Air conditioner in fact resembles a refrigerator with the option No Frost, with spaced evaporator and condenser. The first is indoors, the second is outside. And it is allowed to change roles. Then the air conditioner will begin to work on heating. In the standard version, the tube that goes from the evaporator to the compressor is thicker, this will allow to create a vacuum there, at the same time an excess pressure is formed on the condenser, which helps the freon to release heat to the environment. When changing roles, the four-way valve swaps the tubes. Shift compressor just does not notice. If the above description is difficult to understand, read the review without missing a line. Otherwise, go to the second half, which describes how to repair the air conditioner with your own hands.
The principle of operation of the air conditioner
Repair floor air conditioner is different from the operations performed in the case of the wall. Here the condenser and the evaporator hid in the general case. A typical modern air conditioner is called a split-system for a reason. The device has two separated blocks:
Both are connected by a tube path and electrics. The best design has not yet been invented.
- Two copper tubes. Freon flows from the building to the outside and back. Moreover, the gas phase moves along the thick tube, and the liquid phase moves along the thin tube. Both are insulated, because the temperature is different, the exchange is unacceptable. Beginners ask a question why to make a contour of movement of freon from copper. This is an interesting train of thought, for example, steel is used in selected refrigerators. The answer lies in the plane of ease of use - it is easier for installers to bend and straighten, in addition, it is explained by the formation of electroplating pairs. In the latter case, copper plays the role of an acceptor, which means that the tubes are guaranteed a long service. Metal is durable, poorly oxidized. The only disadvantage of copper is high thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity.
- One tube is designed for condensate drainage. On the evaporator low temperature, room air is pumped by a fan( No Frost refrigerators in all its glory).As a result, the humidity drops, the excess condensate must be removed. This is a drainage tube. It is insulated and physically laid near the freon circuit. If the latter is sealed, the nuts are tightened with a wrench, tubes made of copper, with condensate drainage easier. It is a plastic or rubber construction, the joints are processed with fum-tape or tape. Difficulties begin in the winter when the frost reaches inside. An ice block is formed, the condensate begins to flow into the room. The winter set even includes a special wire for heating the drainage. The design seems ill-conceived, but the best has not yet been invented.
- The third component is the electrical cable. The outdoor unit must take power, the wire stretches near the freon circuit and drainage. There is no danger, the case is sealed. Of course, the cross-section of the current-carrying veins and the wiring of the apartment or office are designed for the created load.
The outdoor and indoor units contain coils. The first plays the role of a condenser, the second - the evaporator. Both are blown by fans. Moreover, the outdoor one provides for heating of the compressor crankcase( by the way, it’s wrong to say repair the air conditioner pump, use the word compressor), if it is supposed to be used in winter. Standard lubricants do not work at the same time at positive and negative temperatures. To repair the air conditioner fan with his own hands do not have to do too often, the speed is reduced. The matter is aggravated by the fact that during the icy time you want heat, they are trying to turn on the air conditioning for heating. In the latter case, the evaporator moves outside the window, where the freon will take the heat from the cold air. This is not always possible.
Readers have already understood that the composition of the outdoor and indoor units is similar. Room in addition contains an infrared receiver commands the remote control circuit and control. However, the compressor is outside. This is done to reduce noise, and also because it produces heat during operation, which is already being sought to be removed. We believe that the day will come when the design of air conditioners will be revised, and the compressor will be located inside. This is a logical solution, eliminating the need for cable laying, mitigating engine operating conditions. New inverter compressors themselves are asking here. There are no rotating parts in the devices( linear type), just the piston moves progressively back and forth.
So, the compressor pumps out freon from the evaporator. The created vacuum facilitates the process of transition into the gas phase. At the same time freon takes a lot of heat. In the compressor, the gas is compressed and enters the condenser, where it easily passes into the liquid phase, giving off heat. The tasks of the fans( inside and outside the room) include blowing coils for intensive heat exchange. The temperature is monitored by a sensor; on the basis of the readings, the electronic circuit controls the operation of the devices, including the switching valve for heating. It is clear that the supply circuit of the outdoor unit passes through the internal and closes through the relay.
Installation and refilling of air conditioning
The designs are different, but dominated by the familiar, familiar to the masters of refrigerators. Before filling with freon, it is necessary to vacuum the channel. For this you need a good old filling manifold. First, a vacuum pump is connected to it, the pumping process is carried out according to the pressure gauge. Then the valve is turned off, and the tank with freon is connected.
Novices are interested in what happens to the air in the tube between the manifold and the balloon. We believe that also goes inside, which is wrong. The air contains moisture that can kill the compressor, creating an ice plug. One has only to lower the temperature, as steam forms condensate in the coil.
