For lighting arrangement, there are different types of lamps. In addition to traditional incandescent devices, other types of light bulbs, such as LED, fluorescent, and halogen, have become common.
In the article we will consider the most popular light sources by users, noting the features of their device, advantages and disadvantages.
The content of the article:
- Traditional incandescent bulbs (LON)
- Variety of halogen light sources
- Fluorescent lamps (CFL and LL)
- LED lamps (LED)
- Rules for choosing the best lighting lamp
- The optimal choice for different rooms
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Traditional incandescent bulbs (LON)
The device of this type consists of a base, where the contacts are located, the fuse, the element of incandescence and the glass bottle.
The helix is usually made of an alloy with tungsten, which is capable of withstanding a high burning temperature of +3200 ° C for a long time. To prolong burnout time, the balloon is filled with argon or another inert gas; in some devices, on the contrary, create a vacuum.
For the operation of the lamp, an electric current is passed through a conductor having a small cross section and a low degree of conductivity. Energy heats the spiral, which emits light waves.
Different types of lamps are used to illuminate the premises, the choice of which depends on the purpose of the light source, the required brightness and other criteria.
There is a huge variety of general-purpose light bulbs or abbreviated LON: regular size or miniature for local lighting.
By type of execution the flask can be:
- frosted glass;
Modifications of LON can have flasks not only with colorless, but also with multi-colored transparent glass. As a rule, they are used for decorative purposes.
Demand is made of models with frosted glass cylinders, giving a soft uniform light, which is particularly appropriate for lighting bedrooms and children's rooms.
The most advanced models of this type are krypton, bi-spiral lamps, which have enhanced characteristics. However, they are inferior in quality to other categories of lighting devices.
In mirror devices, part of the balloon is covered with a special compound that reflects light, directing it in a narrow stream.
Such devices are often inserted into the ceiling fixtures, since they allow the light to be cast only downwards, without illuminating or heating the upper surface.
Light bulbs operating on voltage of 12, 24, 36 V, require minimal electricity consumption, but give a very dim weak light. They are used in flashlights or for emergency lighting.
Technical characteristics of LON:
- light output - 9-19 Lm / W;
- power - 25-150 watts;
- the period of operation is on average one thousand hours at a voltage of 220 V;
- Efficiency - less than 30%.
The advantages include low price, simple and affordable installation for everyone, pleasant yellowish light lighting.
The disadvantages of incandescent devices are much more: they are brittle, quickly burn out when voltage drops, in addition, they have a very hot surface, which can cause a fire.
There is an article on our website in which we talked in detail about the types of incandescent lamps, their marking, and also outlined the main criteria for their selection. Read more - go to reference.
Variety of halogen light sources
This type of device with a base has a design similar to incandescent lamps, but instead of an inert gas, the flask is filled with iodine, bromine or other halogen compounds. This allows you to reduce evaporation of the heating element, as well as to increase its temperature.
Halogen products emit an intense stream of light rays that are pleasing to the eye color. They are often used to highlight and highlight individual parts of the interior.
In addition to the basement lamps, other variants are widespread, for example, linear halogens, which have the shape of a tube. Shock-resistant models with intense light are used for streetlights.
Popular capsular low-voltage devices having a miniature size. They are often used for chandeliers or suspended ceilings, but the connection to the network must be made through a special transformer.
Another type of reflective devices are those in which a special reflector is used - most often an aluminum disc. It allows you to adjust the angle of incidence of the light beam, directing it to the desired area of the room.
Such devices are used to install ceiling lights, because they allow to exclude the heating of the upper surface.
Technical characteristics of halogenok:
- power - 1-20 W;
- color rendering index - 100%;
- bulb heating - 500 ° C;
- light output - 15-22 lm / W;
- works in the range from -60 to +100 ° C;
- service life - 2000-4000, when using a transformer up to 8000 hours;
- Efficiency - 50-80%.
Among the advantages of this category of devices is a rather long service life, as well as the possibility of making miniature models that give bright light.
They have excellent color reproduction, and modern technology can give a radiant glow of both warm and cool hue.
Halogen devices can be high and low voltage. In the first case, they are powered directly from the network, in the second - they should be connected through a transformer
The disadvantages include the strong heating of the surface of the flask, because of which it is made of heat-resistant silica glass. But in this case it is not recommended to allow their contact with the ceiling or walls of the lamp.
Galogenki are very sensitive to pollution - by touching them with your bare hands you can provoke a burnout or even the disintegration of a light bulb. They also do not tolerate voltage surges in the power grid.
And how to choose a good halogen lamp, read in this material.
Fluorescent lamps (CFL and LL)
The devices consist of a flask, the inner surface of which is coated with phosphor. The tank, where the electrodes are located, is filled with a mixture of mercury vapor with an inert gas.
For start-up, a special block is used - electronic or mechanical ballast. When turned on, a charge is sent inside the bulb, which causes the formation of ultraviolet waves, under the influence of which the phosphor begins to glow uniformly.
