When planning the organization of an independent water supply at home, it is necessary to explore the nuances of technology and the creation of a well. One of the key moments of autonomous water supply arrangement - choice of casing.
Borehole perform diverse tasks, and largely determines the durability and continuity of the autonomous water supply system. Agree to invest a lot of money and effort in the improvement of the well, the last thing I want to deal with the elimination of problems associated with poor quality of the water intake.
Therefore, at the design stage should be responsibly come to the choice of the casing. We describe any pipe for better borehole what material type and barrel segments compound is preferably used in a particular situation. The knowledge gained will save from buying the wrong product.
The content of the article:
- Requirements to the wellbore
- Parameters selection casing
The types of materials and their characteristics
- Type # 1 - The strength and durability of metal
- View # 2 - corrosion resistance of asbestos
- View # 3 - a rugged and affordable plastic
- View # 4 - the combined pipeline
Which column assembly option is best?
- №1 - a one-piece contact welding pipes
- №2 - water lifting channels thread
- Pressure or depressurized pipeline?
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Requirements to the wellbore
Construction of an individual source of drinking water - the process expensive and time-consuming. Investing in well drillingEach owner of the suburban area, or a private house expects to receive long-term results.
Lifetime, borehole pressure and quality of produced water largely depends on the characteristics of the tubes used to create the casing.
When drilling formed channel where the pumping equipment is placed subsequently in a lot thicker. To provide insulation from the uptake shaft crust dipped into the well casing. The spacing between the earth and the channel walls is filled with concrete or gravel-sand smecyu
Water-line solves a number of important tasks:
- protects the trench from the collapse in the borehole space;
- It ensures the integrity of the well at a pressure and shifting of the soil;
- prevents contamination - the ingress of untreated waste water and groundwater (vadose) in the barrel;
- prevents silting well.
When drilling in one tube casing is simultaneously operating - it accumulates water from the aquifer, which pump conveys upwards.
Typically, drilling on the plot, if it is intended solely for irrigation and other household needs, is performed in one column. For drinking water trunk comprises two tubes: the casing and carrying the filter.
Pipes used in the apparatus of water well, in fact it is a trunk that is established during the forming of production
Borehole on the sand consists of two columns: the outer tube - casing, which prevents caving in production, inner tube keeps the filter, which is starting its link
Casing installed during drilling as the drill penetration in soil
In private households are mainly used plastic and steel pipes. This arrangement for making potable water pipe must be water intake category
Regardless of what kind of installation is done drilling, tunneling and cased produce different pipes. The casing is not used directly in the destruction and extraction of rock
Since the casing is not drilled, and only strengthen the walls of generating, on strength performance requirements are not too high. However, it should be perfectly resist soil pressure and keeping headroom
An important criterion in determining the choice of a suitable embodiment of the well pipe is maintainability. Because often a steel cased, anticipatory plastic strength, complementary plastic inner pipe with a filter, since It does not rust and does not grow mud
The only exception to the general rules of drilling - Abyssinian well. If steel pipe is drilled, the drill string is left in the ground and serves as a casing. In the case of the production of plastic screw fully tested, whereupon plastic column give
Trunk water well
Inner well pipe for sand
Water well in the summer cottage
Steel pipe for performing casing
Drilling of the well drilling machine compact
tip device on the casing of the well
Extraction pipe production
Exception - the needle pipe wells
Therefore, the quality and material of the pipes used are nominated high requirements:
- high strength and resistance to deformation during the whole period of operation (about 20 years);
- complete tightness walls and compounds;
- resistance to corrosion and adverse effects of reactive elements;
- environmental friendliness - the material should not affect the composition of the produced water;
- straightness of production casing.
For standard applications permissible distortion along the length of the casing within 0.7 mm per meter.
Flatness deviation threshold for channel increased accuracy: 0.5 mm - in tube diameter in the range of 108-146 mm and 0.3 mm - for pipes 33,5-89 mm. Data are given based on 1 lm
Parameters selection casing
Only true standard drilling does not exist. Method well the organization determined on an individual basis.
