The lack of a centralized water supply system pushes residents of private houses to drill wells in their own areas. Agree, because without water in the house it is difficult to call the stay comfortable in it. But drilling services are quite expensive. Well at least there are devices that allow you to drill a well in the area on your own.
One of these devices is a small shell. It is an effective and relatively uncomplicated drilling tool for cleaning private water sources from bottom contamination. With its help, you can even independently drill a well-suited well. Such a hydraulic structure will require a minimum of funds. And if it is also done by hand, the expenses will not shake the family budget at all.
In this material, we will talk about the device and the principle of operation of the zhelonka. A detailed look at what tools and materials will be required for its manufacture. In the article you will find step-by-step instructions for assembling the zhelonka, as well as videos that demonstrate the device and the principle of operation of the zhelonka.
The content of the article:
- Device and principle of operation
- Pipe for the manufacture of housing
Valve systems for zhelonka
- Option number 1 - the design of the flap valve
- Option number 2 - the manufacture of ball valve
- If there is no welding machine
- Final assembly zhelonka
- Zonalization scheme with pump
- Features of drilling by the shell
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Device and principle of operation
The shell is a rather heavy length of pipe about 1–2 m long. At the bottom it is supplied with a valve, sometimes special pointed elements of the teeth type are attached.
Pointed edge in the process of drilling loosens soil, silt, sand and other well contents, depending on the type of work. From above, the lugs in which the metal cable is fixed are welded to the pipe.
The upper cut of the pipe is protected with a thick wire mesh. It will prevent the release of gravel, rubble or elements of the valve of the bile when they are torn off.
Most often, the squirrels are used for well cleaning from serious pollution. If a well pump did not include a long time, for example, several months during the winter period, a significant amount of silt or sand may accumulate in the well, depending on the soil.
A slug is simply a one / two meter long pipe with a wire loop at one end and a check valve and a cutting device at the other. The mesh is hooked with a cable or wire over a loop and dropped into the well as far as it will go.
As a result of such silting or zaporozhivaniya well flow rate is significantly reduced. In some cases, the pump even sucks in a layer of sludge, and it is not always possible to release it and not damage the well.
After the pump will be removed from the wellbore, the well can be cleaned using the shells.
The operation of the device is based on the gravitational principle. Heavy shell sharply thrown into the mine wells from a great height. Pointed edges loosen the mass of dirt that has accumulated on the bottom. The valve opens, if sand fills the inner space of the yolk. The valve closes and the filled slug is lifted upward.
To improve the efficiency of the device, the slug is raised several times and thrown down. Thanks to the valve, the contents captured by it remain inside.
Then the shell is pulled out of the well and free from contamination. The cycle is repeated again and again until the well is completely cleaned.
The shell is used not only to clean the well, but also to clean the casing before installing the filter, pump, etc.
Zhelonki quite successfully used for well drilling in loose loose soils.
The well as a result of zoning is quite decent, suitable for productive operation. Of course, work with the scraper requires significant physical costs.
They can be reduced a little, for example, using a block or a winch with an electric drive to lift the filled shell upward.
Pipe for the manufacture of housing
So, to make the sink will need:
- Pipe of suitable diameter.
- Welding machine.
- Metal cable.
- Thick wire.
- Metal pieces, etc.
To make the bowl itself, first you need to find a pipe of suitable diameter. It is necessary to focus on the internal dimensions of the casing.
The distance between the outer wall of the zhelonka and the walls of the shaft should be two centimeters. So, you need to subtract 40 mm from the internal diameter of the casing. This will be the value of the outer diameter of the pipe from which the shell will be made.
The pipe for the zhelonka should be long enough and thick-walled in order to effectively loosen and choose dirt and soil, but light enough so that it can be quickly removed for cleaning.
The size of the gap between the sink and the well can vary, but only to certain limits.
Too much clearance will reduce work efficiency. But if the gap is too narrow, the shell can scratch or damage the walls of the trunk.
It is even worse if, due to the large diameter of the pipe, the sludge gets stuck in the well, especially if the casing is slightly skewed. Remove it will not be easy, you can completely spoil the well and lose it.
The length of the pipe should also not be too short or long. A short device will often touch the walls when moving up and down. A too long element may be excessively heavy, it will be difficult to reach, especially when the shell is filled with a heavy dump.
The length of the pipe for the shells is usually about 80 cm, but can vary between 60-150 cm. For drilling use longer and heavier devices.
