An electrical project is created for home ownership, with traced paths of electrical wiring. The most important parameter is the quota. According to the law, a certain kilowatt of power is assigned to any private owner. They will need to lay in the project and take into account in the wiring. If you do wrong, you have to pay extra. A surcharge is collected for the surplus( for wealthy citizens it is not very important).If the project does not pick up the quota, then the law will have to be redeemed from the supplier. Because the idea of how to do the wiring in a wooden house, so worried.
Electricity quota for private households
If, under the contract, the wizard does not do the electrical wiring inside, outside they are obliged to put a machine, to work with the lines need special tools and permission( approval).A person who did not encounter “claws” and who does not know how to climb a pole properly has no right to argue about the possibility of laying electrical wiring to the house on his own.
By the size of the quota are selected automatic protection. In the usual case, it is recommended to install a distribution panel, which will include the wiring circuits from all rooms. Consider in detail:
- Junction boxes are considered to be the heart of the house’s energy supply. Here, like blood vessels, all electrical wiring converges. The veins are thick and thin. On any circuit wiring is placed on the machine, and the cross section of the conductor wires and the threshold of protection is selected based on the requirements for energy consumption.
- Contour is called the supply branch. In the room it is recommended to create a number of positions. As the well-known A. Zemskov says, the distribution is similar: light, sockets, microclimate maintenance systems( for example, air conditioning).Suppose a child is playing in a room, you need to protect him. To do this, we cut down the branch of the sockets with an automatic machine, and the child cannot reach the ceiling and the air conditioner. Consequently, the child will continue to enjoy the benefits of civilization in safety. Or it is required that in the winter time the air conditioner is guaranteed to be turned off. Just cut down the appropriate branch to spring and forget completely.
- Any branch has its own core thickness. Instead of calculating the wiring in the house, it is permissible to use ready-made tips. A. Zemskov cites video data: there is enough 1.5 square millimeter copper section for illumination, 2.5 square millimeters are enough to power outlets and microclimate systems, 4 square millimeters are enough for ovens, and cooking surfaces and flow heaters will requireinstallation wiring for 6 square millimeters.
About the reasons for choosing numbers. Let's say they are going to do the wiring in the country. It is important that the cable does not melt. This does not mean that the temperature of the core will reach the point where the copper begins to melt. Mostly insulation melts, at a temperature slightly above 100 degrees Celsius. This happens when the power consumption is too high. A summary of the wiring will be found in the technical specifications.
power supply network For example, a 1.5 square millimeter wire in a long-term mode passes a current of 16 - 18 A. Moreover, it depends a lot on the number of cables laid side by side in a common protective pipe. The greater the number, the more stringent the requirements. The above characteristics correspond to a power of 3.5 kW.Obviously, enough for lighting. Similarly, there are characteristics for other sections of copper conductors:
- 2.5 square millimeters per two cores - 25 A( 5.5 kW).
- 4 square millimeters per two cores - 32 A( 7 kW).
- 6 square millimeters per two cores - 40 A( 8.8 kW).
The more in a bundle of wires, the lower the current flow. Consider the fact that it is permissible to feed different branches along the conductors of one cable. This property increases the requirements for the stock. The core for a branch is selected based on consumption considerations. If the two are woven together, the cross-sectional area of copper is formed accordingly. Please note that you can not twist and spike. And do not use aluminum wires near copper.
How to protect your home network from fire
Laying out the wiring in the house, sort through the concepts:
- Automatic machines are required to protect not the devices from failure, but the wiring from burning out. Obviously, protection is designed to operate earlier than the actual threat of overheating. Insulation, by the way, does not melt immediately. It is able to harden and crack, gradually collapse. Then, when the neighboring veins are closed, a short dangerous circuit will occur, and it will be too late to take action. Learn the simple rules: a 1.5 square millimeter vein is protected by a 10 A automat;2.5 square millimeters - by 16 A;4 square millimeters - 20 A;6 square millimeters - 25 A. The numbers are much lower than those specified in the form of denominations for lived. Reason: the currents indicated on the protection circuit breakers are considered to be nominal; no actuation occurs in such a scenario. In addition, thresholds with coefficients 1.13 and 1.45 are specified in the specification when the operation occurs, respectively, after 2 and 1 hours of operation.
