In the bathroom regarding the installation of electrical wiring decisive importance is the size of the bathroom. These are not empty words. It is enough to put a small pan for taking a shower, so that the laws allow you to put a washing machine in the opposite corner. Installation of electrical wiring in the bathroom and the placement of appliances are strictly limited by law.
Where to read about the installation of electrical wiring in the bathroom
The whole standard is dedicated to the placement of equipment and electrical wiring in the bathroom. Requirements are described quite clearly, with the rigging of the garage incomparable. The rules are prescribed in GOST R 50571.11, according to the norms the bathroom is divided into zones( according to the type of equipment placed):
Zone 0 includes the volume of the bath or shower tray. Electrical devices connected using BSNN( not higher than 12 V) are used here. And the source may be outside the. .. bathroom. Today you can buy a standard voltage converter from 220 to 12 V, put it in a switchboard on a standard DIN-ruler. The store buys converters from 220 V to USB port( 5 - 5.25 V) and other interfaces. As a result, non-standard technical solutions become possible, which 10 years ago they never dreamed of. And nothing contradicts the standards. In zone 0, only electrical equipment with a housing protection class of at least IPX7 is used. The first digit does not play a role, and protection from wetting must withstand short immersion in water.
Zone 1 is limited to the floor, a horizontal plane at a height of 2.25 minus the volume of a bath or shower tray. It goes vertically in the area of water pouring. Here water heaters can already be located( 220 V).There are no restrictions for equipment NORM.Protection of the hull of the equipment is carried out by IPX5( must withstand the action of the jet).
Zone 2 begins on the floor and ends at a height of 2.25.It is 60 cm away from the outer vertical boundaries of zone 1. It is impossible to install appliances with a power of 220 V. These are, for example, washing machines that are customarily located here. It is permissible to have lamps with double or reinforced insulation( class II electrical protection).In the first three zones( 0, 1 and 2), only the installation of concealed electrical wiring intended for powering devices located in the specified area is allowed.
The third zone
Zone 3 is a place where it is not forbidden to install switchboards and boxes directly. It starts right behind zone 2 and lasts 2.4 meters. Like the rest of the area, it is limited by the floor and the horizontal plane at a height of 2.25 meters. Strange - here it is not forbidden to install switchboards and boxes, but with the requirements for the protection of the enclosure on IPX1 what else to expect? Most devices have a housing that allows installation on the street, in the rain and snow. Any switchboard is made according to strict standards. Sockets in zone 3 are connected via individual isolating transformers, differential automatic machines with a threshold of not more than 30 mA or a system with low supply voltage( 50 V AC or 120 V DC).BSNN allows a list of power sources, including batteries and isolation transformers. So, the sockets in the bathroom are allowed to be installed, starting with zone 3.
In other sources, the area directly above the bathroom, above 2.25 meters from the floor, is called the second. Is it right? Let's think about it.
For example, zone 3 lasts 2.4 meters. Behind her - the absence of any restrictions! Everything located above 2.25 meters from the floor is not limited. Total absence of zones. Therefore, it is permissible to put junction boxes in the bathroom, from them to continue further wiring. The same applies to zone 3. Restrictions apply exclusively to the enclosure protection class( IPX1).Put junction boxes on health. Even a shield is permissible to stick.
The authors measured the standard bathroom, it turns out that the door is quite allowed to put the equipment. Look at the picture illustrating the situation. It can be seen that at the entrance to the bathroom, on the right by the door there is a small area of zone 3 16 cm wide. There will be a switchboard of the corresponding sizes for a couple of thousand rubles. The degree of protection of the case of such devices is much higher than the specified IPX1.The only restriction will apply to public bathrooms, where requirements rise to IPX5.Here you will need to choose a switchboard according to GOST.
Above the bathroom, of course, it is wet. How does it relate to zones according to GOST 50571.11?We believe that the standard was written in order to save lives, to minimize risks. The junction box above the bathroom is certainly protected( by IP), otherwise the equipment will simply become unusable. This alignment of forces is no longer a threat to human life. Simply choose the equipment( junction box) according to the conditions. Protection of sockets from water is not discussed - if you flood it, automatic machines will work.
