Responsible measure when organizing home wiring is the process of grounding electrical appliances. Based on general recommendations, it is easy to pick up a protective circuit breaker and, without any difficulty, it is convenient to place sockets. Where in the apartment to find the bus grounding wiring - the main question. In a private house, a hole is dug around the perimeter of the outer wall, a steel bar is hammered, and welded to the frame. And along the basement of the high-rise building there is a blind area. It is strongly not recommended to use the grounding bus for lightning conductor when arranging the wiring. When lightning strikes, the capacitance of the equipment will fully charge, it is dangerous. Because many people are seriously concerned about the question of how to properly do the wiring in the apartment.
The ground loop of the electrical wiring in the apartment
The house, built after 1997, does not cause complications. Each phase of the wiring is laid with a three-core cable, i.e., a ground loop is present. Just look at the cables: the ground is located on the green( yellow-green).This means that a thick five-core cable or five separate conductors are suitable for the access shield. The branch is conducted through a clutch or distributor. The marking of the ground loop is read as PE, the neutral is N.
The old TN-C wiring system uses four wires, and the wiring is not grounded in the apartment. The role of the neutral is played by the central point of the transformer in the substation. The ground point and the house connect several kilometers of copper cable. Resistance is sometimes significant. A simple two-core cable PVA section of 6 square millimeters has a resistance of about 3 ohms per kilometer bay. It is optimal for home wiring.
As for arranging the wiring in the apartment, you will have to pull the cable through the basement or through the air, pay attention to the performance characteristics:
- Climatic version. The letter Y marked moderate annual conditions. CL - stands for cold climate. The remaining letters for Russia are suitable for the organization of electrical wiring in the apartment.
- Figure - placement category, must be at least 2, this cable is designed for rooms with conditions close to the street - various basements.
It should be understood that the current through the ground loop is very moderate. For example, a voltage of 60 volts will fall from the input filter of the washing machine. The meager electron flow is due to parasitic oscillations of the amplitude of the power signal. The perceptible current will appear in the ground loop only in case of a contingency situation in the apartment's territory - insulation breakdown, contact with live parts of the appliance.
A serious task is to perform electrical wiring in the apartment if there is no ground loop in the house. Signs of this:
- A terminal on the shield with which it is connected to one of the incoming cables. The simplest design is a steel plate with a protruding screw, where a nut is screwed, which presses the pile of wires. Wires are connected to the steel case of the access shield.
- Nearby there is a distributor in three phases. The simplest option is a block, securely insulated from the body of the shield, with three screws. Each nut presses one phase.
- Power wires from the lower floor includes four pieces - three phases of 380 V voltage and a neutral( central point of the transformer).The veins are both separate powerful cables, and together. Visually similar.
The problem of grounding is solved. Let's see a number of ways:
- A battered option is to dig in near the balcony of a typical ground loop. Minus - such arbitrariness may attract unnecessary attention of neighbors and representatives of municipal services. The process itself is quite primitive: as a tire to the balcony, a steel strip is hung - by analogy with the lightning rod of a standard panel high-rise building.
- The second option is more original. Normative documentation states that metal and reinforced concrete structures of buildings and structures that are in contact with the ground, including, are used as natural grounding conductors.reinforced concrete foundations of buildings and structures with protective waterproofing coatings in non-aggressive, slightly aggressive and moderately aggressive environments. Practically - the wall reinforcement is suitable for the organization of grounding. If during the construction the foreman made sure that the workers meticulously welded the internal grid of steel bar, this circuit would be perfect. Firstly, it will not be necessary to leave the apartment, secondly, the natural route is ready.
- The third option is based on the position that the lightning rod of the house is connected to a properly made ground loop. The safety rules in the USSR were observed unconditionally. This means that a steel frame is necessarily stuck in the ground. It remains to call the electrician and clarify its location. True, the work is expensive, you have to do it half-legally. It threatens with a fine for arbitrariness, damage to public property and illegal redevelopment.