With regard to installation, in a typical case, the length of the freon line does not exceed 5 meters. The nuts are crimped at both ends, then the eyeliner is connected to the indoor and outdoor units. Tightening is the key. The channel is filled with freon through the outdoor unit. Three-way cranes. Unscrew the valve, connect the collector to the system. When refueling after vacuuming, we wash the joints in order to check the tightness. If the integrity of the tubes and connections in order, begins refueling. The amount of freon is monitored by weight or by dividing into tanks with refrigerant. You will find the quantity of the substance to be filled in the passport or on the nameplate of the case.
Sometimes refueling is provided through two openings. High and low pressure( output and inlet of the compressor).Capillary tube is located in the outdoor unit. Refueling is more often from the entrance, and individual masters recommend turning on the compressor( similarly when evacuating).This will allow some of the freon to dissolve in the oil, the process is faster. At the end of the refueling equipment is tested.
Most air conditioners come with a control panel with a screen, or a display on the case. In case of problems, an error code is displayed here, allowing you to locate the cause of the problem. In addition, the models are equipped with a self-testing mode, which creates additional possibilities for determining breakages.
- Air conditioning does not work on heating. When switching mode, the air continues to cool. Probably a four-way valve or a control circuit is faulty. It should start with electronics, when replacing parts have to re-fill the freon, change the receiver-dryer.
- In winter there is no drain, the water is poured inside. Clogged drainage tube. Turn off the device, then warm up the drain.
- Air conditioning in the winter does not work for heating. Passed the minimum outdoor temperature at which the freon is able to give off heat.
- The system in the heat does not give cold. The maximum operating temperature of the outdoor unit has been exceeded. Initially, when installing the case is placed on the shady side of the building.
- Cold is not produced, although the air conditioner is working, it is not hot outside. Freon flowed out of the system or the capillary tube was clogged with ice. Turn off the device, wait for 3-4 hours, if the malfunction has disappeared, the matter is in the water that has got into the circuit of freon. Otherwise, leaked freon. In this case, the fault does not disappear after shutdown. Depending on the leak, repair of air conditioner radiators is required.
- The external unit does not turn on. The control relay of the indoor unit is faulty, the electrical wire is torn, or the air conditioner board needs repair.
- Air conditioner freezes too hard, does not stop when the set temperature is reached. Thermostat broke: the sensor or the corresponding part of the electronic circuit.
More often leaks. Repair air conditioner tubes is soldered. Borrow a tool from refrigeration masters. Especially extensive internal network. Repair the air conditioner evaporator will take a lot of time to find a leak. It is allowed to use a standard leak detector, it is necessary to pump air into the channel.
Features of the air conditioner
Air conditioners are designed to cool the air. The question arises why people are trying to use the device for heating in the winter. The fact is that in the technical description the phrase "heating power 2.2 kW" appears. The device consumes in this mode a little less than a kilowatt. It turns out that we get more than we give. And the owner of the heat pump knows this very well. And air conditioning is less costly and not the best way to transfer energy. There is no stability outside the window, so the modes will not correspond to those constantly written in the passport. How to repair the air conditioner with your own hands. Service points do not publish the manuals received from the manufacturer in electronic form, perhaps the materials are a commercial secret, and the private master will not write a manual for the repair of air conditioners, fearing competition. If the breakdown is serious, call the pros or break the device yourself.
We pursue the goal of teaching the repair of air conditioners, providing an understanding of the operation of the device. Often ignorance of the basics produces breakdowns.
Human greed is second only to stupidity. This also applies to the operation of air conditioners. If figures are given in technical specifications, there is a poststation next to the conditions in which the test was conducted. To an uninformed person, it appears that air conditioning supplies laboratory watts in all weathers. The heat exchange capacity between the medium and the surface depends on the temperature difference. If the coil of the external unit of the air conditioner gives a temperature of 90 ºС, and outside the window it is 50 ºС, the effect will be twice as low as in middle latitudes, where in the forest it is 10 ºС.A similar situation develops during cooling. The colder the air, the more difficult it is to transmit heat.
The normal operation of the air conditioner does not even provide for the presence of negative temperatures on the evaporator. Moisture condenses, but does not turn into frost. The drainage function is based on this. Having mentioned the subject, we mention: factory equipment specifically designed for this purpose, the flow warms up. In order not to cause unnecessary climate change. We believe that the air conditioner is turned on alternately for cooling and heating. During the cycle, the air temperature will not change, and the humidity will decrease.