The thickness of the pipe walls is also important, since the total weight of the product largely depends on it. The thicker, the more the tube weighs, and the more efficient the action will be.
But if drilling tool It will turn out too heavy, it will be difficult to work with it for the reasons already stated. Considered sufficient thickness of the pipe 2-4 mm, but it can reach 10 mm.
Thus, choosing a pipe for a zhelonka, it is necessary to observe a certain balance. The weight of the device and its dimensions must satisfy two conditions.
First of all, it is necessary to ensure a sufficiently high penetrating inertia so that the contaminants are removed from the well quickly and efficiently. Secondly, the weight of the product with the load must be such that the shell can be pulled out by hand or by means of a winch.
Valve systems for zhelonka
The most difficult element of the shell is the valve. There are two main options: the petal valve and the ball valve. The task of this element is one: to let dirt or soil into the pipe and not allow it to pour out.
If the valve fits snugly, the crown will effectively capture not only dense contaminants, but also water, which will increase the cleaning efficiency. But on some light soils, drilling can be performed without valve at all.
Option number 1 - the design of the flap valve
The flap valve is simple to manufacture, but not too durable. It is an oval (ellipsoidal) plate of resilient material: metal or polymer.
The valve is fixed in the center of the pipe. Under the influence of the flow of water, the edges of the ellipse unfold, letting the ground or silt enter the inside of the shell. For a more effective fit of the valve to the walls of the yolk, a rubber or leather seal is used.
The principle of the flap valve is similar to the operation of the door. When you strike the soil on the ground, it presses on the door, opening it. And when the bowl is raised for the next blow, the door-valve closes under the action of the ground mass
When raising the yellowfish with a flap valve, its “petals” close. But constant movements wear out the valve quite quickly, it simply fails.
Another version of the petal valve is a valve with a spring, and it is closed with a sufficiently powerful spring.
The design is not complicated, it can be used both when cleaning a well, and when drilling with a shell. Craftsmen come up with their own, quite effective options for valves zhelonka.
Option number 2 - the manufacture of ball valve
The ball valve is a funnel, the mouth of which is tightly closed with a ball of the appropriate size.
The most difficult task in the manufacture of this valve - to get a suitable ball. It must cover a rather large hole into which polluted water will flow and be heavy enough to fall and close the valve reliably and quickly.
There are three options to get such a ball:
- just find it among the old scrap metal, for example, remove it from a large bearing;
- order the manufacture of the necessary parts from the turner, who will sweep the ball on the machine;
- independently make a ball using available tools.
To make the ball yourself, you need to find a hollow plastic or rubber ball, such as are sold in toy stores. In the store for hunters should buy a sufficient amount of lead shot. In addition, you will need epoxy or any other waterproof glue.
The toy ball is cut in half. Each half is filled with a mixture of shot and glue. After drying, the halves need to be glued and sanded, the ball is ready.
Instead of lead shot, any heavy metal balls, for example, taken out of old bearings, will do. You can also cast a ball of molten lead, but this process is a bit more complicated.
This scheme visually describes the manufacture of a yolk with a ball valve. The ball rests on a special washer on the bottom, a protective grid should be installed on top
The dimensions of the ball should be approximately 60-75% of the diameter of the well casing. The second part of the ball valve is a thick metal washer, in which a funnel-shaped seat is cut under the ball. Usually, they first find or make a ball, and then make a washer of a suitable configuration.
For the ball, they grind a special “saddle” with a hole, which this ball closes. The valve opening must be large enough to allow plenty of soil inside.
If this does not occur, the hole is bored as far as the diameter of the ball allows. If it is decided to entrust the manufacture of a ball to a turner, then it makes sense to immediately order a saddle for it, i.e. whole valve.
If there is no welding machine
To make a solid and durable shell, you need a few metal parts weld togetherand. If there is no such possibility, the simplest, but quite workable shell, you can make without it.
To do this, you can take the usual pipe, a length of about 0.6 m and a diameter of about 70 mm. Of course, it should be quite heavy. From above it is necessary to attach the handle from a thick wire.
In the manufacture of a cone with a flap valve from improvised means for suspending the device, a handle is made from a thick wire that is threaded into holes in the top of the pipe.
To do this, two holes are drilled in the pipe walls, wire is threaded into them and fixed. Below set the flap valve, which can be made from an ordinary plastic bottle. Fit two-liter capacity.
A valve of suitable size in the shape of an ellipse is cut out of its wall.