Experienced people recommend writing a letter to the director of the management company and outlining the situation. Indicate that the grounding must be present in the circuits in accordance with the requirements of the PES( PES 7, Section 7.1), any legal entity must comply with the regulatory documents in accordance with the order of the Ministry of Energy of July 8, 2002( for objects under construction and reconstruction)The electrical circuit to the dashboard is serviced property. Then ask to consider the possibility of reconstructing the existing electrical wiring in terms of supplementing it with a ground wire using the TN-S or TN-C-S system. To conduct the wiring in the apartment from the meter is available to any man.
How to conduct electrical wiring in an apartmentDo not confuse with soldering boxes( where several wires are joined).In the dashboard there are brackets where the RCD and differential protection switches for electrical wiring in the apartment are being recruited. It takes into account the location of sockets, the consumption of kitchen and other household appliances, limiting and working currents. The main thing is to remember that the equipment in contact with water is connected through differential circuit breakers.
The installation of a switchboard is carried out either under plaster, or on a dowel-nails on the wall. It provides enough space for all branches:
- Each room is divided into three branches: lighting, sockets, climate control equipment. For example, poured neighbors, turn off unnecessary. Other parts of the apartment will continue to operate in typical mode.
- Glazed balcony, supplied with electric current, becomes a separate branch.
- Special requirements impose a kitchen. Cooking surfaces and ovens are powerful consumers, they get a separate branch.
Next, the total consumption is considered. It should not exceed the capacity of the access guard guard. For new buildings - from 13 to 15 kW.In old houses there are security machines of various denominations, incl.on the landing. That is, there is complete chaos. It is unambiguous that the total consumption of living space should not exceed the capabilities of the network.
Let's add an important factor: the figure 50АВ in the marking of the automatic protection means that it will withstand 11 kW for an indefinitely long time. But they use two limits with coefficients 1.15 and 1.45, respectively. It turns out the power of 12.65 kW and 15.95 kW.In this case, the shutdown occurs with a decent delay - 1 and 2 hours, respectively. That is, when you turn on the instantaneous water heater or other powerful consumer for 5 minutes, there is no threat that other devices will fail.
For the proper wiring in the apartment take into account the power flowing through each branch. For illumination, the diameter of copper conductors is 1.5 mm, for sockets from 2.5 and above. Ovens, electric cooking surfaces, instantaneous water heaters from 4 kW for safety require a cable section of 6 square meters.mmThe thickness of the wires associated with the cost, so it is important to pre-plan the consumption of the apartment. It is advisable to use reference books, where the maximum currents are given for different numbers of cores and phases.
Drawing up a plan is not a scary procedure. Pros recommend separately draw lighting devices and sockets for wiring in the apartment. Sketch the layout of the rooms on paper everyone can. It is worth discussing with family members where some electrical appliances will be used to properly distribute the outlet outlets. Electricians recommend placing them next to windows and doors where furniture is not located.
Laying wiring in place causes difficulties. Skilled craftsmen use the channels in the wall, masterfully waving broach. In practice, the method is difficult. The phrase “I will conduct an electrician with the help of a cable channel” or “self-grind the walls with a grinder in the right places” is introduced into a stupor. In practice, this means an ugly plastic box along the wall in the first case or in fact an overhaul in the second.
In fact, there are additional opportunities. In old houses, a reserve was often mounted, copper wire was duplicated with aluminum. Using the latter increases tire resistance by half. Correctly conduct the wiring in the apartment can not every master, but will ask for a mountain of money. This explains why there are many who want to do a home electrician with their own hands. Those wishing to dissolve the electrical wiring in the apartment without amateurs recall, broach made of the following materials:
- Fiberglass show themselves well in work. Due to the absence of a rigid rod, they sometimes break. No negative reviews.
- Steel is a hard cable packed in nylon, a good material for wiring in the apartment.
- Nylon are cheaper, they are soft. There is an opinion that, when performing wiring in an apartment personally, it is better to use this material rather than hammering a wall with a wall chaser.