Let the generator already be in the yard, we start by counting the consumption of the whole house. This is a necessary condition with which the instruction begins. The difficulty is that the protective machines are calculated, anticipating the burning of the wiring. This, in fact, their main task. Most of the equipment detects the built-in fuses, with a separate melt earlier than the automatic switch. RCD serves to limit the current. In this case, it will not play the role, the machine is able to work for an hour with overload by 45%.Because often people are puzzled how to connect a generator to the house.
Power supply nuances of a private house from an
generator. Generator grounding and process-related safety issues.
generator. A person rarely thinks about grounding issues. We will understand in more detail. It is considered that if any point of the secondary winding of the transformer( read, the generator) is not grounded, it is safe. It is permissible to accidentally touch, and not kill, although you are standing knee-deep in water. To do harm, you need to manage to take on both conclusions, which no one in their right mind would do.
The specified device works on the same principle. Grounding applies only to the case and the petals of the built-in sockets for the distribution of voltage of 220 V. At the same time, the potential difference of the zero and phase wires hangs in the air. It is not clear where and what. The grounded output becomes zero, although a statement like this prohibits.
Now imagine that the TN-C-S system is used. Then the neutral conductor at the entrance to the building is combined with the local ground loop. When the generator is connected to the specified point, we unambiguously set the phase position. It turns out well, now it does not work out that the voltage will be released to the bulbs cartridges. And sockets on the left. On the opposite side, the above security conditions are violated. Now the first wire acquires potential relative to the ground, and the second will become zero.
This moment is supposed to be clearly understood. It is useful to look at the electrical circuit. Not every unit discussed is arranged according to this principle. Preferably, the ground pattern consists of a steel stake, reaching at least wet soil layers. The length according to a number of manufacturers is 1.5 meters minimum( diameter from 15 mm).In fact, it is recommended to be guided by the characteristics of the circuit, resistance. By industrial standards not higher than 4 ohms. It is not considered reprehensible to join the contour under the house, but then the point of the output winding will also be at zero potential( and then read the above).
The circuit for the device is organized separately. It is required to connect the wires through a switch of any type( automatic, manual, etc.).Grounding is not required to tear, otherwise the normal operation of devices, including protective( differential automata), is disturbed. Do not allow jumpers in the house( on sockets, etc.), where the zero bus is closed to the ground. It is easy to check with a tester:
- The toggle switch should stand after the switchboard. With the widespread TN-C-S system, ground wires and zero bus are shorted here.
- Disable network switch. Grounding( PEN) remains in place. We measure the resistance in any outlet between the ground lobe and the right jack( where the zero wire is by the rules).Repeat the measurement for another nest.
- In the absence of the jumpers mentioned above, the resistance is large. According to the rules is 20 MOhm. Not every tester shows a range for such large quantities. Then infinity is shown.
Generator type: synchronous and asynchronous
It is believed that the asynchronous is not afraid of phase overloads, is simpler, in practice the use of the device sometimes leads to disastrous consequences. Not any equipment is able to function in such conditions. Not without reason, according to industrial standards, the maximum permissible frequency deviation is a fraction of a percent. In the case of explicit care, the consequences come:
- The frequency of asynchronous motors moves away from the nominal. This is less true for self-regulating systems with adjustment, and more for ordinary fans, cooker hoods, and refrigerators. As a result of this move, individual units may break.
- Household appliances input filters tuned to 50 Hz. It happens, there are rejectors for harmonic suppression. If the frequency of the power supply from the device is 100 Hz, nothing will go inside the device.
Improper operation results in instability and early equipment failure. The collector engines instability affects to a lesser extent. For example, the speed of rotation of the turbine of a vacuum cleaner depends mostly on amplitude, not frequency. If you take a washing machine, cut-off mode is used to adjust the speed. Consequently, the result of the thyristor circuit will become unpredictable. Similar remarks are present with respect to food processors, meat grinders, and some mixers.
The synchronous unit is distinguished by adjusting the speed of rotation of the shaft. For example, with the help of excitation coils, which restrain the rotor during excessive acceleration. Sometimes permanent magnet designs are used. The advantage of synchronous is the reduction in the number of units with low fault tolerance.
Generator try to buy a synchronous, to avoid difficulties when connecting the load.
Fuel for alternator
. More often devices of alternating current are used as fuel:
- Gasoline. Assess the economic feasibility of the chosen product. For example, the technical specifications say that 400 grams of gasoline is consumed per 1 kWh of energy. Much depends on the type of fuel. Manufacturers recommend inwardly to fill only gasoline with low lead content and high octane number, the product is expensive. Calculate the cost of 1 kWh and estimate the profit.
- Gas turbines are widespread. Here the generator is connected through a gearbox. It will be necessary to carry out a similar calculation on the economic feasibility of using the type of fuel.
In a separate case, the conditions are different. See what kind of fuel is easier to get.
Safety Directions for Using the
Alternator Usually, in reviews, a lot of attention is devoted to electrical connections. Connecting the device to the network at home is much more in need of explanations in terms of security. For example, do not put the fuel canister too close, and in case of inadequate behavior the product should be turned off. What is considered unusual is more often described in the instructions: increased level of vibrations, noise, flying sparks and so on. It is not allowed to use the generator:
- In confined spaces. During operation, oxygen is burned, and oxidation products of the fuel are released. Together leads to carbon monoxide poisoning, other compounds. It is allowed to use part of the equipment in closed rooms if the proper level of ventilation is provided.
- Most generators are afraid of moisture. Do not use the product in the rain.
- Specified environmental conditions. Among other things, humidity, air temperature, less pressure and elevation above sea level. This affects the combustion conditions of the fuel and the operation of mechanisms.
- Before refueling, the engine is surely turned off. You can not smoke, spill gas on the ground. Keep spare cans away, at a distance of 1 meter from the device at least.
How to use the alternator
Generators are single-phase or three-phase. Moreover, it is desirable to load the windings evenly. If there is only one phase in the house, artificially split the net into three equal branches. Each feed a separate winding. Most often, the outlets for voltage distribution are ordinary sockets with a ground lobe. This is convenient on sites, but looks average in a private household. Consequently, the wiring will have to change to stationary.
In the home, consumers are organized to create a queue. You can not run all at once. There is a risk of failure of the device. For a decent model, the technical data indicates which starting current will pull the product. The best generators for a short period of time can withstand a short circuit, conditionally giving the maximum current( the largest possible).
Either the house connection plan provides for alternate start-up, or it is done permanently manually. The greatest starting current is characterized by asynchronous motors without idling. These are refrigeration compressors, pumps. Then there are other engines. Each current clamp can measure the starting current for any kind of equipment in order to correctly assign a sequence. It will be necessary to have time to detect the starting value.
Talk about overloading. Already told how to select the protective machines for the house. Remember, the rated current is put on the RCD case. A shutdown occurs only with significant overload. We often use the example of A. Zemskov, when an automaton is cut down after an hour of work with an excess of current over the nominal 45%.Most of the discussed devices work in a similar way, allow short-term overload. This applies only to expensive and complex models. Look through the instructions of a simple product, you will not find there a similar one.
Thus, the RCD from the switchboard will not protect the generator. As an option, it is permissible to put on this branch a separate automatic circuit breaker that turns off the network when the threshold value is reached. This is required to be observed for each phase, if there is equipment critical to phase distortions, an additional control device is installed, which, if necessary, disconnects the load.
Voltage monitoring at home is usually sufficient. Most products have built-in gauges. About throw-over knife switches and automatic machines for generators on the site a separate review. As well as about the counters, disconnecting unimportant consumers with too large loads.