Halogen lamps can be regarded as an improved version of conventional incandescent all devices. they work the same, but due to certain features galogenok they are more economical, durable and provide a pleasant to the eye, but bright light.
Manufacturers offer two variants of halogen lighting products: high- and nizkokovoltnye. To the latter to work properly, a transformer for halogen lamps. We will talk about how to pick up and properly connect the said device.
The content of the article:
- Why galogenki transformer?
What are the transformers?
- Toroidal solenoid device
- Pulsed or electronic device
- Rules for the choice of equipment down
Two transformer connection options
- Chain fixtures with one transformer
- Two groups of lamps with two transformers
- Recommendations practitioners
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Why galogenki transformer?
Halogen lamps are successfully competing with LEDs. Despite the better performance gain it is often the last galogenki, due to their lower value and, therefore, availability, as well as some characteristics of the light beam of LED, which can tired eyes.
The main "trump card" LEDs - working without heating, which enables their widespread use. The same advantage also have galogenok, but only low-voltage lamps. They can be installed in areas that are sensitive to high temperatures. For example, embedded in the ceiling fixtures.
But it must be understood that the halogen lamps low voltage can work only with transformers. The latter is necessary to convert the AC voltage to an acceptable indicator lamp. Usually it is 12 V.
In addition, the transformer protects the light source from power surges, overheating and short circuits, and can also ensure a smooth switching of lighting. I must admit that an average of transformers lamps last much longer. Although much depends on their quality.
Type low-voltage halogen lamps are not able to operate on mains voltage of 220 V, so they must be connected only through the step-down transformer
What are the transformers?
Transformers device called an electromagnetic or electronic type. They are somewhat different in the work and some other characteristics.
Electromagnetic options change the parameters of the standard mains voltage on the characteristics suitable for operation LV galogenokElectronic devices other than the specified work is performed even the current transformation.
Toroidal solenoid device
A simple toroidal transformer assembled from the two coils and the core. Last also called the magnetic circuit. It is made of ferromagnetic material, usually steel. The windings are placed on the web.
The primary is connected to a power source, the secondary, respectively, to the consumer. Electrical connection between the secondary and primary windings offline.
Despite the low cost and reliability toroidal transformer electromagnetic today is rarely used when connecting halogen lamps
Thus power is transferred between them only electromagnetically. To increase the inductive coupling between the windings used magnetic. When applying an AC terminal connected to the first winding, it will form within the core a magnetic flux of the variable type.
Last grapples with two windings and induces in them an electromotive force or EMF. Under its influence in the secondary winding generates an alternating current with a voltage different from what it was in the primary.
Depending on the number of turns is set transformer type, which can be step-up or step-down, and the transformation ratio. Only lowering devices are always used for halogen lamps.
The advantages of the winding devices are:
- High reliability.
- Easy to connect.
- Low cost.
However, toroidal transformers can be found in modern circuits with halogen lamps infrequently. This is explained by the fact that, because of the design features of such devices have a rather impressive size and weight. Therefore, they are difficult to mask in the regeneration of furniture or ceiling lighting, for example.
Perhaps the greatest shortcoming of electromagnetic toroidal transformers - a massive and significant dimensions. They are extremely difficult to mask, if you want to hide installation
Also to the disadvantages of this type of device may include heating during operation and sensitivity to possible voltage drops in the network, which has a negative effect on the term galogenok operation.
In addition, the conventional transformers are buzzing during operation, this is not always acceptable. Therefore devices are used mainly in non-residential buildings or industrial buildings.
Pulsed or electronic device
The transformer consists of a magnetic core or two windings and seredchnika. Depending on the shape of the core and the method of placement thereon windings distinguish four types of such devices: a core, toroidal, and bronestrezhnevoy armor.
May be different and the number of turns of the secondary and primary winding. By varying their ratio is obtained lowering and raising device.
The design of pulse transformer windings are present not only the core but also electronic filling. Because of this it can be built to protect the system from overheating, soft start, and other
The operating principle of the pulse-type transformer is somewhat different. The primary coil, a short unipolar pulses, thanks to this core is constantly in a state of magnetization.
The pulses on the primary winding characterized as short rectangular signals. They generate an inductance with the same characteristic differences.
They, in turn, produce pulses on the secondary coil.
This feature enables the electronic transformers are a number of advantages:
- Light weight and compactness.
- The high level of efficiency.
- Possibility to build additional protection.
- Extended operating voltage range.
- Absence of heat and noise.
- Ability to adjust the output voltage.
The disadvantage is regulated by a minimum load and a high enough price. The latter is associated with certain difficulties during the manufacture of such devices.