Where to put the junction box in the bathroom
According to GOST 50571.11 it turns out that junction boxes can not be put in zones 0, 1 and 2. And in other places it is permissible. For example, under the ceiling, above 2.25 meters from the floor. Installation in zone 3 is allowed. In PUU 7, a ban on the installation of switchboards in bathrooms is not prescribed. On the above reason it is stated:
- It is not allowed to place switchboard rooms under shower rooms, bathrooms, sinks, and other objects associated with wet technological processes. Disclaimer - an exception is allowed when waterproofing measures are taken. It should be noted that the switchboard rooms are rooms, where the mass of distribution cabinets, cables and other facilities of the same kind. This is not a single object, but their accumulation. In the bathroom is not placed. But there is no direct prohibition. It is simply written that switchboard rooms, as a rule, are available exclusively to service personnel. At the site, this is realized by the presence of a padlock( or built-in) lock, and in the bathroom, by definition, there is no such thing.
- We rely on the fact that there should be no branches of water pipes in the room and the presence of sewage in any form in switchboard rooms. Mentioned excludes the installation of such equipment in the bathrooms. We remind you that we are talking about powerful group devices: input devices( devices at the entrance of the supply line to the building or its part), main switchboards( supplying the building), distribution points. According to the letter of the law, homeowners are not entitled to install equipment in the bathroom, and there is no direct ban for apartment owners. The input device of the apartment is the equipment standing on the staircase, protected by a lock, for which the above requirements are met.
Separately, the standard specifies electrical wiring in the bathroom. Do not use wires and cables with metal insulation, shields( metal corrugation and sleeves are prohibited).The wiring is usually hidden, the requirements for insulation apply to lines laid on the surface and not deeper than 5 cm thick. The explanations are given in 413.2 GOST 50571.3.Reinforced insulation of class II or equivalent is used.
According to GOST, reading between the lines, the conclusions are obvious:
- Enclosures for any equipment provide for complete insulation. We believe powder paint on switchboards is quite suitable for the definition. Because, despite the requirements of clause 413.2.3 of GOST 50571.3, it is massively used in outdoor conditions.
- Do not use equipment without a grounded potential equalization system. The line unites pipes, bathtubs, equipment cases.
- It is not allowed to lay phase wires inside the distribution panel without insulation. It is required very carefully to seal the wiring in the circuit breakers and other devices. And contact pads reliably isolate( how to do it - question ten).
- Finally, an obvious fact: at the entrance to the apartment, preferably in the drive plate, you need to install a differential circuit breaker with a threshold of no more than 30 mA( power not less than the RCD input).With this we fulfill indirectly the requirements of GOST 50571.11 in terms of the placement of sockets. From indirect sources it can be concluded that any equipment operated in high humidity conditions is protected by differential automata. Note that the switchboard on the pillar of such funds is deprived. And he often gets wet in the rain.
- Important fact: in damp conditions it is forbidden to open the inner door of the switchboard. Under the line power-off keys, special slots( windows) are made. We did not find direct indications of legislation on this( similarly discussed in clause 413.2.6 of GOST 50571.3), but this is done everywhere in practice, therefore, it would be nice to extend the experience to an apartment.
- The doors of the switchboard for children and animals are firmly locked. If built-in is not suitable, it is allowed to use mounted( the ears are mounted by the master of the switchboard).The main thing is not to conflict with the requirements of GOST 50571.3, which refers to the inadmissibility of the use of fasteners( a number of clauses in section 413.2) that may in some cases break the insulation.
After a set of similar activities, the switchboard in the bathroom is no longer dangerous. It is recommended to choose models of boxes with the case impenetrable for moisture and steam. The wiring is usually hidden, without metal screens.
Can or Cannot?
Paragraph 7.1.52 of OLC 7 is known, where a ban is imposed on any switchgear inside bathrooms. Previously, the document was of a recommendatory nature, but since 2002 a number of provisions have been enacted by law, however, it has been constantly revised. GOST 50571.11 introduces a number of prohibitions, and the EMP 7 tightens these measures. As a result, we conclude that the installation of any switchgear in the bathroom is prohibited.
Laws Mass. Someone noticed the gaps and patched through the EIR.There are not requirements, but recommendations. For example, for zones 0 and 1, it is recommended, according to SP 31 110, to use differential automata with a response threshold not higher than 10 mA.If possible, wiring in the bathroom that carries electricity to the fan should be powered from 12 V. The fan often stands in zones 1 or 2, where the use of 220 V for such devices is not allowed.
It is necessary to thoroughly know the rules in order to perform proper wiring.