The installation of spotlights depends on the ceiling material. Sometimes, illuminations are placed on the walls. The task is simple - to find a spotlight, which would not blink, not warm up and fit the specified conditions. More often, as a result, one has to buy structures with LEDs. Let's see how the selection and installation of spotlights in practice.
Installation of a spotlight: surface types
Incandescent bulbs go out of fashion, and the bit is too large. We will illustrate the first by regularity: after 2010, the brainchild of Lenin from 100 W and above began to disappear from the stores. Apparently, the government is implementing a plan to save energy. As the experts of Channel One put it, henceforth the glow bulbs are outlawed. With bit everything is obvious: too large dimensions do not yet allow these products to take their rightful place. And the products under the base E27 are too dull. According to the existing construction solutions for the design of the ceiling there is a similar number of varieties of spotlights.
For stretch ceilings are usually used LEDs. The arguments resulted above. Features are in the design. Usually canvas stretch ceiling is not able to hold spotlights. The ceiling for each item is attached by a steel bracket with adjustable height. The design adjusts flush with the canvas.
It is convenient to work on a laser level. Able to quickly arrange and adjust all brackets. Any contains on a plastic ring, which is pressed through the gasket to the canvas.
Then electricity is distributed to each point, the ceiling is stretched according to plan. Holes in the canvas are cut after. A reference point are rings made of plastic, mounted on brackets. The canvas is outlined in a circle with an edge and is divided into sectors coming from the center. The ends are bent inward.
The installation of the luminaire begins next. The first is the installation of electrical wires. Along the perimeter of the lamp is two spring clips, you will need to bring up to the stop. Then the point is put on the seat. On top of the spring, dropping down, tightly pressed the lamp to the plastic ring bracket. From below, there is occasionally an additional, screwed up afterwards.
A test run is carried out, if everything is in order, the installation of spotlights in the suspended ceiling is completed. We attach a picture of the disks exposed in the showcase under the spring-mounted spotlights, as well as the withdrawn goods from the reverse side and placed on the table. Small differences are noticeable, for example, in the photo you can see that a wall is used as a wall, which differs little from drywall. Therefore, it is a combined, universal option.
Drywall serves for leveling. Hides the joints of plates, other minor irregularities. At the same time it becomes possible to carry out insulation and noise insulation work. Stretch ceiling of PVC is considered, rather, a decorative element. At the same time over the drywall passes all wiring. Holes for lamps in the described case is easier to cut in advance.
Good news - there are no fastening brackets, you don’t have to perforate the ceiling and, most importantly, adjust the slits for the location of the spotlights. Minus is reduced to the possibility of a great mistake when marking. The question is how to break a round hole in drywall. Usually for this use a crown or Forstner drill bit of the desired diameter. By marking a jigsaw will do a good job.
You can manually wield a knife. It is recommended to cut paper covers on both sides, then drill a hole in the center, cut across sectors by any method and slowly break. The lamp starts up a little differently than in the previous version. There are no rings, and the springs are bifurcated with a fork. Long ends are pressed against the cartridge and the installation of spotlights in the drywall in place. Then you will need to slightly push the outside, so that the case reached under the action of the spring and firmly fits into place. Do not forget to connect the power supply.
The third option is to install fixtures on Armstrong ceilings. The surface consists of square tiles( less often of another shape), which are replaced independently of each other. In this regard, to install a spotlight you will need to find a tile on the model. Such ceilings are usually placed in large offices. A single tile equipped with discharge lamps or LEDs is considered a spotlight. Installation of sections is carried out on an aluminum profile, drawn to the ceiling with steel cables. Due to this, the construction is durable; there is no weight limit for the tile. Below we describe the most common options, but for now just note that the wire is pulled to the connection point for 220 V and, if required, grounding. Then the usual procedure for replacing a square cell with a new one is performed.
When installing a suspended ceiling, 10 cm is left from the ceiling. This is required from the installation conditions of spotlights. Typical requirements - indent in the upper hemisphere exactly by 100 mm. Staples for mounting plastic rings are not counted here.
Design of ceiling luminaires.
. Armstrong ceiling luminaires are manufactured on the basis of LEDs. It is not too cheap, which allows firms to earn. And we save and get the benefit:
- LEDs show a long service life. Typical values go up to 50,000 hours. This is a long decades of impeccable work.