Rules for the choice of equipment down
When choosing a transformer for halogen type of light source, it is necessary to take into account many factors. You should start with two important characteristics: the output voltage of the device and its rated power.
First must strictly correspond to the value of operating voltage connected to the lamp apparatus. The second determines the total wattage of the light sources, which will operate the transformer.
On the transformer housing is always a marking, which is examining possible to obtain complete information about the device
To accurately determine the required nominal power, it is desirable to make a simple calculation. To do this, fold the power of the light sources to be connected to the step-down unit. To this must be added the largest 20% of the "margin" necessary for correct operation of the device.
We illustrate a specific example. For lighting the living room is planned to establish three groups halogen lamps: seven pieces each. This point Instruments 12 V and 30 W power. Three transformers required for each group. Choose the right. Let's start with the calculation of the nominal power.
We calculate and we find that the total capacity of the group - 210 watts. Given the desired stock obtain 241 watts. Thus, for each group, will require a transformer whose output voltage is 12 V, the rated power of the device 240 Watts.
Under these characteristics suitable for both electromagnetic and pulsed device. Stopping the choice on the latter, you need to pay special attention to the rated power. It should be represented in the form of two digits. The first represents the minimum operating power.
You need to know that the total power of the lamps must be greater than this value, otherwise the instrument will not work. And a brief comment from experts regarding the power of choice. They warn that the power of the transformer, which is indicated in the technical documentation is the maximum.
That is, in a normal state, it will produce somewhere in the 25-30% less. Therefore, the so-called "reserve" power needs. Because if you get the device working at full capacity, it will not last for long.
For prolonged use of halogen lights it is very important to correctly choose the power step-down transformer. In this case, it should have some "stock" that the device was not working at maximum capacity
One more important thing for the size of the selected transformer and its location. The more powerful the device, so it is massive. This is especially true for the electromagnetic units. It is advisable to immediately find a suitable place to install it.
If several luminaires users increasingly prefer to divide them into groups and set for each separate transformer. The reason is very simple.
First, the remaining lighting group will work normally in case of failure down the device. Secondly, each of these groups set out in the transformer will have less power than the total which would have to be put to all tubes. Consequently, its cost will be much lower.
Two transformer connection options
Before connecting the appliance to perform down-lamps layout, if there are more than two. Also, you need to choose the transformer installation site.
The latter is subject to such rules:
- It should be provided with free access to a device that is necessary for its maintenance or replacement.
- If the transformer will be within the enclosed space, the volume of the latter can not be less than 10 liters. This is necessary for removing the heat generated during operation of the device.
- The distance from the device to the nearest halogen lamp should not be less than 250 mm. This is done to avoid undesirable additional heating of the light source.
Only after the determined location for the transformer and the lamp, you can proceed to the installation and connection.
What is important is the correct choice of a place for the step-down transformer. If it is to be mounted in a confined space, the volume of the latter should be sufficient for removing heat generated during operation of the device
In this case there are two basic options, the latter can be modified and used for connecting not only two sets of fixtures, but also three or more.
Chain fixtures with one transformer
This option is considered optimal for four up to five light sources. If the lamp is more it is best to divide and group. Galogenki only connected in parallel. This should be taken into account when preparing the plan. One more important thing.
It is necessary to place the lamp so that the distance from each of them to the transformer was approximately the same. This is necessary for correct operation of the instrument.
In the presence of varying length for wiring lamps are lit differently. One in which the wire is shorter, it will shine brighter. The device with a long cable will glow dimly.
In addition, in the latter case, in the process can also heat the wire, which is extremely undesirable. Experts recommend to build circuit so that the length of each of the outgoing wires to the lamps does not exceed 200 mm. In this section of the cable must not be less than 1.5 square meters. mm.
In this way, the number of connected small lamps. Optimally connect no more than five, otherwise you'll have to install a high power transformer
The main body of the transformer are input and output terminals. Primary labeled as N and L or Input. This entrance is located on the side of 220 V. It must be remembered here that the connection is carried out through one-button switch.
Further extending from the junction box and the zero phase wires of blue and orange or brown connected to respective terminals of the transformer. The secondary Output terminals or output devices are connected down-halogen lamps.
It uses only copper wire with the same cross-section. Important note. If for any reason the transformer terminals is not enough, install additional terminal clamps. They can be purchased at any specialty store.
Two groups of lamps with two transformers
This connection is optimal, if more than five fixtures. Groups may consist of the same number of lamps or different. It does not matter. The main thing is that for each correctly picked up by a transformer. As in the embodiment described above should start with the implementation of schemes.