Fluorescent lamps can emit light in different shades. For its designation are used a variety of markings. As an example, we can call LTP - a warm lamp, LHB - cold, LU - natural light
Models are divided into two types:
- linear devices (LL) - bulky tubes, at the ends of which there are two pins;
- compact lamps (CFLs), having the form of a twisted spiral, in which the starting block is hidden in the base.
Marking of G designates devices with a pin design, and the letter E - a carving cartridge.
Technical characteristics of CFL:
- light output - 40-80 Lm / W;
- power - 15-80 watts;
- period of service - 10000-40000 hours.
An important advantage of luminescents is the low operating temperature. Even with the included product, you can safely touch with your bare hand, so that it is safe to install it at any surface.
At the same time, such devices have a lot of negative aspects. First of all, they are not environmentally friendly - mercury vapors inside are poisonous.
Although in a closed flask they do not have a detrimental effect on a person, broken or burnt out light bulbs can be dangerous. Because of this, they need a disposal procedure: they have to hand over the waste products to recycling points, which are not always easy to find.
Luminescent devices consume significantly less amount of electricity than incandescent lamps, they have a long service life and good light output
Other disadvantages include:
- Unstable operation at low temperatures. At -10 ° C, even powerful devices shine extremely dim.
- When you turn on the lamp does not light up immediately, but after a few seconds or minutes.
- Their cost is quite high.
- Work may be accompanied by a low-frequency rumble.
- Such models are difficult compatible with dimmers, which makes it difficult to adjust the intensity of light. It is also undesirable to use them with switches that have backlight indicators.
- Although the service life is quite long, it is significantly reduced with frequent switching on and off.
In addition, the luminous flux emitted by these devices, pulsates strongly, which tires the eyes.
For more information about the device fluorescent lamps, their advantages and disadvantages can be found. here.
LED lamps (LED)
The basis of the design of the bulbs on the diodes laid semiconductor crystals, which as a result of the pn junction emit light rays.
As a rule, at least five diodes are involved in them, which are connected to the installation board. The operation takes place with the help of a driver that converts alternating current into direct current.
Lamps practically do not heat up during operation, since special parts such as radiators are provided for heat removal. Depending on the modification, the devices are equipped with screw or pin basement.
With the help of LED elements, you can create attractive compositions on suspended / suspended ceilings. The decoration made of lamps of different colors looks especially impressive.
The varieties of LEDs include filament devices. Outwardly, they resemble ordinary incandescent bulbs, but instead of a helix, semiconductor elements are mounted on them, strung on a rod that is placed in a flask with an inert gas.
So that such a device could be screwed into a cartridge, it is supplemented with a traditional rifled base. Such models allow you to combine retro design with higher technical characteristics, such as energy efficiency, durability, environmental friendliness.
Standalone LED lamps, powered by solar panels, are also gaining popularity. They are recharged during daylight and automatically turn on when it gets dark. Such models can operate in a wide temperature range from -30 to +50 ° C.
Technical characteristics of LED lamps:
- power - 3-30 W;
- service life - 30000-50000 hours;
- light output - 100-120 Lm / W;
- the flow of light - 250-2500 lm.
LEDs can dramatically reduce the cost of lighting up to 85%, when they work there is no heat, ultraviolet and infrared radiation.
Since no harmful substances are used in their manufacture, they are considered environmentally friendly and do not require special disposal.
The filament lamps look great in lamps decorated in retro style; they can be used for classic interior design or for other purposes.
Unlike fluorescent lamps, these devices light up instantly, in addition, most models are dimmable, which allows you to set the desired level of light intensity flow.
Among the shortcomings, an extremely high price can be noted, in addition, with conventional luminaires a directional stream of light; This disadvantage is devoid of filament devices. For the lighting of the room usually requires several sources.
We also recommend reading the article in which we described in detail the main characteristics of LED lamps - color temperature and power. Read more - read Further.
Rules for choosing the best lighting lamp
Selecting models for the organization of lighting in residential areas should take into account not only the type to which the lamp belongs, but also a number of other factors, namely:
- basement device;
- color rendering index;
- light output;
- light stability coefficient;
- Operating conditions.
The devices intended to be connected with the chuck have a common detail - the base with which the fastener with wires is made. In order for the lamp to be installed in the socket, it is important to pay attention to the labeling of this element.
Among the threaded connections, three types are the most demanded: “minion” E14, medium in size Е27 and large E40. The most widespread is the second option, while the latter is usually used for street lighting.
The summary table shows the main performance characteristics of the four most popular types of lamps used for domestic purposes.
In miniature fluorescent and halogen lamps, G bases are often found, which are attached to the sockets with 2-4 pins. There are many variants of similar devices of different sizes, of which the most demanded G4 modifications, G9, G23, 2G10, 2G11.
An important criterion is the lamp power; This indicator is indicated on the cylinder or base. If you take the same type of devices, the intensity of light depends on this value.
However, this rule does not work if we take devices of different types: the brightness of a 5-6 W LED is almost equal to the glow of a 60-watt incandescent lamp.
