Perform routine household duties greatly facilitate numerous technical devices and equipment. "Tireless worker" illuminate the room, wash, whisk, bake, wash the dishes for us. But just to buy them is not enough, the technique you want to connect correctly, you will agree.
Remember how negative emotions cause triggered the machine, unplug the line due to overload in a very inopportune moment. Quite a bit of pleasure for the damaged boiler, computer, refrigerator. But trouble can be listed corny prevent and eliminate all what we will be happy to help.
To do this, just to find out how is the parallel and serial connection socket for household appliances, in some instances, the "train" scheme and a "star". With this very useful information offered by us will introduce the article.
The content of the article:
- Socket Connectivity
- Mounting with the connectors
- An extra junction box
- Specificity parallel connection
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Today, connection sockets carried out in two ways: in the first settling for each point a separate wiring line, in the second - one branch connected to multiple points.
Type of sockets installed closely related to the kind of wiring: Are single-phase sockets, equipped with grounding or without it, or else set three-phase devices for powering devices that operate at mains voltage in 380Volt.
The vast majority of the technical devices need to be connected to electricity, is located, or confined to the kitchen and the bathroom:
Kitchen - the space in which the appliances are used, connected both to the individual and to the general lines of force
Electrical equipment, differing in capacity, equipped with bathrooms and bathrooms with toilets
If connected in series circuit connected sockets powerful instrument together with other electric and outlet blows
Low-power consumers are supplied from the power points are connected sequentially, one after the other, i.e., loop scheme
To operate the hair dryer, electric toothbrush, electric shaver, hair clippers power points arrange for daisy circuit
A washing machine, a hot tub Jacuzzi system, electronic bidet, etc. is fed from separate power line laid parallel
A similar scheme is valid during installation sockets in the kitchen. Parallel wiring for constructing a refrigerator, microwave, coffee machines powerful
Electric kettles, toasters, blenders, coffee grinder, bread machine run from outlets that are connected in series - a loop
Kitchen - a place of installation of powerful consumers
Electrical equipment in the bathrooms and lavatories
Burnout outlet load exceeding
Connecting train outlets
Hair dryer as a device for supply from the daisy chain outlet
A separate power line for washing machines
Daisy circuit installation sockets in the kitchen
Thin kitchen consumers stub lines
Sockets for power consumers, for example ovens or electric boilers, connected by a separate line. If possible, use the whole cable when mounting pieces, deprived of any connections. Power lines are laid separately from the panel to each point that is somewhat reminiscent of the scheme emanating from the star's rays.
If necessary, the connection of each of the user fed by point must withstand a rated current 16 - 32A. At the current with the same index calculated and standing at the entrance circuit breaker.
Daisy chain is chosen if it is necessary to power the electrical outlet groups. These groups are formed according to the arrangement of home appliances.
Sockets with separate lines - the only true option for the service of powerful domestic appliances such as washing machines or electric stoves
The method involves the connection of all elements to the common feed line wiring.
To be reduced to "no" to the risk of disabling several points, masters recommend one system to include no more than two or three outlets. This point is clearly stated in the joint venture 31-110-2003: connecting train is allowed up to three additional power consumers.
Significant "minus" of such a scheme is that in case of accidental damage to one of the cores in the contact do not work all of the following elements behind it
The only condition - to the total load current does not exceed twice the nominal value of the operating current of the first (head) power consumers.
But, in any case, created in this way the chain is designed for a load, the total index which does not exceed 16A. Failure to comply with the operating conditions is likely creation of an emergency.
When connecting the sockets do not necessarily apply the pure type of wiring. With the right approach can be combined, for example, bring the power supply cable to the junction box. And after her send a cable in a loop, the other to bring separately to the point powering the powerful equipment in the house.
The number of laid off panel supply lines depends on the number of routes is expected to lay the wiring.
To connect the heater with a capacity of 2 kW should provide separate independent outlet, iron also can be safely fed from points connected by way of a loop
Regardless of the type of the selected wiring process can be performed in one of two ways:
- Open - involves wiring on the surface of the wall;
- closed - involves gouging channels for power lines laying in concrete and masonry walls, channel sampling of the wood for the cable, tightened in the corrugated pipe.
Outdoor option is more convenient and simpler with respect to not only the installation, but also maintenance and control. But with respect to the aesthetic aspect of an open wire is not always appropriate. And besides, outdoor installation method "Eats" part of the useful area: Upper cable impossible to hang a shelf or is against the wall furniture.
In the open method for mounting conductor PE protection from mechanical damage and make it more presentable using trunking or skirting of the same plastic
The inner space of the majority cable channels a partition between them conveniently placed wire. Monitoring the condition of the route is carried out through an upper removable part.
