Nowadays, the linear LED lamps, which are popular now, were able to confidently press the fluorescent lamps that are gradually receding into the past. The release of the diode is actively growing, because they attract with practicality and excellent performance. However, the range is still little known to the buyer. Do you agree?
You will learn all about the design features, advantages and disadvantages, types of tubular LED-lamps from the article proposed by us. We will tell you how to find the best option for you, based on the characteristics. Home masters we will find a guide to the installation of LED devices instead of used fluorescent.
The content of the article:
- Distinguishing features of LEDs
- Main advantages of LED
- Constructive lamp arrangement
LED lamps classification
- Site conditions
- Basic installation methods
- System of connection of a lamp with the boss
- Color Temperature Parameters
- LED Differences
- Features of the installation of linear lamps
- Replacing fluorescent lamps with LED
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Distinguishing features of LEDs
LED (LED) light sources gradually take the place of fluorescent lamps. They have every chance of completely replacing other lighting technologies. Distinctive characteristics are concluded in profitability, features of the device and long service life.
In addition, diodes do not require special measures for disposal. In contrast, fluorescent linear lamps, which have been massively used at enterprises, in trade areas and offices, need a specific utilization procedure, because they contain mercury. Whereas with review samples this item of expenses is leveled.
Many large companies decide on new models of linear LEDs. In this case, the most popular is not the complete replacement of lamps, but only the change of the lamps themselves.
Led devices provide even and moderately contrast, high-quality lighting. Such light is considered safe for vision and not tiring for the human nervous system. Therefore, such a high excitement on this line of devices in educational institutions is not surprising.
However, tubular diodes are used not only in the educational and industrial segments, but also in others - to create a light composition in residential premises, restaurants, gyms, swimming pools, etc. In some cases, they are used as the main source of lighting, in others - as a backlight.
Additional possibilities for organizing illumination are also presented - the angle of light can be adjusted by turning the lamp. This is how the lighting is rationalized in areas where there is a need. Thanks to this technique, additional savings result from the use of a smaller number of lamps.
The housing of the LED device, as well as other structural elements, has an increased resistance to vibration, due to which a high degree of reliability is achieved
The lamp on the LEDs does not spend time on ignition - this process is played instantly, while immediately reaching the maximum level of operating brightness. If there is a power outage, voltage drops, of course, the ballast of the lighting product can fail.
However, the worst option awaiting the consumer is to replace one blown device, since each linear device is represented by an individual mechanism with its own electronics.
The survey form factor is twice as economical as compared to the luminescent analogue. The operational period is up to 12 years.
If modernization of outdated fluorescent illuminators is being carried out, then the most practical solution is to lamp change. It can be used as the old lamp housing with previous patrons, and purchased a new one.
In the first case, you will need to select the diodes with full compliance with the previous standard size. Before installation it is necessary to remove from the circuit all electromagnetic and electronic control gears or bypass them qualitatively.
Main advantages of LED
Linear LED lamps are an innovative element in industrial, commercial and public systems. the organization of light due to the lack of awareness of the population about the main advantages of this type lighting engineering.
Key features are as follows:
- Connection to the network of 220 V directly without the use of ballasts and chokes.
- Low power consumption, which allows significant savings.
- Wide angle of dispersion - up to 230 °.
- Depending on the manufacturer, the service life is 50,000-100,000 hours.
- Environmental friendliness of the diodes does not cause damage to the environment, recycling is done along with household waste.
- The complete absence of flicker.
- Does not heat up during long-term operation.
Also, the features of the structural device of the case allow to achieve resistance to the influence of negative factors: temperature drops, moisture and stress, mechanical effects. And due to the high coefficient of color translation and a brightness level of 120 lm / W, correct visualization of surrounding objects is achieved.
LED devices provide a uniform dispersion of light streams during the entire operational period, without the effect of chattering noise. Such lamps do not generate heat.
Elimination of the pulsation effect was made possible by equipping with special elements - lens amplifiers and light-emitting diodes, which are responsible for compaction and concentration of the light flux.
In addition to the natural monochrome cold and warm white tones of illumination, manufacturers offer various color effects (RGB execution), which for the most part are used for decorative purposes by entertainment establishments or for highlighting advertising billboards.
The main problems accompanying the massive introduction of this technology are the high price category and the lack of state control over the quality characteristics presented in the product stores. About 50% of lighting devices do not comply with current GOST standards.
Constructive lamp arrangement
The optional device of linear light sources is represented by a driver and unsoldered LEDs placed on a strip made of getinax. All elements are located in an elongated polycarbonate flask housing.
Using such material, manufacturers were able to eliminate the problem of mechanical damage during installation. Since the device already has a ballast apparatus, the tube is connected directly to the mains without the controllers.
The power of linear tubes depends on the number of LEDs - the more of them, the more intense the light flux. They are adapted to replace fluorescent counterparts without mechanical intervention in the design of the lamp
LED tubes come standard with a G13 base. On the inside of the flask there are two pins, the distance between which is 13 mm. They are connected by copper wire, so electricity can be supplied to any of them.