The registration takes many factors: soil structure, the height of groundwater and aquifers, parameters of pumping equipment, Water quality, diameter and drilling depth.
Designing well is better to entrust to a specialized company. The staff will compare all the parameters that offer the optimum design, calculate the rate of flow, taking into account the static and dynamic water level (+)
Any drilling company will offer its own version of the project and will recommend, in their opinion, the best type of pipe. The final decision on the choice of the casing takes the customer.
Implementing organization primarily defending their own interests, so their solution is not always objective. Some contractors specialize in any one type of device well system and try to "impose" a lucrative option for them.
The only right decision - to determine in advance what kind of pipe selected and used for a well, comparing all the arguments "for" and "against", and after that - to apply for the development and implementation project.
When deciding, consider the main parameters of the choice of water-lifting pipe:
- Material. This parameter determines the budget of the installation work, the carrying capacity of a reservoir load, maintainability and durability of the well.
- Method docking columns of elements. The choice of method depends on the pipe material, the depth of the drilling and casing diameter. In any case, the connection must be completely sealed, otherwise over time the water quality deteriorates, and the pump and the well as a whole will fail.
- Diameter pipe. value calculation is made considering the maximum possible water flow rate per day.
The larger diameter supply line, the higher the well productivity.
Recommends the use of pipes with a diameter of 110 mm or more. This size is optimal for the normal flow rate deep wells, and facilitates the selection of a submersible pump
The types of materials and their characteristics
Downhole tubes are manufactured from metal, asbestos or plastic. Very rarely in the organization of the water intake used wood products - they are absolutely harmless, but, in spite of the protective treatment susceptible to soil moisture and are prone to distortion.
Type # 1 - The strength and durability of metal
Metal supply tubes are available in two versions:
- cast iron;
- steel which can be enamelled, galvanized made of stainless steel.
Very rarely iron analogues used for growing. Among these fellow metal pipes the most affordable, but the material is very fragile and heavy.
Many companies refuse to work with cast iron because of the complexity of installation. In addition to guarantee the safety and integrity of the pipe is not possible - when shifting of the metal can give ground fissure formation
Steel - a traditional, proven for decades, the material for the casing. Steel almost 100% of the requirements for downhole tubes.
Ferrous metal articles adequately withstand the test wells at different depths regardless of the soil type.
The standard wall thickness - 5.6 mm, the service period - of the order of 50 years. Durability is determined by the rate of corrosion of the steel blades - 0.1 mm per year
Arguments in favor pipes made of rolled steel:
- rigidity - the material is equally good for small holes (50) and for deep drilling (300 m);
- precise axial alignment assembly and reliability intertube joints;
- material stability - upon contact with water the steel does not emit harmful substances;
- serviceability - thanks to the mechanical strength and resistance to vibration in the specified permissible cleaning casing well bore drilling-in in the case of sedimentation or clogging.
The main disadvantage of a steel highway - the high cost of the material. Manufacturers cheaper analogues, extolling their products appeal Another disadvantage of steel - rust.
It is believed that there will be contamination degrade water quality and increase the content of iron in it. However analysis of water from wells It shows that it is a myth.
Rust is not soluble in water. oxidized metal particle is capable of even Appliance delay filter. Possible nuisance due to rust - Faulty pump equipment designed to run clean water
Metal corrosion-protected as low superior to conventional steel pipes, but the technical and operational features of material prejudiced the overpayment.
enameled pipes. The coating prevents the occurrence of corrosion, but it is very fragile and avoid damage is unlikely with the casing. Places chips and microcracks of enamel - point rust.
In the process of destruction of the damaged portion may be formed through corrosion, as in the production of enameled metal pipe is used at thickness.
Enamelled pipeline meets all health and safety standards and does not change the taste of water. Less material - the inability to complete the cleaning line because of the fragility of enamel
galvanized pipe. At regular contact with water on the pipe wall is formed of zinc oxide - a substance dangerous to health. Using galvanized allowed only with the technical construction of the well.