Indoor Wiring embodiment convenient that eliminates the possibility of accidental damage to the cable, making it thus imperceptible to others.
To minimize the need for "raskurochivaniya" walls to create cutting grooves, enclosed wiring is performed on the stage of construction or repair work until the implementation finishes
But the "invisibility" closed wiring and can play a cruel joke when trying to "drive a nail." Therefore, there is an unwritten rule: to lay the wire relative sockets vertically or horizontally.
As already noted, a loop process is used to connect the outlets are in the same group, which is fed with low-power devices, such as computers, audio equipment ...
This type of connection is economically profitable and technically simpler. After all, for its realization there is no need to lay a lot of cable and use additional protection. But it is worth noting that each additional point created by the chain will make it more vulnerable.
For example, we know that the rated current of one socket should not exceed 16A. If you connect to a single point this load, nothing terrible will happen. But when you turn on a load at least one outlet in the 2-3 line of her testimony total increase, as a consequence - the power cable can not withstand.
Key condition daisy chaining is that the conductor cross-section will correspond to conductors webs main feedline
According to RB when Daisy Chain is not allowed to break the protective earthing conductor PE conductor. Its contour in any case must remain inseparable.
Reduce material costs while summarizing the PE conductor to the outlet makes use of one of the solutions:
Mounting with the connectors
This connection type is selected if necessary connect sockets which are disposed substantially close to each other.
When the daisy chain bus wire, the power of the failed panel comes to the hot shoe bench Escutcheon. From him, he feeds the first outlet of which through their own contacts food goes to the second outlet of the second - the third.
All the bare wires: blue for the zero "zero", red-brown for "phase" and green-yellow for the "ground" - are connected in parallel
When mounting stub coming and outgoing cables connect directly to the contact portion of the device. For this reason, the master recommended to use models with flat spring contact.
In the extreme case suitable samples whose contacts are formed as pressed against the bolt plate. It is not suitable for this purpose devices in which contact played by an ordinary bolt.
One of the mandatory performance requirements when connecting sockets is the need to train reducing the transition resistance in the circuit between the contact terminals and socket electrical contacts fork.
To achieve the desired effect of the terminals attached to the form, which can increase the contact area itself, but also because of their compression. Connectors «Scotchlok» type are often used today for mounting a protective scratch. Clip-on connector of this type is equipped with insulation displacement contacts.
To create a branch clip-on connector is mounted within a mounting box by placing the device between the bottom and the rosette mechanism
To use the clip-on connector, you should choose the product, which provides extra space for its placement.
After contact of the first phase outlet is fed wire of the supply cable and the PE conductor loop fed further to the second outlet. On the second contact - neutral wires of the supply cable and a cable to the second outlet. The same principle operate to connect the third and subsequent socket if its presence is included a power circuit wiring.
According SEP p.1.7.144 to connect an exposed conductive portion of the device to a grounding or zero conductor, necessary to make a branch in a cavity provided for this purpose housings wiring accessories. Among these are and sockets.
The main task when connecting sockets, equipped with ground - to ensure reliable connection elements throughout the line. After all, if the grounding contact for any reason, blows to the head an outlet, all the rest of the chain will lose the protective zero. And therefore, if necessary, tap the grounding wires are used the most reliable type of connection - crimping.
To perform the molding peeled wire ends lead into the cavity and a special metal sleeve is crimped by means of manual pressing jaw
The method involves the addition to the use of a conventional twisted wire additional isolation and crimping the ends thereof by means of the sleeve. This provides a smooth contact circuit elements and its high mechanical strength.
An extra junction box
This method involves the installation away from the loop switched outlets with a shield connection box or the connecting pads. In this case, the cable branches in the junction box at the site before summing up to Enclosures.
The use of an additional connection box to PE-conductors also allows for connection of the grounding contacts in parallel with the wiring loop outlets
Compounds within the junction box leading to each outlet, often performed by welding. Isolated ends of all conductors is recommended to lay in junction boxes so that they do not overlap or touch each other.
Planning further from the junction box to make a new connection in the installation phase should leave reserve of cable in the 15-20 cm
In both cases, the stub is formed, and from the PE conductor at leading to an outlet phase and zero conductors - branching. Therefore, when looping outlets is important to observe the polarity of the contacts from the terminals with a zero conductor allocate zero. Similarly reported with the phase conductor.
Given the number of operating appliances is necessary number of outlets in the room can reach 10 pieces. Use tees and extensions is not always convenient, and also dangerous. In this case, solve the problem, instead of establishing a single socket outlet blocks.
Rosette design block includes up to four separate elements, connected on the same principle as the single outlet.