When choosing the location of lamps "work" the same rules. That is, the length of the exhaust them from the transformer wires should be about the same.
So connect two groups of halogen lights. For each of them used a transformer, but the switch is common to both
It can be quite difficult to do. Then the need to make some adjustments. You should know that for the wires of copper section of 1.5 sq. mm, namely, their use and it is recommended in this case, the optimal length varies from 150 and to 300 cm. At this distance the energy will be transferred with minimum losses and without the formation of interference.
Sometimes the length is not enough. In this case, you need to choose a larger wire gauge. For a distance of 300 to 400 cm selected cable section to 2.5kb. mm. If you expect an even greater length, which is not desirable, it is necessary to hold a special calculation to determine an appropriate cross-section at a special table.
Connecting each of the transformers and groups of lamps to it is made similarly to the method described above. Ie neutral conductor of the junction box is connected to the terminals of the transformer zero.
Phase conductor from the switch is connected to the same phase cables lowering devices. Theoretically, this method can connect two or more groups of luminaires, but for each of them is installed a transformer.
Important note. For each of the step-down device separate cable is laid, and they are joined exclusively within the junction box. Some "artisans" prefer to connect the wires somewhere near the ceiling, but do not use junction box.
This is a serious error, contrary to the SAE, which says that each of the completed sections cable connections must be easily accessible for inspection, maintenance and possible repair. Therefore, the only correct option - connection in the junction box.
In the process of halogen illumination lamps with more important to correctly calculate the amount of lighting groups and space transformer arrangements for each
Experts point out that if you plan to connect the group consisting of a large number of lamps, optionally with the placement of the junction box between the lamps and the outlet transformer. This is especially true with a deficiency of terminals on the down-device or its placement constraints.
By choosing this option you need to know that for the same low-voltage power circuit passes more current than the high voltage. On the basis of this requires a precise calculation to determine the section of the wire. It is made by calculating the total current force.
Illustrate an example. Seven power 12 light sources in a 35 W must be connected through a transformer. The lamps are mounted via junction box in parallel. Necessary to find out line sizeWhich will be laid between the distributor and the output unit.
To do this, first multiply the number of lamps in their power. Then, the resulting value is divided by the operating voltage. We get approximately 29 A. This current, which will pass through the low-voltage wiring.
Using presented in the EMP table depending on the wiring section of the operating voltage, determines the appropriate wire size. In our case it will be at least 4 square meters. mm. As can be seen, the load is large enough. Perhaps it makes sense to divide the group into two tubes.
If you connect two groups of halogen lamps deliver dvuhklavishny switch, you can get the opportunity to manage each of them separately
When mounting the two groups of halogen bulbs transformer two types of switches can be used. If you put one-button model, the two groups can be switched on / off only once. If, however, requires a separate control group of lighting devices can be put dvuhklavishny switch.
Practitioners electricians are often faced with the need of installation of low-voltage galogenok when the wiring has already been done and successfully operated. In such a case it is not always possible to carry out parallel connection of the lamps to the transformer wiring without drastic alterations.
To minimize costs, experts recommend in this case to connect each lamp with its own transformer. As a rule, it will be small in capacity and size of the device.
If this seems like a waste, it can be put in the low-voltage lamps instead of high galogenki 220 V. But in this case it is necessary to provide them with soft start device. Or alternatively, if the design of the lamp allows, you can replace the halogen lamps to LEDs economy class.
landmark selection galogenok for lighting devices introduce article thoroughly understand all sides of the issue.
The ability to adjust the intensity of light attracts many. Most electronic transformers complemented possibility of reducing the voltage at the input, which allows you to adjust the brightness of halogen lighting
Very often it is planned regulation of light intensity, which is added to the general scheme Dimmer. You should know that most of the pulse transformers are not designed to work with dimmers.
Since the latter negatively affects the functioning of the electronic converter, it is ultimately considerably shorten the life of the connected halogen lamps.
For this reason, the best option to work in tandem with dimmer - toroidal electromagnetic transformer. And one more remark.
Electricians strongly recommend not to forget about the service is already installed lowering devices. Optimally, every six months to conduct their scheduled scan to check availability. repair or replace the device in identifying problems.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Video # 1. Let's get acquainted - transformers Osram:
Video # 2. How to connect the transformer:
Video # 3. All you need to know about transformers for halogen type of light source:
Low-voltage halogen lamps - a practical solution for the arrangement of built-in lighting. They are considered budget analogue LEDs, significantly exceeding them as emitted light.
The main difficulty of using low-voltage galogenok is the need to connect the step-down transformer. However, if you do everything correctly, the lighting will be long and without problems.
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