Organization of the ground loop in a private houseMore often, the owners are engaged in choosing the system they like, the main thing is to go deeper into the ground. As a result, the output resistance should not exceed 4 ohms. The connection to the home network is made of copper or steel wire, the design is welded with reliable joining of components.
Connecting a water heater
In order to ground the water heater in the country, you need the ability to cook and the desire to dig. Today, two designs are offered:
- The simplest one suggests to dig a hole 80 cm deep and 30 cm wide. The length is 5 m, the more - the less resistance will come out. To re-dig a ditch for the organization of grounding in a private house there are few who want. By taking the length with an interval of 1 m, steel rods with a thickness of 25 mm to a depth of 100 cm are driven into the bottom. Special machines for the operation are invented. A piece of earth for grounding in a private house under pressure is screwed into the ground by an electric motor. It is permissible to use for these purposes pile foundation, sold in any store. Its protective coating prevents the passage of a direct current tester, but for a frequency of 50 Hz, the situation is different. The paint layer forms capacitive resistance. The value can be checked with a tester for each pile. When screwing in, a part of the corrosion protection is scraped off, this is enough for current to flow into the wet ground.
- In the second case, it is proposed to dig a hole with a depth of at least 1.5 - 2 meters, where the welded steel frame is put. It takes a simple iron, gradually rusting and rotting. It is recommended to periodically monitor the grounding resistance in a private house.
It is believed that the best material to create a ground loop will be copper stakes or steel coated with copper. In the latter case, the thickness of the non-ferrous metal layer going to the grounding of a private house is taken not less than 250 microns. This is due to the fact that the pin is experiencing mechanical stress, deformation during driving in place. The greater the depth, the more lowered the resistance. According to the standards of foreign countries, the depth is not less than 2.4 meters. At the same time, the resistance of the pins slightly depends on the diameter of the pins. As already indicated above, fittings of 25 mm will completely disappear. A further increase is impractical: an increase in the diameter of two times leads to a decrease in resistance by 10%.
As for the place of organization of the contour, it is known that the worst of all is the flow of soil from gravel, sand, and stones. If possible, choose clay or chernozem. Especially well, if the soil is wet. It will be sufficient to deepen the contour to the level of groundwater, passing extremely close to the surface. In most cases, to make the ground at the cottage in the marshland, it is enough to hammer a single steel stake into the ground. Pay attention to the corrosion factor, gradually the unprotected metal will begin to collapse.
Consider an additional factor. Soil moisture directly affects conductivity, with a decrease in temperature, the parameter drops sharply. In this regard, for the winter period it seems ideal to organize a contour where the soil does not freeze, for example, a barn with hayloft and similar places. It is not recommended to use a basement for these purposes, when organizing a room, a sand cushion is specially used as a drainage, concrete base for waterproofing and other measures that prevent normal grounding in a private house.
Of course, when building a new building, it is ideal to bring the contour under the bottom of the sump, where there are no frosts. Repair in this case is impossible, but if you think about everything correctly and properly pick up materials, the design will be eternal. We'll have to study the nature of the chemical reactions between waste and future grounding material in a private house. At the same time, the proper depth of penetration of the metal into the soil column is ensured.
According to the requirements of the standard, a copper conductor for grounding detects a cross section of 10 square millimeters or higher, for aluminum - 16. If the neutral and earth channels in the TN-C-S system somewhere diverge, it is no longer possible to combine them on the consumer side. For example, according to the standard, it is allowed to have a neutral on the circuit of the lightning rod in the basement, but then( along the line) the two tires( neutral and ground) should not touch each other anywhere. It turns out that the stairs, access switchboards or sockets in the apartments of consumers.
We add that when organizing grounding lines, their distribution between consumers often uses copper or covered with a specified metal strip. Thickness in the latter case is permissible at 75 microns. The indicator is enough, the strip, unlike the stakes and pins, fit into the already finished channels. Consider the above, when solving a problem, how to properly make grounding in a private house. Remember, copper is expensive. Two meters of the strip cost 100 rubles( with a weight of 2 kg, 30 x 4 mm).It is more profitable to look for steel with a conductive coating. The resistance will be high, but in the electrolytic method of applying the contact is obtained relatively dense, this is enough in practice. At the same time, we obtain the durability and strength of the tire used for grounding a private house.
