In the old days and the question did not arise about the location of the ceiling lights. There was a conclusion in the center of the room, the rest was excluded. In kindergartens, schools and public institutions, the illumination provided by lamps on the ceiling was calculated according to standards, more precisely, to building rules. Not only the number of lamps on the ceiling was regulated, but also the power of light bulbs. The builders said that 40 watts are screwed into the lamp on the ceiling, and already a hundred in the lamp. For residential buildings, the standards of the joint venture are converted to recommendatory. The desire to place spotlights on the stretch ceiling is due to the desire of the owners to achieve personal goals.
Guide to the selection of ceiling lights
If you have already decided to arrange a new light on the ceiling in the hall, call the builders. We vouch for concrete work can not be called a simple occupation. Although in the presence of sufficient skill, something to do is real. Usually the wires go in the voids of the plates lying across the halls. The distribution box( a circular opening under the ceiling) is not located directly opposite the chandelier. Wire to the desired distance goes along the wall, and then rises.
This suggests an obvious conclusion: if the builders stretched the wiring, we will succeed! The craftsmen had a ready channel in their hands in the thickness of the slabs, it remained to use a broach. We will have to use the fixture locator to mark the ceiling and try to understand where the necessary voids go. Difficulties do not end: there is no channel in the wall, therefore, it is necessary to pierce the ceiling in this place opposite the point of suspension. Then a penalty is made to the junction box.
Do it with a grinder or a special tool, but under any circumstances need to be repaired upon completion of all operations, not to mention the general cleaning. It is important to present the scope of work in advance. When organizing the penalties try not to run into rebar. Locator to localize the passage of the metal part of the plate costs money. And although a powerful one will not be needed, it is hardly worth acquiring one for arranging lamps on the ceiling in a different order.
For this reason, concrete is not contacted. Under the zoning of the room lamps easier to use stretch ceilings. There are a number of advantages. The main thing is that it is permissible to cut the canvas anywhere. There are also disadvantages:
- Practically everyone in the house has heating with a vertical riser. The perimeter of the stretch ceiling is cut to the desired depth, the pipe is carefully turned around, traces remain. It looks unattractive, although they are trying to shade the place with a curtain or to block with a cornice.
- Often heat shrinkage is applied during the work. When changing the configuration, there is a chance as a result to get difficult to remove folds. It is not recommended to install the stretched ceiling once.
For the rest of the difficulties a bit:
- Depending on the type of fastener, a guide profile of the desired shape is put.
It passes around the perimeter of the room.
- Installation is by level.
If there is a laser plane builder, its use is acceptable.
- In advance preparing a place for the lamps.
This is usually a pair of solid bars, the thickness equal to the distance between the ceiling and the stretch ceiling.
- Wiring is done for ceiling lights.
Please note: PVC burns well. Take measures in accordance with table 2.1.3 of ПУЭ 6. Either insulation is required to be fireproof, or a metal sleeve is used( corrugation, covered duct).The latter will allow you to protect yourself from electromagnetic radiation arising from the work of lamps on the ceiling. If the insulation is fireproof, use ceramic rollers or simply nail the wire to the ceiling on the petals of the cambric.
- The ends of the conductors are insulated.
When wiring, make sure that the switch breaks the phase. Easier to do this with a simple reception. Take a portable cartridge with a twisted bulb. Test the switch for phase. After the contact closes, the screwdriver indicator is lit at each output.
All 220V are falling at this point of relative earth. If the phase comes from the chandelier, the screwdriver indicator goes out after the circuit is closed. Many will say it is easier to try on the cartridge. Will be wrong: before starting work it is useful to determine whether the phase goes to the lamp. If the answer is yes, find the corresponding wires in the junction box and change them.
- After the installation of the canvas begins the process of fitting.
The master must make a slot where it is planned to place the spotlights. The excess ends do not break off, but are bent inward. Mounted mounting plate( or two) according to the instructions for use of the lamp. It is clear that the shape of the ceiling( or cap) need a special - covering the perimeter of the slot.