This diagram clearly shows the manufacture of a flap valve for a pipe with an internal diameter of 70 mm.
The smaller diameter of the valve should be equal to the inside diameter of the yolk, and to determine the larger diameter of the ellipse, another 20 mm is added to the pipe diameter.
The valve is fixed with a bolt 6-8 mm thick. The length of the bolt must exceed the outer diameter of the pipe so that it can be inserted across the pipe and fixed.
The flap valve is fixed approximately 10 cm from the lower edge of the jelly box. For this, two holes are drilled into which the fasteners are inserted.
Those. the length of the bolt consists of the sum of the outer diameter of the bit and the thickness of the nut. But the bolt should not be too long so that it does not touch the walls of the casing.
Under the bolt in the walls of the borehole, two holes are drilled approximately 10 mm from the bottom end of the bout. To connect the valve with the bolt, use a wire 2-4 mm thick.
It makes two wire rings in the middle of the valve. The bolt must fit freely in these rings.
In order to assemble such a home-made shell, you need to bend and push the valve inside the shell. Then the bolt is threaded into the hole in the wall of the pipe, then into the wire rings of the valve and again through the wall of the pipe. Fix the bolt with the nut.
The bolt must freely enter the valve rings and be removed from them in order for the scoop to be easy to clean during operation.
Final assembly zhelonka
If the pipe is selected and the valve is ready and welded, a number of operations and recommendations remain to be completed in order to complete the manufacture of the bushing. The lower edge of the pipe should be sharpened so that in the process of moving it carefully removes dirt from the walls of the mine.
The best is one-sided sharpening from the inside.
The sharpened edge is recommended to be heat-hardened so that it does not dull so quickly when interacting with solid contaminants.
Sometimes, sharpened rods or pieces of metal are welded to the edge of the barrow to loosen dirt or soil. A loop is attached to the upper end of the pipe to fix the metal cable.
Sharpened pieces of metal or wire can be welded to the lower edge of the zhelonka to increase the efficiency of the device when cleaning or drilling a well.
It can be made from pieces of thick metal wire. The loop must be welded in such a way that the shell hanging on the cable remains upright.
This is very important, since the device does not allow any distortions when the device moves inside the pipe. This can lead to seizure of the slug or damage to the walls of the casing.
Upstairs, a reliable metal mesh is also welded to prevent spontaneous departure of the ball from the bile when it moves down. Yes, and coarse-grained soils better let them remain in the device. Instead of a metal mesh, you can make a wire grid. It remains to connect with metal wire.
A photo of
Step 1: For the manufacture of zhelonka need a steel thick-walled pipe with a length of about 1.2 - 1.5 m
Step 2: It is better to order a hollow cone for the device of the zhelonka valve. Internal Ø of the top of the cone is approximately 7/8 of the same ball size
Step 3: It is also desirable to turn the ring-shaped fixing part to order. The outer Ø of the lower part of the cone is 2 - 3 mm smaller than the internal size of this part.
Step 4: At the top of the pipe, on the welded metal pin, install an earring to which the cable will be attached.
Step 5: At the bottom of the pipe we weld a rim of equal diameter with the teeth to accelerate the destruction of the rock during penetration. If the pipe has a thread, the crown is better to screw and change
Step 8: Stepping back from the bottom of the manufactured projectile a little more than half, draw the outline of the hole
Step 7: Cut out the hole according to the markup. Through it is emptying the drill filled with soil
Step 8: Through the window install in the pipe details of the ball valve. If the ring-shaped retainer does not "sit down" tightly in the pipe, it should be slightly flattened with a sledge hammer
Pipe for making zhelonka
Details of the ball valve
Ball valve retainer in pipe
Earring for attaching the cable
Cutting crown device
Window for unloading destroyed rocks
Formation of a window in the sink
Assembly ball valve
Sometimes instead use a strong nylon cord. To make it easier to lower and raise the device, a slave is installed above the well with a block located directly above the well. Cable wire pulls on this block.
As a result, the device is lowered into the well vertically, and pulling it out is so much more convenient than just pulling the shell up with your hands, like a bucket from a well.
Before lowering the assembled sill into the well, it is recommended to inspect the walls of the mine to take into account all irregularities and deformations. This will avoid damage or jamming of the brat.
The diagram shows the installation of the finished bastard on a tripod for its convenient use. You can use a motor with electric drive to wind the cable zhelonka
Zonalization scheme with pump
Removing the well cleaning tub, even with a winch, is very difficult. Significant time is spent not on working in the well, but on lifting-cleaning-descending the zhelonka. A small upgrade will optimize the operation of the device. The reverse side of the body of the pipe should be tightly brewed.