- Remember, not all circuit breakers are identical. There are classes: B, C, D, G, K, L, Z. The differences between them are strong. There is a class A, but not in the Russian Federation. Any circuit breaker detects two power-off mechanisms: thermal and electromagnetic. The first is implemented on the basis of a bimetallic plate, which is present under the electric kettle button. When heated to a certain temperature, the two metals are bent in a certain way. Due to this, the contact is broken. The gap occurs much earlier than the insulation of the wiring reaches a temperature above 100 degrees Celsius. A similar mechanism is implemented in the irons for heating the sole and the start-up relay of the refrigerator for controlling the windings. According to the classes, the shutdown time varies. For thermal mode, the difference is not so important, but the electromagnetic component imposes big restrictions. For example, the class of automata B cuts power at a sharp increase in current consumption by 3 to 5 times the nominal, which is not always welcomed. Often in engines, consumption at the start is extremely high. Especially the phenomenon of asynchronous sin. Sometimes the collector motor of the vacuum cleaner becomes the cause of the protection, if you choose the wrong machine too much. By the way, it is often noticed that light bulbs often burn out immediately upon switching on. Therefore, it is necessary to leave a good margin on the starting current. And class B circuit breakers are installed only where really old wiring or current surges are simply excluded. At the same time, for example, a class D with a margin of 10 to 50 times may be too rough. Imagine the current in this case for the device at 16 A. The value will be at least 160 A, at worst an additional 5 times more. This will cause a fire. The frequency of operation of electromagnetic protection is not always indicated on the body of the machine, carefully select the device, based on the specified characteristics. The installation of the RCD is carried out only after evaluation of the rated and starting currents.
- If you want to do the wiring in the bath, other means are used. Here we need differential protection machines. If you choose the RCD for a wooden house looks like the best solution, then in places with the danger of contact of electricity with water, it is necessary to apply a different scheme. The differential automaton does not protect directly against a short circuit, it mainly monitors leakage currents. As soon as the insulation breaks through, the electrons begin to leave the earth through the aquatic environment, the food is cut off. It turns out that if a person accidentally touches the current-carrying part with his hand, and the second one takes up a water pipe made of steel, which is buried deep in the ground, the fatal event will not happen. The protection will simply work, people will understand that a malfunction has lurked somewhere. Remember the rule: connection of the RCD in places where contact with water is possible is excluded. A differential circuit breaker is required here.
Rooms should be divided into contours, and the total power of RCDs and differential automats does not have the right to exceed the quota. With proper design, the response must occur exclusively in the inner shield. For protection of apartments, class C and B automatons are better suited. The difference is in price, consumption issues need to be carefully considered.
How to lay electrical wiring in a wooden house
If in the USSR the installation of a chandelier required screwing ceramics on the ceiling, and a wire went through them in full view of everyone, today the cables are bundled, hiding inside corrugated protective pipes and disguised as cladding. If you want to make a single background of wood, it is possible to use wooden siding, which is commonly referred to as clapboard for its peculiar shape, for covering walls and ceiling. It is easily processed and molded, placed on the beams, behind such devices are often layers of insulation and a vapor barrier.
To properly do the wiring in a private house, look at a number of videos on YouTube. Better from A. Zemskov. The author shows how the route looks from a series of corrugated pipes. Not always the wires fit in a single shell, it happens that the whole route goes along the way to the destination. It resembles a loop of a parallel interface of a personal computer or a track of a complex microcircuit. Corrugation goes in the plane, directly by the path.
As for the choice of protection material, a curious technique is known. If you choose a corrugation of metal, do the wiring in the house of the same type, will be able to get rid of interference. As is known, any cable radiates. If the corrugation is screened, the difficulty can be eliminated, greatly improving the electromagnetic environment in the house. If you think that the latter is not important, remember the surcharge for workers dealing with emissions. Electromagnetic fields reduce performance and disrupt the immune system.
The key features of wooden houses are their environmental friendliness. If you make a corrugation of plastic, soon the atmosphere will begin to become contaminated by the decay products of polymers. Metal protection is preferable. Wiring should be well cooled. For insulation can not be hidden. On the contrary, it should be as easy as possible to access. And plastic is considered an insulator of heat. Metal will help sparing mode of operation wiring.
For laying corrugated protection hoses for electrical wiring in the cross beams of a wooden house, Forstner’s drills make holes of the required diameter. Plus the fact that it is possible to install sockets on a wooden wall and on any plane of a similar interior.
We hope the readers presented how to conduct the wiring in the house of a wooden log house. Do not forget about the ground loop. His presence in the composition of the wiring requires most of the equipment. This branch is not always supplied by power grids, it is often rational to dig a metal frame deeper into the garden in the garden.