The length can vary from 600 mm to 1.5 m, power 9-25 watts. Savings on electricity bills can be up to 65%. For example, if in place of a 18-watt fluorescent lamp to install an LED, its nominal value will be 9 watts.
Long tubular models are used for local illumination of the required zones. From them it is easy to design various forms that effectively decorates the room
The lamp may be transparent or have a matte body. In the case when the lens on the luminaire is not provided, it is better to stop the choice on the matte version, if there is - a transparent one will do.
LED lamps classification
The main purpose of linear lighting is to replace fluorescent lamps, so most of the tubular models are made with the G13 base.
Fully equipped linear-type lighting devices consist of a lamp body and one or more lamps. They can serve as the main or local lighting of various zones both indoors and in the exterior of a building or landscape design.
In addition to the main selection criteria, diode lamp characteristicsThere are a few more important criteria for the buyer.
There are various devices, according to the characteristics of which the classification is carried out:
- installation method;
- type of base;
- light intensity (lm / W);
- used types of LEDs and their number.
All these aspects are important in the process of selecting the right device, since not all products have sufficient factor of protection against adverse environment or not mobile enough to arrange interior space.
For illumination of personal plots involve more powerful sources - searchlights. Their power is 17-45 W, the voltage is 170-265 V, and the luminous flux is 1400-4500 lm / W, the operational period is up to 35,000 hours
For the street, linear LED spotlights are used, which can be of various shapes and use any type of diode: monochrome or full color. The former are capable of reproducing only one spectral range of illumination — white and its shades.
The second - any color options. Based on the climatic conditions of placement allocate devices designed for different installation zones. Depending on this, an appropriate indicator of the degree of protection against aggressive media is selected.
Interpretation of the abbreviation ІР65: ІР - indicator of the coefficient of protection; 6 - the device is protected from ingress of dust; 5 - the degree of safety from the penetration of water
Lighting with marking ІР65 and ІР67, i.e. with specified degree of protection, suitable for installation outdoors and in rooms with high humidity / dust generation. For example, lighting is organized in warehouses, in production shops, swimming pools, lighting of aquariums and open outdoor areas - parking lots.
The instrument case is sealed. In their favor, they say, and unique self-cleaning options - due to the heating in the process of functioning on the body does not form frost and does not accumulate snow. Fixtures with IP20 are designed for standard parameters with low humidity levels. They are used in residential or office spaces.
LED phytolamps are an alternative to fluorescent counterparts like OSRAM FLORA. Their distinctive feature is that they do not radiate heat, respectively, they are allowed to be located in close proximity to the plants
Linear fitolamps have a special spectrum of rays that promote the formation of chemical processes for plant growth and development. With their help, the continuation of daylight is organized for certain varieties of root crops, which successfully affects their photosynthetic activity.
Basic installation methods
Overhead linear luminaires have the lightest installation system - it is enough to fix them on a flat plane. It does not matter the level of inclination of the surface - the lamp has a swivel base.
Structurally, the device is designed so that the user has the ability to change the angle of illumination. It is precisely due to such universality that the models are recognized as the most popular.
Often, overhead devices can be found in the illumination of the working area in the kitchen. There are also options for interiors with led staircase lighting or an emphasis on certain areas through tinted ranges.
The next installation option requires preliminary preparation and organization of the niche. It is used in the construction of suspended and suspended ceilings for the organization of high-grade lighting.
Installation of recessed luminaires has its own specifics and is more difficult in comparison with the overhead counterparts. They sink into the prepared recess, do not protrude beyond the ceiling
Suspended modular systems are placed at a certain distance from the ceiling by means of decorative chains or cables.
This mount allows you to create a whole light composition of several LED-tubes, repeating the shape of various shapes. To do this, they are interconnected by special plugs.
For convenience, when using modular lighting sections they are suspended at a level exceeding the height of a person. The connecting chain, depending on the complexity of the reproducible form, can consist of two or more modules.
Fitolamps are also included in the suspension modules. If they are equipped with greenhouses, most often have a standard - one-piece line along the rows of seedlings. At home, one unit is generally used, which is set above the plant.
System of connection of a lamp with the boss
In the survey models of lighting, two types of cap are used: G and R. However, it should be borne in mind that every year, manufacturers expand their product line.
Lower case letters in the abbreviation of LED lamps indicate the number of contacts: S - 1 contact; D - 2; T - 3; Q - 4; P - 5
Initially, we analyze what the pin connection system G is. In the marking after the letter is a number, meaning the distance between the plugs. This version of LED-lamps is produced in the form of an elongated bulb as indicated by the letter T in the abbreviation. Attachment plugs are represented here by a pair of contacts of a certain length and thickness.
Tubular (T) LEDs can be of several typical sizes:
- T5 - 5/8 inch / 15.9 mm;
- T8 - 8/8 inch / 25.4 mm;
- T10 - 10/8 inch / 31,7 mm;
- T12 - 12/8 inch / 38.0 mm.
The cartridge with in-depth contacts R is found exclusively in searchlights. According to the characteristics, the angle of the light flux is insufficient for the girth of a large area; therefore, it is advisable to use them for zone illumination.
Color Temperature Parameters
The intensity of the light flux is selected individually.