From it, make a tap and put there a special fitting, designed for the discharge hose. Attach a pump to the hose, which is designed for pumping liquids with significant mechanical impurities.
This scheme allows you to abandon the constant rises zhelonka to the surface and its re-lowering.
In this case, contamination from the bladder chamber will be removed with a pump. The casing, equipped with a pump, you just need to raise and lower to loosen and move the contaminated liquid into the chamber.
This cleaning method is effective for heavy silting or dusting. For normal cleaning well fit shell without a pump.
A photo of
Stage 1: In order to partially facilitate self-drilling of a well with a slug, it is better to dig a hole. Shovel easier to remove the soil with the roots and the upper soil layers
Stage 2: It is not necessary to use a drilling rig for driving the first meters. The shell is thrown to the bottom, upon impact, it destroys the ground and seizes it with a valve
Stage 3: After sinking 1 - 1.5 m, it is worthwhile to install a self-made drilling rig with a block at the top for throwing the cable
Stage 4: For the descent and ascent of the projectile useful electric winch. A scrape filled with disintegrated rock is removed from the cable to the surface and emptied through a window in the pipe.
Digging before drilling
Drilling the first meters with a scum
Homemade drilling rig
Winch in drilling
Features of drilling by the shell
Borehole drilling is a popular, albeit rather labor-intensive, way to create a well. Not every device of this type suitable for cleaning a well will cope with the excavation of a large amount of dense soil. For drilling, you should use a sufficiently long pan - about four meters.
To drill a well, the sink uses fairly large devices, up to four meters long. The use of such heavy devices requires special lifting equipment.
Here is more appropriate type of petal valve, which is a plate, which is fixed by a special spring. With its help, a lumen is created in the body, the area of which is almost equal to the cut-off area of the zhelonka. This allows you to skip the maximum amount of soil for each dive into the body of the zhelonka.
It is not always easy to remove a solid ground from a long and narrow bout. To simplify this task, a special window is made at the top of the pipe, designed for more efficient and quick cleaning of the device. If sand is to be drilled, it will be easier to release the scum.
To drill a well with the help of a raft you need a device with a large clearance below and a body long enough to take out a lot of soil at one time
When drilling small types of rocks have their own characteristics. Here are some helpful tips:
- On sandy soils it is not necessary to immerse the shell more than 10 cm without casing. In general, the casing is laid 10 cm ahead of the scum.
- When drilling sandy soil in the trunk supply water to further strengthen the wall.
- If the wet sand in the process of work is overly rammed and does not fall into the shell, use a special chisel.
- Dipping the casing while drilling is performed continuously.
- In terms of quicksand, they use a small sink with a length of two meters or more with a reliable flat flap and leather seal.
- Raising the shell on the quicksand, it is necessary not only to lower the casing pipe, but also to turn it, it is more convenient to carry out this work together or together.
- If the casing does not enter the shaft, it is lowered under pressure, for which a platform is put on top on which the load is placed.
- When drilling layers of gravel and pebbles sometimes alternate the use of chisels, which break up large inclusions, and the shell for excavating broken ground.
- On dense sediments, the sludge is raised by only 10-15 centimeters, and movements are often performed.
- When penetrating tight formations, the casing is buried hydraulically or someone periodically stands on the site installed on the casing.
- Dry layers soften, feeding water into the mine.
- On very soft plastic soils, the valve is not always needed, the rock remains in the shell and without it.
- The cage must be lifted after penetrating every 0.5 - 0.7 m in order not to overstrain when lifting the filled to the limit of the hull.
As with other methods of drilling, using the scraper, you should take into account the individual characteristics of the soil on which the work is performed.
The correct strategy and timely obsazhivanie walls of the trunk usually allows you to quite successfully create a working well.
You may also be interested in information on how flush well after drilling.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
One of the options for the manufacture of the flap valve for zhelonka presented in the following video:
With the device and the principle of operation of the ball valve for zhelonka can be found in this video:
Here you can consider the design of the borehole intended for drilling:
Independent manufacture of the shells is not an especially difficult task. This device can be made according to the specific needs of your site and the possibilities that are available. A simple design will ensure a long life of the brat if it is made with high quality.
If you have experience in self-production and use of brat, please share it with our readers. Leave your comments in the box below.