Standard thickness galvanized pipe is 2-2.5 mm - this is not always sufficient to ensure structural rigidity. This highway is subject to deformation due to ground movements
Stainless steel. The material has all the advantages of rolled steel and has a higher cost. Stainless steel is characterized by the presence of anti-corrosion resistance, which has a positive effect on its operating period.
Should you buy stainless steel, if the period of high-debit well service equated to the service life of the pipe made of steel? We must build on the financial capacity and the well purpose
Installing a metal line is economically feasible in the regeneration of deep artesian wells, designed for regular use.
"Surface" sand channels seasonal appropriate to do more of the available materials.
View # 2 - corrosion resistance of asbestos
Tested over the years have passed and the pipe of asbestos used in the sanitation organization for more than 70 years.
Material characterized by some positive qualities:
- asbestos cement absolutely does not corrode;
- neutral material composition - the components do not enter into chemical reactions;
- unlimited lifetime - more than 60-70 years old;
- low cost.
Despite the significant advantages of, asbestos elements today are rarely used in the development of "water source".
The main drawback of asbestos - fragility. To strengthen the wall of the pipe is thicker, which increases the weight of the product and causes the larger diameter hole digging
The negative sides of asbestos include:
- installation complexity. Installing the fragile line requires highly skilled artists. The work performed by the lift machinery.
- Lack of thread. highway sections are joined together end to end - to achieve a complete seal fixing places without thread problematic.
- Questionable security. There is a theory that the asbestos fibers contained chrysotile - a source of carcinogens, adversely affecting health. However, in practice this has not been proved.
- Difficult cleaning. Concrete - porous material, in which the microcracks accumulated dirt. To perform high-quality cleaning of the walls of the casing, the well will have to completely drain.
After installing asbestos cement casing subsequent drilling operations in the well is excluded.
Technical characteristics of the material does not allow the use of asbestos cement pipes under the "sandy" source. Such a casing is applicable for artesian wells is not more than 100 m
View # 3 - a rugged and affordable plastic
Relatively recently added product market casing plastic pipes. Modern technologies compete with traditional steel piping.
Comparative advantages of polymer elements:
- resistance to water - even in contact with a moist medium is formed on the plastic corrosion;
- over time they retain their structure and are not destroyed;
- do not affect the composition of drinking water;
- material does not cause the development of pathogenic microorganisms;
- easy installation and transport due to low weight;
- can be used to build columns fitting, providing a perfect seal joints;
- economy - well with plastic pipes will cost much cheaper metal or asbestos cement casing.
Presumable life of a waterway of a polymer - about 50 years. This theory is based on the corrosion of inert material.
The main disadvantage of plastic - low strength. Therefore, the polymeric tube is allowed to set only one pipe in the wells not exceeding the depth of 50 m, or two-pipe as the inner casing
An additional argument against the use of plastic elements - sensitivity to temperature and mechanical stress. The plastic casing does not withstand ground motions and deformation during severe frosts.
Polymeric water intake pipes are made from different kinds of raw materials: unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (UPVC), frost-resistant polypropylene (MPP) and low-density polyethylene (HDPE).
Selection for the feed pipe downhole pump on the basis Performance Polymers.
Most are durable PVC-U-tube - a modulus of elasticity of 3000 MPa. The product is a diameter of 12.5 cm when submerged in the ground at 30 m withstands a load of 5 tons or more. cased wells UPVC-column can be performed on almost all types of soil
The weak point of the elements of the non-plasticized polyvinyl chloride - sensitive to frost. This problem is solved by installing downhole heating cable.
Good frost indicators are MPP- polymer and HDPE-tube. However, their density is often enough to be used as an independent casing. In most cases, such a plastic used as a production pipe with two pillar arrangement wells.
Plastic line elements of different joints. To compound PP-tube on a special welding. When creating a line of the other polymers used flared or threaded fixation method
View # 4 - the combined pipeline
In order to reduce corrosion processes and improve the quality of the feed water, some drilling companies offer obsadit well according to the technology "Pipe in pipe".