On this installation is considered to be finished, it remains to verify the performance of lamps on the ceiling. We remind you that the exit phase on the cartridge contradicts the requirements of the standards. In particular, it is prohibited to install switches in the circuit of the neutral lighting wire. When servicing can strike with current. It is better to comply with the requirements of the PUE for lamps on the ceiling.
How to conduct the wiring under the lamps on the ceiling
Easier to make the hidden wiring under the cladding. Stretch ceiling or plasterboard sheets can be used as the main material. In the latter case, the requirements for fire safety are simplified if the lathing is metallic. Any wire will do. Drywall does not support burning. If the overlap is concrete, hidden installation method does not require additional measures of protection.
When arranging the ceiling at the same time carry out work on sound insulation. This is useful with loud neighbors. Various sound insulators are used:
- When using eco-wool, choose an arrangement of recessed luminaires to fill material through these holes. It is desirable to divide the ceiling into sectors so that the filler does not flow out through the adjacent holes. Ecowool is used primarily for sound insulation of walls. Craftsmen cut a sheet of drywall with crowns, successfully fill the cavity with a pump. It will take experience to evenly cover the entire area.
- Sometimes sound insulation is carried out with mineral wool. Crate is made in a special way for sheets of drywall. All methods are divided into two groups. You can crate in two layers crosswise, and hide glass wool plates under the top one. Profile consumption is higher, but the structural strength is ideal. It is convenient to use special crabs. These are fasteners in the form of brackets, for which the profile clings. Crabs in this case pass the glass wool plates through. Sound absorber fits under the batten. The downside is that glass wool refers to materials with normalized formaldehyde emission. It is denoted by the letter E and the number. The lower the number, the better.
Materials will need non-flammable. Take a sample of the sound insulation material and try to light a match and a candle. The sad experience of the “Lame Horse” is known, when the insulation of the ceiling made of polymeric plates ignited and caused the death of people. For this reason, foam plastic for interior decoration is prohibited. Do not look for this in standards: this rule is introduced by firefighters who are tired of constantly risking their lives because of inept builders. The representative of the rescuers filed an application with the supervisory authority, and the foam was banned.
Cross-section of wires
Please note, using ecowool or another type of filler material, that the wiring for ceiling lights becomes inaccessible. Its cooling conditions are deteriorating. According to the tables of ПУЭ 6( starting from 1.3.4), it is necessary to revise the cross section of the wires.
Need to know the consumption of light bulbs. According to the voltage current is calculated. Suppose we have a 12 V LED light bulb with an equivalent radiation power of 75 W and a consumption of 10 W.This means that the current will be I = 10/12 = 0.83 A. It is easy to calculate that at a voltage of 220 V, the incandescent lamp would give 75/220 = 0.34 A. This results in energy savings, but when switching to 12 V, the current increases. It turns out that the cores will have to be taken thicker. For example, for 220 V - not thinner than 0.75 square millimeters in copper. New standards for 12 V have not yet been calculated, because they did not know about the possibility to put lamps with such voltage on the ceiling 10 years ago. The current would be high, the wiring would be required platinum.
Any material has a limited period of service. Ecowool looks good. Made on the basis of cellulose, in some houses it has been standing since the 1930s. It is important to choose the right manufacturer. As for glass wool, it is usually given up to 7 years. It is necessary to take into account the formaldehyde emission class.
It is difficult to calculate the thickness of the sound insulating layer, do not forget about the special tapes. They need to be laid under the crate, between the layers, under the sheets of drywall. The noise insulation tape blocks the transmission of vibrations to the enclosing structure. Ceiling lights in the kitchen will be pleased with the lack of noise of the next spree of neighbors. Note: the tape is used wherever the crate touches the wall. Consumption will greatly decrease if crabs are used, because of the structure of badly transmitting vibrations.
Sometimes ceiling noise insulation is not enough. Several switches for fixtures on the wall will fix the situation. Put them on the cladding of plasterboard. The moment with the wiring is solved, the wall becomes smooth. To control the lamps from several points should be used through and flip switches.
Standards specified in JV 23-05 and other similar documents for ceiling lamps of an ordinary apartment are advisory in nature, but it is advisable to follow the prescriptions.