These points need to be understood, otherwise there is a need to repair the air conditioner on the horizon, as a result of ignorance. Two typical cases of disabling the compressor:
- The indoor unit of the air conditioner has not been cleaned for years. Filters clogged with dust. As a result, the heat exchange between the evaporator and the room is disturbed. It does not save even the built-in fan. If part of the liquid freon gets into the compressor, an immediate failure of the device will happen. Get ready to repair the air conditioner yourself. If the motor is protected against overload, the relay will trip or the fuse will blow. Enough is not enough. We remind you that the compressor is located in the outdoor unit, hanging on the wall of the house, to get there is not easy.
- In winter, the air conditioner was turned on at too low a temperature, the exact instructions of the manufacturer were ignored, the heating of the freon circuit did not work. In this case, the situation is similar. Due to the low temperature, the refrigerant does not evaporate. If the liquid phase penetrates the compressor, the situation will lead to a breakdown.
- Keep your indoor and outdoor units clean. To do this, remove the coarse filters, wash, dry. Further instructions can be found in the operating instructions.
- Installation of the air conditioner is performed by professionals, but, as a rule, the masters are called last. If the balcony is located in the shade, glazed, try to install an external unit there. Here you will achieve a number of advantages:
- The permission of the owner of the house regarding the damage to the appearance of the building is not required.
- Neighbors will not see the design, less complaints.
- The project will be easier, easier to reconcile such paper. If you can not touch the supporting structures, the work does not even belong to the class of redevelopment. By law, a special organization will make the project, perform an ordinary master. If you are mistaken, download from the network a list of works for which an SRO license is required. Heat supply and ventilation projects are carried out exclusively by specialists. On this occasion, there are many complaints, because the installation scheme in the finished form is often attached to the purchase.
- The outdoor unit is not only serviced every six months, as recommended, but more often, which will have a positive effect on the operation of the equipment. The approach to the mechanisms is a key condition. Relatively easy to repair window air conditioners.
- Note the hidden nuance. On the balcony, the microclimate is softer than on a bare wall. In winter, the wind does not blow so much, in the summer the sun does not so hot. Owners of the warmed and glazed balconies receive wide opportunities. In this case, the temperature in winter can not fall below minus 15 ºС.It means that it is possible to use winter varieties of air conditioners all year round and get benefits. Even tell you how to recalculate. The passport shows the measurement conditions. Power is proportional to the temperature difference between the coil and the environment. We will measure the first with a remote infrared thermometer( they have already written about a children's model from Scandinavia, the range of which extends to 100 ºС), the second with a glass street thermometer with mercury. Then take the proportion where on the left side is the ratio of temperature differences, and on the right side - the power of the passport to the desired one. X is calculated by the method outlined in grade 5 secondary school. This will make it possible to calculate the expediency of using the product in certain conditions.
- The work is done independently. To be sure, read the laws. Filling the air conditioner is not easy, but they sell a special kit in stores for cars, which is also suitable in this case. The cost of equipment for refueling ranges from 15,000 rubles. This is comparable to the cost of installers in the capital, the equipment for repairing air conditioners will always remain with the owner. How to use a snap, decide for yourself. It is permissible to buy a refueling collector separately, make a vacuum pump with your hands, use electronic kitchen scales, measuring the required dose of freon. When working with isobutane( freon R600a), flush the channel with nitrogen before bringing the torch up( if it is supposed to patch the holes).Otherwise, the system may simply explode. The welder will suffer too. About techniques on the VashTehnik portal a lot is written in the refrigerators section. The difference is not too big with air conditioning.
- Repairing the outdoor unit is greatly simplified, and the situation of freezing condensate smoothed out. Sometimes they manage without a special cable for heating, they are already looking at the place so that the harm does not work out.
General rules for repairing air conditioners
Disconnect the appliance from the power supply before cleaning. Take care of connecting through the differential protection device of all equipment. Keep small children away from working appliance. Handle the air conditioner with care, and the unit will last a long time. If necessary or suspected to leak, check the system pressure using a manometer through the service connectors of the outdoor unit. There is a fitting of adapters on the high and low pressure side under the tool for repairing air conditioners. We provide these figures from the reference book and cannot vouch for them for one hundred percent, but for orientation the numerical values will do:
- Indications on the high pressure side 15 - 20 atm.
- Indications on the low pressure side up to 5 atm.
For measurements, use a filling manifold. Do not forget that when docking it is necessary to use extremely short commutation in order not to lose freon along the length of the measuring service hoses. Ideally, it is better to screw the pressure gauge onto the connector of the external unit. Of course, the air conditioner will have to be turned on for checking. Otherwise, the pressure on the high and low side will be the same.
Repairing control boards of air conditioners requires a separate discussion. Repair of Toshiba air conditioners in this regard and Electrolux air conditioners are fundamentally different, we don’t have the opportunity to describe cases in full.