.
Cultivation of a charming plant
To grow the "Queen of Shadows" in the country section will have to make a lot of effort. One way to plant the hosts is to sow seeds. Since the similarity of plant seeds is only 80%, the matter should be approached seriously. Despite this, almost all sorts of hosts really grow from seeds. It is important to stock up in time the planting material.
Seeds are harvested in late August or early autumn. During this period, the boxes acquire a brown color and open. If you miss the moment, the seeds will scatter and you can stay with nothing.
Even before sowing seeds, they must be carefully dried, so that they completely lose moisture. Until the landing, the seeds are stored at a temperature of at least 2 degrees in a dry room.
To land the hosts and care for it were not in vain, it is important to adhere to the basic rules.
First of all, the sterilization of soil and landing tanks is carried out. This makes it possible to destroy various harmful microorganisms and fungi. The prepared soil is watered with potassium permanganate dissolved in water. Then, the mass is kept in a water bath for 30 minutes. After the procedure, cool the soil.
A steam bath can be built by taking a large pot. Pour liquid in it to half, and top to attach a sieve with soil. Bring water to an active boil and keep this temperature for 30 minutes. It is advisable to cover the sieve.
Planting tanks, as well as tools necessary for work, it is enough to wipe with alcohol.
To get a good harvest of hosts from the seeds, planting raw materials should be treated with growth stimulants. Then proceed to landing:
- We compact the prepared soil using a wooden wide bar.
- We are sowing planting material, shallowly embedding it in the soil. Approximately to a depth of 7 mm.
- Sprinkle the surface with agroperlite (crushed volcanic rock) and re-seal with a wooden strip.
- The containers are taken to a room where the temperature is not lower than 20 degrees.
The first shoots appear after 14 days. When there are already visible leaflets, it is important to know how to put hosts in separate containers.
First, you need to prepare a more nutritious composition of the soil, which is topped with sand. Then, in each pot, one seedling is stuck, covering it with a film or glass. To apply moisture, the lower watering is applied. The containers are placed in a deep saucer with a liquid so that the soil is soaked under the top.
On how to care for the host during this period depends on whether the plant will take root outdoors or not. Therefore, the plant is important to gradually temper.
When the seedlings grow up a little, the film or glass needs to be removed for 2 to 3 hours a day. After 10 days it is cleaned completely, and the plant is taken out into the street.
When the hosts are gradually staked, the initial temperature should not be lower than 18 degrees.
Growing a green queen of a garden from seeds, it is necessary to remember that the plant slowly grows and develops. Also, it loses the main characteristics of the variety. In this case, patience and correct attitude to the young plant will help.
Landing hosts in the suburban area and care
To the host in the garden became a real decoration, it is necessary to create ideal conditions for it. The most optimal option is a semi-sunless windless place. Some varieties love a lot of light, so you should consider this fact. For example, if the leaves are a lot of white or yellow - the plant loves light. Variegated variants prefer the sun only in the mornings and evenings.
Given these points, it is wise to choose a permanent place for a shade-loving beauty. Represented in the photo flowers hosts, planting and care for them is done correctly - this is a beautiful business card of the garden site.
A wise florist understands that the plant wants to rest from the summer heat in the shade. Therefore, planting tall trees or shrubs nearby. Of course, one should not go to extremes. If there is not much light, the host will become ill and lose its attractiveness.
When the place is selected and the soil is ready, holes of medium depth are made.
To plant well established on the open ground, 2 or 3 hours before planting the seedlings are flooded with water.
At a distance of 30-60 cm from each other, the bushes of low-growing varieties of hosts are arranged. For giants, the distance is up to 1 m.
Spreading the seedlings in the pits, you need to carefully spread the roots, so as not to damage them. It is important to keep a little substrate on the pot.
Then the plant is covered with earth. It is important to remember: the host must be 2 cm below the ground level in the pit. Planted plant after irrigation mulched with crushed bark.
It is desirable to perform the work in mid-July, so that the hosts take root and successfully endure the cold times.
Host shown and care of the plant does not require much effort. To raise "the queen of shadows" can be afforded by people who do not particularly like to engage in land works. And for those who do not have time for this - the host is a real find. When a plant grows, it needs minimal maintenance. And with young seedlings will have to work a little.
Just planted shrubs should be watered twice a day - in the morning and in the late evening. To direct a stream of water it is necessary under a root as leaves from a moisture can blacken. The water pressure should not be strong, so that the soil under the plant does not condense. If the tips of the leaf plate have darkened, then the plant lacks moisture. This feature is an indicator of the frequency of irrigation.
To save the root system of young seedlings and moisture near them, around the plant a little peat is poured. Periodically, the flower can be fertilized. It is better to do this in the early spring or after the last flowering.
When the flower grows on a mineral-rich soil, it can be fed once every 3 years. For this, it is better to use humus. Apply fertilizer in late autumn as an element of mulching. Mineral top dressing is sprinkled after a good shower or thorough watering.
Fertilizers in liquid form are used only until the middle of the summer period. If you make them longer, the flower will actively grow fresh leaves. As a result, he will not have time to switch to preparation for the cold period.
To make perennial bushes look attractive, experienced gardeners remove young peduncles and missing leaves. In this form, the flower looks well-groomed and decorates the cottage area. The matured plant tightly closes the soil around itself, so it does not need regular weeding from weeds.
Diseases and pests of charming hosts
If the "queen of shadows" suffered from spring frost, it is affected by fungus. The disease manifests itself in dark-yellow spots on the leaf plate.
Pests sometimes suffer from pests. In this case, such specimens should be excavated from the garden to protect healthy flowers. The soil must be disinfected.
Host pests are slugs. If there are huge holes on the magnificent leaves, then uninvited guests are already here like here. To get rid of them, you can invite them to a beer. Next to the flower, small containers with beer are placed. In a day the "guests" will gather at their wake. Will only collect annoying parasites.
No less dangerous for the flower are caterpillars, which in a short time can destroy all the leaves. In addition, the plant is affected by grasshoppers or beetles. After their invasion, the flower resembles a battered warrior returning from the battlefield. It is possible to fight them only with the help of insecticides.
When the plant is provided with competent care and protection from pests, it will long please its owners. And the garden will turn into a favorite place of enjoyment.