Light output indicates the amount of lumens of light that a lamp with a power of 1 watt produces.
This factor is closely related to the energy efficiency of the device: the luminescent device produces 600 lm at a power of 10-11 watts, whereas for a similar stream of light the appliance will need about 60 W.
The effect is also provided by the design of the lamp and the lamp. Often, models of modern chandeliers or wall lamps are specially made for a certain type of devices, for example, halogen ones. In this case, in the instructions, the manufacturer usually indicates the characteristics of the required lamps.
To connect some types of lamps, you need to use additional equipment: power supplies, drivers, transformers. The illustration shows the electronic ballast required for fluorescent lamps.
Some types of devices also demonstrate increased sensitivity to voltage fluctuations, which must be considered when living in regions where there are problems with electrical grids.
There is also a difference caused by color temperature.
There are several standards for the most common labeling:
- 2700 K means warm shade, similar to incandescent bulbs;
- 4000 K - daylight neutral tone;
- 6500 K is a cold option.
R color rendition indexa displays the correct perception of the color of the environment when illuminated by this type of lamp. As a rule, this indicator is indicated on the package, for example, 80 Ra have LEDs.
Light stability coefficient This factor manifests itself during the entire period of operation of the device, during which the brightness should decrease by no more than 30% of the nominal one.
Such an indicator is of particular relevance for LEDs that do not burn out, but gradually lose their illumination intensity.
So if at the beginning such a device emits 1000 lumens of light, then at the end of its service life this figure should be at least 70% of the original, that is, 700 Lm.
The optimal choice for different rooms
Specialists engaged in interior design, advised to use for suspended or suspended ceilings compact LEDs or low-voltage miniature halogens.
It is also important to note that the lamp power must correspond to the same indicator of the lamp or be lower. Violation of this rule can lead to serious consequences.
Almost all types of lighting fixtures can be used in chandeliers and other hanging structures. If the lamps are made of fusible materials, it is better to use LED or luminescent sources.
The best option for wall lamps are small halogens, fluorescent models or traditional incandescent bulbs. Often in such devices apply decorative modifications with flasks in the form of drops, flames, balls.
Small LED bulbs or compact halogen, powered by a transformer are suitable for lighting.
In living rooms, a combination of several lighting fixtures is usually used. A ceiling or pendant chandelier is complemented by a sconce, a floor lamp, a decorative table lamp, as well as built-in lights.
It is desirable to equip the main device dimmerthat will allow you to dim its intensity.
The table summarizes the level of illumination required by SNiP 23-05-2010. Indicators are given in lumens.
In outdoor lighting, linear halogen devices are preferably used. Lighting the yard or the site is also possible with the use of LEDs, including those working on solar panels, or high-power incandescent lamps.
In the basement and cellar, where there is usually an increased level of humidity, it is necessary to use lamps with waterproofing and a fully closed cartridge.
In order to prevent short circuits, it is desirable to use a step-down transformer. In this case, one or two 12-volt LED sources are best suited as a lighting device.
Similar requirements are imposed on lighting devices in bathrooms. As a rule, halogen / LED models as well as incandescent lamps are used to illuminate the space.
For the equipment of the student’s workplace, a flexible table lamp is usually used to change the direction of the light beam. As a rule, a traditional 60 volt incandescent device with a transparent or matte bulb is inserted into it.
With a lack of light, it is also desirable to add lighting with built-in halogen lamps.
Special attention should be paid to the choice of light source for greenhouses. As shown by research scientists, red and blue spectral regions are particularly useful for plants. The first has a powerful influence in the period of flowering and the ovary of vegetables, the second - contributes to their active growth and development.
It is easiest to reproduce this light gamut with the help of special LED lights. They can be made independently or purchased at the store.
A table that allows you to easily calculate the required power of different types of lamps. With it, you can easily create the level of illumination required by the current SNiP
Choosing a model, you should pay attention to the shade of the emitted rays. As a rule, this factor depends on user preferences.
Nevertheless, designers recommend choosing a “cozy” warm light for a living room or bedroom, while a coolish light for an office or office space.
Determining the power of the lamp, you need to consider not only the area of the room for which it is intended, but also the degree natural light levels: in dark areas with windows facing north, stronger ones are installed appliances.
It influences the choice and color of the interior: for rooms with dark walls, more powerful lamps are needed.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
The video presented in detail describes the main characteristics of various types of light sources:
Continuation of the story, where we are talking about the versions of the lamp socket and the features of their use:
Despite the fact that light bulbs are elementary devices, their role in creating a comfortable and cozy living environment is difficult to overestimate. Properly selected device will create a comfortable lighting that is an integral part of the comfort in the house.
The lamp will stably serve for a long time, perfectly complementing a chandelier or another lamp. In addition, the energy-saving device will reduce the amount of utility bills, thanks to energy savings.
Do you have any questions regarding the article? Or can you add material with interesting information about light sources? Please leave your comments, share experiences, ask questions in the box below.