Compliance standards are represented by the following values:
- for a power of 25 W, a light flux of 220 lm is characteristic;
- 40 W - 415 Lm;
- 60 W - 710 Lm;
- 75 W - 935 Lm;
- 100 W - 1340 Lm;
- 150 W - 2160 Lm;
- 200 watts - 3040 lm.
However, it is better to take into account the optimal indicators that do not irritate eyesight: warm white light - 2700 K, natural white - 4200 K. Such brightness equates to the standard light of the sun, comfortable for the retina.
Technical characteristics of different types of LEDs used are presented in a wide range. Their sizes, quantity and parameters are indicated in the device name.
Light-emitting diodes SMD (surface mounted device) as close as possible to the heat sink. The power of a single chip is approximately 0.01-0.2 W
The SMD form factor crystals, unlike other types, are mounted on the surface of a ceramic substrate, which, in turn, is connected to the circuit board. On one substrate, their number is from one to three.
Due to the design features, they can qualitatively remove heat. As a result, parts do not overheat, even after prolonged use, which contributes to a significant increase in service life.
The technological process of creating crystals is based on organometallic epitaxy. The prepared material is mounted in a protective case. After summarized contacts. An optical coating reflecting radiation is installed on the finish over the chip.
The most common options are SMD5630 and 5730. They are powerful and super-powerful groups and are used in the electrical network with a nominal value of not more than 350 mA.
There are modifications mounted in the case, with the consumption of electricity up to 1 A, with indicators - 1-3 watts. In products, the power reaches 10 W; however, their installation requires a separate cooling system.
The chip-on-board placement technology is implemented on a single board. In this case, several samples of a chip without a case are installed on the substrate at once.
СОВ type emitters are mounted directly on the board. Due to the coating layer of phosphor significantly improves the characteristics of the heat sink, the uniformity of the light projection and reduces the cost of the matrix.
Features of the installation of linear lamps
Linear LED lamps are installed within 5 minutes - it is enough to apply voltage to one of the plugs, and it does not matter which one. It can be mounted independently or in a complete set with the lamp.
We give an example of the installation of the lamp. So, there are 4 contacts on a T8 or T5 tube with a G13 base - 2 on both sides. Cartridges for this type of cap meet several types. Their distinctive characteristics consist in the method of fixation to the body of the device, as well as the method of connecting conductor lines to the socket.
After installation, it remains to connect the outgoing wires from the LED lamp to the supply voltage terminal. If lamps are connected in series, they are connected via special contactors.
To connect the lighting device, it must be energized by the contactor supplied in the configuration. But before we open the lamp.
To do this, you need to squeeze out two plugs and remove them, by alternately pressing a screwdriver on each of the side grooves, without making great efforts not to break the locking legs. The luminaire contacts are connected to the mains through the pressure terminal. The place of fastening and connecting wiring with clips is closed with a decorative cap.
For fixing the device in the kit are several fasteners and screws. In the desired area, drill backlash under mounting and fix the lamp on the installed clips. If there are several lamps, they are easily fitted using adapters, also supplied in the kit.
Replacing fluorescent lamps with LED
The most common models of old types of fluorescent lamps are presented in two formats: 4 * 18 and 2 * 36. Both of these products are compatible with lamps in the T8 bulb and G13 base.
Manufacturing companies produce LED lamps for various types of ballasts. First you need to determine what type of equipment is in the device.
There are two variants of lighting controllers: EMPA is an electromagnetic type, which is always installed together with the starter; ECG - electronic ballast, when one unit controls all the lamps lamp
For example, to work with electronic types of ballasts, Philips manufactures a series of LEDs labeled HF. This type of lamps allows you to not change the wiring diagram of the lamp, and their replacement is made as traditional fluorescent ones.
Let's consider how to replace old lamps with LED lights in lamps with electronic ballast.
The first turn off the power to the panel. Further process looks like this:
- Remove the reflector.
- Disconnect the wires from the terminal block.
- After dismantle the device itself.
- We remove old lamps and starters.
- Disconnect the wires from the lamp holder with an awl and a screwdriver.
Next, you need to do rework wiring. To do this, we transform the electrical circuit of the lamp - all lamp holders are connected in parallel, the wiring is inserted into the terminal block for connection to the mains voltage.
Since the second side performs the function of fasteners - all cables here are dismantled. A similar process is reproduced and with ballasts - removal of wiring and disconnection from the circuit. We put the base into the lamp holder with the appropriate side and the device can be installed in its original place.
If it is planned to control the radiation intensity of a diode lamp, the lines include Dimmer. But it should be remembered that not all LED devices are able to work together with this dimmer. Dimmable indicated in the product data sheet.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
How to independently make LED linear lighting for the working area of the kitchen:
Video tutorial on alteration of the lamp for LED bulb lamps:
Overview of the linear option lighting Leek Le Eco LED 36W:
When planning the installation of a new lighting fixture, the consumer should not forget about the wide opportunities provided by manufacturers.
Diverse series of fixtures with transparent, matte or corrugated ceiling designs are included with LED lamps of different power and the range of illumination, which can be selected based on needs.
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