How to organize grounding in a private house
It is strictly forbidden to organize the ground loop by means of gas or water pipes. It was decided to emphasize this point after once in a network essay noticed complaints about the fact that now all communications are plastic. By the way, the electric stove is definitely grounded - a spark from a candle makes its way. .. directly onto the body! It is easy to get a sensitive discharge if you grab onto the sink with your second hand.
How to control the grounding resistance in a private house
The magnitude of the earth resistance is expected to be the smallest. Moreover, it is sometimes more difficult to ground the antenna in the country than to provide reliable protection against electric shock from household appliances. In the case of radio electronics, even tens of ohms are important. Poor grounding will distort the antenna radiation pattern, which will negate the calculation effort. If you take the industry mentioned, a counterbalance is made much more often. It mimics the "ground", but the organization of the contour is not required.
When it comes to equipment for 380 or 220 V, with leakage, all current must immediately flow away from people. The wire from the body goes to the ground, in the event of a breakdown of the insulation, it is the first to knock out the plugs. At the same time, human life is preserved. Security text texts are usually written in blood. Therefore, if it is stated that the earth resistance is 4 ohms, it is forbidden to exceed. To measure the nominal simple tester will not do.
Measuring grounding resistance in a private house with the aid of an
light bulb. To measure the grounding resistance in a private house, amateurs offer an original method. The light bulb is supposed to be connected to the phase with one end and the other into the circuit. The lamp will light up, but only part of the voltage will drop on the spiral. The second will arise due to the resistive divider between the ground conductors and the resistance of the filament. The actual value on the light bulb will not be 220 V, but slightly less. It remains from a simple relationship to find the desired potential. From the magnitude of the mains voltage subtract the potential falling on the light bulb.
If there is no certainty that there is 220 V in the network. .. we take and stick the tester probe directly into the socket. Then the potential measured in the first part is subtracted from this value. At the same time, it is necessary to measure the current along the circuit, and the grounding resistance in a private house is calculated using a simple formula:
R = U / I,
where U is the voltage drop across the ground( 220 V minus the value measured in the first part of the experiment);I is the current value in the series circuit formed by the bulb and our circuit. resistance measurement circuit
Both measurements( voltage and current) are allowed to be carried out by a tester, commuting as required. The layout of the experiment is given in Figure .Finally, it remains to find the phase wire of the socket, for example, using a special probe with an indicator in the form of a light bulb. Such simple manipulations will help to properly make the ground in the country with the simplest Chinese multimeter.
If there is a second ground loop
If there is a second ground loop, it is acceptable to remove the voltage directly from the output terminal. The second probe tester starts up on the reference. The potential between the contours means the difference. Dividing the value by the current, we obtain approximately the desired resistance of the circuit. Remark - the reference electrode should be as far as possible from the main electrode to eliminate the mutual influence of the two objects. By the way, for the purpose of measuring voltage, one of the voltmeter probes can even be led to a battery or a gas pipe, high voltage will not go there.
It is more convenient for the owners to use this technique. The pipes, gas and sewer will fit. If only there was a certainty that they were leaving for the “earth”.Read more about the methodology in GOST R 50571.16-99, where, as a recommendation, the provision is given in Appendix C. Do not blame the review authors for being too free on an important topic of installing grounding in a private house. See for yourself!
Establishing grounding in a private house, you will need to complete the steps:
- Assess the future location of the circuit. It is selected based on the characteristics of the soil and the convenience of the owner of land tenure.
- Find a light bulb to limit the current( and display simultaneously) or a variable resistor of a decent size( from 150 ohms and above).
- To make grounding in a private house, you need a high-precision tester to take the difference between the voltage drops. In the presence of a support loop, the requirements for equipment are greatly reduced.
Created special devices, we do not consider in the review. Not everyone is ready to lay out several thousand rubles in addition to grounding in the house.