The main difference between the scope of the bill rosette block is that each element is collected in a serial loop in it from one to another
When connecting conductors core blocks coupled to any of the methods described. Bare portions insulate the heat shrinkable tube or wrapped with adhesive tape.
Specificity parallel connection
Feature parallel sockets connection diagrams, otherwise known as the "star", is in a separate connection to the shield of each outlet.
The third well-founded called "beskorobochnaya" because It implies the possibility of failure of the terminal boxes. The method is practiced actively in European countries, and we have applied for a separate line of powerful consumers most often in combination with daisy chain technology.
One of the variants of the parallel circuit exhibits a selection of photos:
When the device of the buried wire cable for parallel connection sockets can be laid in a common Stroebe
In analogy to daisy circuit constructed and flush socket can be used, each of which is put three-wire cable
Enclosures are installed in a selected recess in the wall and secured with cement or plaster solution
Enclosures edge should be positioned flush with the wall plane. Convinced of this, the space around the plaster
Each Enclosures should be 10 - 15 cm of its own three-core cable, which is necessary to release the 10 cm of total isolation
With wires freed from the overall insulation is removed own shell polymer 10 mm
To each of the groups of wires connected sockets own mechanism based on the designated terminal manufacturer
Connected in parallel working parts common outlets closed front panel
Step 1: The hidden cabling in parallel
Step 2: Prepare to Install Paired Escutcheon
Step 3: Mount Enclosures in the prepared wall
Step 4: Aligning the walls around the set Enclosures
Step 5: Remove the total cable insulation
Step 6: Remove the insulation from the zero phase and earth
Step 7: Parallel installation of sockets
Step 8: Installing and fixing common front panel
Plus, the "stars" to ensure maximum safety. Weighty advantage is to provide the ability to manage large energy consumers individually, that the priority for the power wiring for "Smart House", eg. Minus schemes lies in the impressive cost electrician working in almost threefold increase in cable consumption.
Parallel circuit is also used to connect the three-phase power outlets that will supply the electrical powerful. In this cross section, the feeding such consumers should be at least 2.5 square meters. mm.
For greater reliability they need to have a small supply of current. This will compensate for the actual deviation from the specified diameter of the manufacturer of their nominal value, than often "sin" products on the market today. In addition, this solution will enable equipment operation in overload mode.
Such an installation method is advantageous in that the operability of each individual point will not affect the operation of other circuit members. For home appliances such circuit is considered the most stable and secure.
Parallel way of connecting sockets ensures the independence of each power point: no matter how many outlets in the chain was not present, the voltage will be kept uniform
Connection of a three-phase outlet, equipped with grounding is performed via the four-separate wiring. Cable comprising three phase grounded and zero, it goes directly from the shield.
Purpose Wire easiest way to determine the color of the insulation:
- "Phase" - wire with white tinge;
- "Zero" - isolation colored blue;
- "Grounding" - a braid of yellow-green color.
Ground - in fact, protective zero. To keep it as such, you must ensure that it is reliable and constant connection throughout the entire line.
To connect the wires and connect to the power outlet first thing shorten their ends. The use side cutters allow the most carefully do the job. The end of each wire 15-20 mm smooth out the external insulation with a sharp knife.
Compound wires operate in the following sequence:
- With socket remove plastic protective cover.
- The clamping screws are loosened by 5-6 mm. Those doing a manipulation with a screw and the ground terminal.
- The bare ends of the wires in turn led into the box with the provision of input terminals and placed in the appropriate slots.
- Sockets with wires laid firmly tighten screws.
- Escutcheon with connecting wires are inserted into the niche wall and fix the side clamps.
To obtain a more reliable assembly of some master bared ends of the cores wound into a loop or ring, so that their diameter corresponds to the size of the screw feet.
Circuit is used not only for powering the separately located outlets, but also for connecting blocks including two or more points
Thereafter, each screw alternately spun, wrap its base ring and wire tightly tightened.
at connecting sockets blocks scheme all the advantages are retained. The only thing - the connection process takes a little more time and effort.
Increased costs - not an argument for those for whom the priority of safety. If you look at the situation more globally, that sometimes it is better to put more money and effort, equipped with autonomous power line to the socket. Then you do not have to every time thinking about whether you can use a point for connection of an electrical appliance.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Video # 1. Application Guide daisy chain fashion:
Video # 2. Detailed introduction to one of the safest options for connection sockets:
Provided that the amount spent for household needs electricity every year only increases, and because the requirements for reliability sockets are bound to increase, yet prefer to be parallel circuit wiring. Especially when it comes to major energy users.
To power the lamps, electric alarm clocks and similar devices suitable connectivity option train.
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