Sewing machine is fast, smooth. Originally invented by means of replacing human labor. Cope to this day. A person who does not hold needles in his hands easily sews thousands of stitches, after a few minutes, modern models are able to make drawings. Be able to set the program correctly. The rest of the technique will perform automatically. Innovations, incredible skills based on the principle of the first sewing machine, numbering more than one century old. At first, the fabric was moved by hand, the needle went up and down, and gradually the technology came to its present form. The device sewing machine is simple, as everyone would think, assessing the speed and quality of work.
The knock of a needle that beats the steel table of a sewing machine is known to the older generation. Youth grows in different conditions. The textile industry is making rapid strides forward, depriving the seamstress of the former semantic field. Purchasing knitwear does not need to refine, decorate.
Sewing Machine Device
The sewing machine device is based on the shuttle. Visible from above - the tip of the iceberg, the main thing below. Under the sewing machine table runs a shuttle. At first glance, not everyone will understand the location of the details. We explain:
- Take out the bobbin. Usually the part is located behind the sliding door under the needle. To pull out the bobbin, bend the small lever, which is sharpened on the end, behind which the shiny steel wrap of the coil is pulled out slightly towards you and upwards. Easy effort drag.
- Inside the bobbin you will notice a coil. Thread before sewing is inserted into the slot of the bobbin, then the first turn of the flywheel is pulled up, placed next to the upper thread.
- The bobbin is often equipped with a small screw, the head under the slot. An important detail regulating the tension of the lower thread. If the parameter is set incorrectly, skip upper, lower stitches. Both threads are stretched too tightly - there will always be cliffs.
- Happens, the bobbin refuses to be pulled out. Try, first, to lift the needle with a lever. Then turn the shaft, helping the needle to go above the worktable. If it does not help, gently rotate the bobbin to the sides for a bent nose, constantly trying to pull it out.
- Holes, cuts, and grooves may be present on the coil. They do not affect the operation of the sewing machine, they can be used for winding the thread with a drive. A special mode of operation, read the instructions in more detail.
- Pay attention to a fine detail: while the spout is bent, the coil cannot be pulled out of the bobbin. A smooth reassembly process is ensured when holding the bobbin nose, it is necessary to insert it into the sewing machine.
- Therefore, to pull out the coil, the spout should be pressed back. Spout is mounted on a movable flat parts, a spring pushing away from the body of the sleeve. The pressing is tight, while the sewing machine rarely fails.
- On the case of the bobbin, a long projection prevents the parts from rotating by following the coil or the drive of the shuttle. Where is the shuttle itself?
A shaped piece rotates back and forth around the bobbin( in the state inserted in the sewing machine): the shuttle. The connecting rod provides movement back and forth along a return path. You can see with your eyes the movement. Steel sheets of the desktop surface are unscrewed. Below them, rotating the flywheel, the needle moves up and down when it prepares to rise above the table( 5 mm below the surface), a sharp grip flies up. Shuttle, more precisely - the nose of the shuttle. Between the needle and the detail the distance is tiny, they should not fight against each other. If the gap is 0.5 mm, skip stitches will start. The needle moves, the fabric moves, and the leaky fabric remains unstitched. The adjustment of the mutual position of the needle and the shuttle begins.
- First, inspect the needle holder. Usually there is a mechanism here that allows the needle to move a little along the axis of the sewing machine, moving it closer or away from the shuttle. The distance is tiny, the adjustment range will allow you to adjust the mechanism as needed. The needle holder is pierced with a hole, bolts are screwed in from both sides. The necessary is equipped with a flat head, it is impossible to pick up a hand. Shifting deeper, out the needle holder, adjust the parameter( gap).
- Note that each needle of the sewing machine carries a flat edge on one side. It is necessary to properly insert into the needle holder, otherwise the result will be the same as increasing the gap: the technique will stop sewing. The needle is uneven, in principle, the defect is visible to the naked eye. Turn over the other side - a gap of about 1 mm is formed with all the ensuing consequences. Even taking a new sewing machine in hand, not knowing which side to put the needle in, try to observe the distance to the shuttle. The correct size is named, on the order of 0.15 mm. Literally thick hair.
- How else to adjust the position? With most sewing machines, the needle holder cannot be moved. Good and bad at the same time. The positive point: the hostess is powerless to accidentally upset the sewing machine, the equipment will not lose the correct settings when sewing from vibrations. The negative point is obvious: to adjust the distance, you will have to disassemble the products, remove the hook body( frame, base), then adjust the position of the structure, placing it under the attachment points of the washer, grinding it with a router( file).Under the force of not every man, not that modest girl.
We do not recommend bending the needle, although this is an obvious and simple method. The literature says nothing about this technique. The needle automatically becomes attached to this sewing machine, it will be necessary to bend new ones in the same way.
Description of the sewing process
The principle of operation of the sewing machine is unchanged: the needle is threading down the upper thread, catching the hook, interlacing with the second. A simple movement serves as the basis for creating zigzags, embroidery. In some professional models, the needle is located on the side to handle the rims, it is difficult to find on the shelves. Telling how the sewing machine is arranged, it is impossible to bypass the attention of the fabric broaching device. Truly a miracle, allowing you to adjust the length of the stitches, save the operator from the need to control the movement of tight fitting parts. The action in the mechanical models is fascinating:
- First, the drive shaft centered on the center, hooked to the flywheel axis by the connecting rod.
- Sideways - two rods rotating synchronously. Engaged in driving a pulling mechanism:
- The first one contains a detail similar to the “dovetail”.Resembles a wrench. The detail moves back and forth along the direction of the fabric.
- The second axis is equipped with a cam inserted in the dovetail opening. Raises-downs the called part.
As a result, the sewing machine works, the detail of the dovetail pushes the broaching teeth, they take steps on the spot. It resembles a human leg: stuck out above the table: pull the fabric, “drown”, run back. It turns out, the material is moving. The span depends on the setting of the sewing machine, adjusts the stitch length. It is made by turning the lever engaged by the axis of the "dovetail".As a result, she turns in the initial position, gives a different step length.
In our opinion, the principle of the sewing machine is close to any motorist. Inside the drive, sometimes tied to the engine. The mechanism through the rod drives the three shaft. More specifically, there is one intermediate axis, from which the three mentioned rotate. The mechanism is durable; for lubrication, holes are cut into the housing, where the standard lubricator passes. The technical characteristics of hand-held sewing machines are good. The product has been operating for half a century and longer without breakdowns.
Add, the tension of the upper thread is regulated by a screw located above the needle holder. There is also a special eye, movable as sewing, does not give the thread to weaken when the needle rises. Without this, it is impossible to use a sewing machine. The flywheel is unscrewed for idle time of the product, the shaft is not turned by the handle. Some cars are equipped with a pedal, which must be constantly pressed with the foot, setting in motion mechanisms. Other types of sewing machines have come down to us from post-war Germany, which has been assisted by the victor countries. No wonder the school previously taught German, not French.
In conclusion, a few words about the device winding. Usually, near the flywheel there is a small pressure wheel with a shaft equipped with a risk. Under it on the table is an ear with another wheel. The coil is put on a vertical pole, from there the thread is thrown over the table for winding on the bobbin. The presser wheel is pressed with a finger, begins to rotate the drive of the sewing machine. If the bottom thread is over, take the end straight from the needle( removing it from the ear).Further actions are the same. Parameters of sewing machines allow you to scribble fabric at the speed of sound, sew, embroider, not being able to hold a needle in your hands, arm yourself, hostesses! About the repair of faithful helpers housewives portal led speech.