Distribution switchboard - housing for mounting a number of brackets for the subsequent installation of circuit breakers. The trick is in assembling the details together. Terminals are used. Known typical methods of installation of automatic protection. We will discuss these positions and talk about how to assemble the switchboard on our own.
According to the standard, the vertical distance between horizontal DIN rails does not exceed 12.5 cm. For the rest, the Wikipedia article slightly deviates from the reality of distribution switchboards. The mass of passive structures is described, but the main purpose is not indicated: distribution switchboards are used for the installation of circuit breakers. Everything together allows you to elegantly arrange complex wiring and, if necessary, turn off the power supply by sector. For example, it is recommended to allocate the listed structural zones in a house:
Electrical shield for the housethat 20 A on the RCD case implies a working current, when it is 14% higher, the device usually works an additional 2 hours. Now, considering that during heavy loads the active period of the welding machine's working cycle is 70%, it will become clear that there will be no unplanned outages.
It is required to choose the correct automatic circuit breakers. Devices differ in classes according to the classification of the disconnecting devices. The first react sensitively to a short-term sharp increase in current, the second pass the position. In the first approximation, pickyness falls, starting with class A and further in the Latin alphabet. Above C is usually not used in apartments, but if there is an asynchronous motor milling machine on the balcony, the policy needs to be revised. The reason: such devices on start-up consume short-term current, up to 7 times the largest of the nominal family. Then the installation of automatic protection from class A to C inclusively can lead to the appearance of false positives.
Moreover, the rated current will remain the same, just the operating conditions differ. It should be noted in particular that all electrical appliances that go to the territory of the bathroom are installed through differential circuit breakers. Similar react to leakage current, and according to the rules of the Russian Federation, the size of the loss does not have the right to exceed 30 mA.It turns out that in order to properly assemble the electrical panel in the apartment, you will have to find out what type of machines, what class and where it is being placed. Then it's time to think about switching.
Switching of wires in the distribution switchboard
According to modern standards, the distribution switchboard provides for grounding. Depending on the specific rules adopted in this structure, the situation is implemented differently. It is forbidden only: to unite in one point the zero and ground wires provided by the builders. This is an important part; you will be tempted to use the same ABB terminal block for both branches. You can not do this.
Manufacturers take this into account, for correct wiring there is an ABB terminal block on the market, electrically consisting of two halves: a zero and a ground wire. From the entrance they come in proud loneliness, then they branch out according to the number of consumers in the apartment. Ground wires are usually smaller, the light sources in the branch do not need. And sockets are supplied without fail. If there is no grounding in the house, it is permissible to combine this circuit with a neutral wire( using a thick jumper, no thinner than a conductor at the entrance to the apartment):
- The screens of computer system units, microwave ovens do not ground.
- Without grounding, input filters of imported and part of Russian equipment are functioning incorrectly. The electronic filling is required to be constantly protected, the composition is exposed to the risk of failure due to the presence of pulsations.
- Without grounding, there is a chance of electrocution of apartment tenants. In this case, leakage to the instrument housing will go unnoticed, with the ensuing consequences.
- Without grounding, differential circuit breakers do not work properly. Most RCDs protect against short circuits. The time of their triggering is clearly unable to withstand a moment, for which human life is lost. The differential automaton will notice the leak immediately.
In the absence of a ground line at the entrance, it is strongly recommended that the side lobes of all sockets be brought to the ABB terminal box, then in the area of the distribution switchboard with a jumper to merge with the zero bus. It will save from trouble. It is noticed: coolers of the system unit of a personal computer have become quieter. The voltage stabilizes, the harmonics disappear, the rotation of the blades occurs evenly.
Distribution of wires in the
panel Other methods have been developed to combine the wiring inside the distribution panel to a single bus. Some will be able to contemplate in the domestic version of Wikipedia by the link above. Under the DIN-rail jumpers are produced for a different number of contacts at a price of 20-50 rubles and above. But jumpers are only a part. They must be placed in the correct enclosures. The whole hassle. We are not surprised that most of these headaches prefer ABB terminal blocks.
Please note that it is not necessary to switch the phase conductor in this way. Just on the entrance edge between jumpers are put jumpers. As for the zero wire, the focus will not work: most of the RCDs do not crash into this branch, with the exception of differential circuit breakers. These involve both branches for operation, both phase and zero.
The above requirements make the installer know the rules of wiring thoroughly, and it is even more difficult to assemble an electrical three-phase shield. Here, even automata are divided by the nature of the chains. In particular, consumers with grounded and insulated neutral are distinguished into three phases. In accordance with this, automatic protection and counters are selected. And do not try to use single-phase equipment in these circuits. Some self-taught people believe that the stipulated is permissible, because at the entrance to the building there is a transformer of 380 V. That is, there are three phases. However, protection in electrical installations for 380 V differ from the usual home ones.
According to the rules within the apartment the phase is the only one. Although sometimes electricians are mistaken, creating deviations from the norm. On the basis of the above reasoning, others will decide that it suffices to find three single-phase circuit breakers and limit it to this. But selected types of equipment are extremely sensitive to nutrition. It requires the presence of three phases at the same time, otherwise failure will follow. This point is necessary to clearly understand and buy the right types of equipment. In other protection machines, there is control over the loss of any phase. In the event of an alarm situation, the power is completely removed, saving equipment from failure.
Assembling a DIN rail to an old
electrical switch board. How to install an
electrical switchboard. It is not enough to properly assemble the flap, it is necessary to correctly put. In reality, we recommend hanging the distribution switchboard at a decent height, where children will not reach. The most convenient way is near the terminal box( the hole in the ceiling where the twist sticks out), next to the doorbell. If to collect compactly, it will be possible to issue a distributing guard under a call. We'll have to break the head over the design.
Height is chosen so that it was easy to get out of the stool. Carry the ladder, not everyone wants, because of fixing switches, for example. It is recommended to sign the machine keys. People are interested in how to assemble an electrical single-phase shield at the entrance to the apartment. We offer to look and do, as in the photo, where the DIN-rail is clipped in place and mounted directly into the old distribution switchboard, it already has a circuit breaker( electrician performs).
If lightning protection is required, the tire goes outside the home. Usually, a copper, more often steel, strip comes down the wall, entering under a blind area that runs along the perimeter. Under the ground, of course, you need to dig in the circuit, and at the entrance to the house connect to the zero and to the ground wire. But this is a new story.