- High fault tolerance due to low sensitivity to vibrations. What can not be said about the discharge lamp, the more the filament.
- LED spotlights are extremely economical. Give odds to any type. To obtain illumination of 450 lm will require 6 watts of energy. A couple of times less than for gas-discharge lamps, and much lower when compared with the filaments.
- With LEDs, it becomes possible to select a color temperature parameter. This is important for creating the right biological rhythms of a person. In the evening, the temperature of light is provided for warm tones, and during the cold day( see photo).On the package indicates the class of consumption of the device. On this basis it is easy to distinguish incandescent bulbs with white glass from LED, where the bulb is covered with phosphor. This, as it is easy to guess, is considered a key point. The picture shows the packaging of the lamp with energy efficiency class A +( according to the marking of the European Union).
Please note that the light bulb becomes such a serious product due to its high price, that its dimensions are on the package, and on the base there is a serial number entered in the check with a guarantee. A free-of-charge replacement is made in the event of a failure for as long as( on the example of Camelion) three years. We have already carried out an example of calculation, where we showed that the product pays off in a matter of months. If we talk about LED bulbs, they are divided by the supply voltage( 12 V DC or 220 V AC) and the size of the cartridge.
The picture shows the product with the thread E27.In Russian practice, the dimensions of the cartridges are indicated: the
- E27 is the most common. There people are accustomed to twist the light bulbs Ilyich.
- E14 is now coming into fashion. Often, LED spotlights are made to the specified size( diameter of the threaded portion is 14 mm).
- E10 and E40 are rarely found in everyday life.
When connecting spotlights, make sure that the power of the light bulb does not exceed that indicated on the cartridge or plastic ring. For example, in our figure there is a limit of 50 watts. This is the actual power consumption of the halogen bulb. Look at the type of cap. It is not threaded( E), but a pin( G5.3).This is a key point when choosing light bulbs for spotlights. But even within the subspecies there are nuances. After the letter G sometimes go, except for numbers, and additional letters: U, X, Y, Z. And, by and large, not interchangeable. For this reason, a small error can lead to great trouble.
If you look at the photo, on the cartridge you can see the designation MR16, the word-synonym for G5.3( two-pin cartridge for 5.33 mm for standard halogen lamps of frame size MR16).In addition, the case indicates the electrical protection class, in our case the ip20.It shows where it is allowed to connect 220V spotlights( for the bathroom and the bathroom, the class is too small, the kitchen and living rooms remain).For places with high humidity, the parameter is tightened( in terms of the growth of significant figures).Other information relates to the classification of the manufacturer by type of spotlights.
So, the task of how to connect spotlights, is not considered decisive. It is important to choose a suitable type that influences the amount of light, the heat dissipation( important in the sense of fire safety), the energy consumption class and so on. For example, not every spotlight is suitable for a bathroom. If you need to put a dot in the zones below the third in accordance with GOST 50571, reinforced double insulation is required( electrical safety class II).If you take the case protection class, then the ip20 is not suitable for a bathroom even in the first approximation. The alignment is as follows:
- Zone zero( the bath itself) - electrical appliances with ipX body protection These are cool things. In the sense of isolation, they must withstand temporary short immersion in water. Moreover, the power in the zero zone does not exceed 50 V( AC).The requirements are only for the illumination of the jacuzzi, where ipX8 protection is performed, providing for a “long dive”.
- In zone 1, which is located directly above the bathroom, the requirements for luminaires are simplified to ipX.The mentioned class of devices appears only in zone 2. The backlight of the jacuzzi is performed with a reduced supply voltage( up to 50 V), and the resistance of the body to counteracting penetration and moisture resistance is increased.
- Zone 2 is an area where the use of 220 V spotlights( housing for ipX4) is officially authorized. In this case, the class of electrical protection wiring is not lower than II.And they are located high above the floor, eliminating the chance of splashing. Officially, this stretch extends beyond the vertical boundaries of the bath 0.6 meters to the sides.
- In the zone three requirements are already much lower. Most of the sockets and spotlights( ipX1) will fit. The end of the area is located at a distance of 2.4 meters from the bathroom.
Please note that the requirements for the last two zones in public places are much higher. We explained the reorganization of lighting in the private sector. The main thing is to understand that the type of the case of a spotlight depends strongly on the material of the installation plane. For example, the type shown in the picture strongly rubs the edges of drywall. Therefore, they need to be prepared( ideally - shod in plastic).