The steel line inserted plastic channel from IPA edible polymer.
The advantages of the combined method:
- Protection against pollution. Plastic pipe acts a kind of barrier between the water and the walls of the steel casing - in line misses rust less dangerous to the pump device.
- repairability. If the damage operational polymer tube it will be possible to replace new, preserving the integrity of the casing;
- The possibility of further deepening of wells. If necessary, a plastic "sleeve" is drawn, the aperture reams and the polymer backbone is set back from the focus to a new horizon.
Technology "pipe in pipe" allows qualitatively serve well - perform regular cleaning and timely change filter.
Typically, the plastic service pipe passes through the limestone and deepens in aquifers. Thus, the steel does not contact the supply of drinking water. The lack of a "double" line - an increase project cost
Which column assembly option is best?
Code requirements for casing and connection technology well string segments mapped to GOST 632-80. Regulation allows different assembly methods.
Based on the method of docking, pick the appropriate type of pipe, so this issue should be solved by another well design stage.
№1 - a one-piece contact welding pipes
Welding provides the most rigid connection of metal pipes. The main advantage of the method now being questioned by representatives of a number of drilling companies.
Arguments against the use of welding:
- the likelihood of inadequate gas-tightness of the weld;
- possibility of deviation in the vertical axis of the pipe that hinder the column assembly into the wellbore;
- insufficient corrosion protection seam.
However, when a high level of professionalism welder these defects will not. Most building structures (bridges, farms, pipelines) built of steel and, as a rule, they are welded.
Another issue that requires high-quality execution of works of welding equipment and attract qualified electric welder. These measures increase the cost of work performed, reducing the profitability and competitiveness of the executive of the organization.
The welding electrodes apply a protective coating, which ensures alloying of the weld. This increases the strength of the metal and increases the corrosion resistance of the joint
№2 - water lifting channels thread
When rolled metal casing of the well drill 90% companies use a threaded connection, indicating the GOST standards. It sounds quite convincing, but often silent management organizations that are relevant standards for pipe diameters of 146 mm and a wall thickness of not less than 6 mm.
Using threaded technology significantly shortens the life of the casing.
In the pipe 4.5 mm thick thread size does not always reaches 1.2-1.5 mm. Knowing the rate of corrosion attack (0.1 mm / year) can be assumed that after 12-15 years at the joint pipe progniet
The use of threaded connections on plastic highways has such dire consequences, but on the contrary, is considered the most reliable.
There are several options for joining plastic pipes:
- nipple. The thread is cut on the inside of plastic tubes. Two elements are connected via a nipple with external thread. The diameter of the pit is not increased.
- threaded. On both ends of the tube provided the external thread. Docking takes place using the waybill coupling that increases the diameter of the penetration.
- The flared threaded. Used segments threaded on the outer and inner surface - docking carried out without additional elements.
When docking socket acceptable slight expansion in the diameter of the joints.
Flared unthreaded joining method is not used in the wells - impossible to control the installation pipe into the pipe. Furthermore, the compound does not provide the necessary tightness of the column and eventually gives drawdown
Pressure or depressurized pipeline?
The only true option - the use of pressure pipes. Only these products are able to withstand a two-way pressure. On the outer side wall of the column affects the buoyancy of ground, and the inside - the water pressure.
Construction of pressure line will protect the aquifer systems from premature failure. When selecting a water pipe correlate indicator of its working pressure with an estimated rate of the well
video reviews listed below will help determine the most optimal variant of the well casing.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Comparing qualities of the threaded joint in PVC-U-tubes:
Overview of steel tubes with welded and threaded connection:
Checking the strength characteristics of metal and plastic pipes:
From the above conclusion is that for the house with the living, where the well is the only permanent source of drinking water is essential to ensure stability and reliability of the water system.
Optimal - two pipe string of steel and plastic. The polymer suitable for shallow mines in the regeneration of "seasonal" hole.
Look for a suitable option for arranging the tube wells? Or have already decided on the choice? Leave, please, comment on the article and ask your questions. Feedback form posted below.