Devices for switching off electricity during overloads and short circuits are installed at the entrance to any home network. It is necessary to correctly calculate the ratings of the circuit breakers by current, otherwise their operation will be inefficient. Do you agree?
We will describe how the calculation of the parameters of the machine, according to which this protective device is selected, is made. From the article proposed by us, you will learn how to choose the device required to protect the electrical network. With our advice, you will get an option that clearly works in a dangerous moment for posting.
The content of the article:
Circuit Breaker Parameters
- Key elements and labeling
- Time-current response characteristics
Nominal selection rules
- The principle of internal wiring
- The total power of electrical appliances
- The choice of cross-section lived
- Calculate switch rating to protect cable
- Overload prevention from consumer work
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Circuit Breaker Parameters
To ensure the correct selection of the rating of the shutdown devices, it is necessary to understand the principles of their operation, the conditions and the response time.
The operating parameters of the circuit breakers are standardized by Russian and international regulatory documents.
Key elements and labeling
The design of the switch includes two elements that respond to the excess of a current of a specified range of values:
- The bimetallic plate under the influence of the passing current heats up and, bending, presses on the pusher, which separates the contacts. This is “thermal protection” against overload.
- The solenoid under the influence of a strong current in the winding generates a magnetic field that presses the core, and the latter already acts on the plunger. This is a “short-circuit current protection” that reacts to such an event much faster than a plate.
The types of electrical protection devices have a marking by which their basic parameters can be determined.
Each circuit breaker indicates its main characteristics. This allows not to confuse the device when they are installed in the panel
The type of time-current characteristic depends on the setting range (the magnitude of the current at which the response occurs) of the solenoid. To protect the wiring and appliances in apartments, homes and offices use switches of type “C” or, much less common - “B”. There is no particular difference between them in household use.
Type “D” is used in utility rooms or carpentry in the presence of equipment with electric motors, which have large indicators of starting power.
There are two standards for disconnect devices: residential (EN 60898-1 or GOST R 50345) and more stringent industrial (EN 60947-2 or GOST R 50030.2). They differ slightly and machines of both standards can be used for residential premises.
According to the rated current, the standard series of automata for use in living conditions contains devices with the following values: 6, 8, 10, 13 (rarely occurs), 16, 20, 25, 32, 40, 50 and 63 A.
Time-current response characteristics
In order to determine the speed at which the automaton responds when overloaded, there are special dependency tables. off time from the ratio of the excess rating, which is equal to the ratio of the existing current to rated:
K = I / In.
A sharp breakdown of the chart when the value of the range factor from 5 to 10 units is reached is caused by the operation of the electromagnetic release. For switches of type “B” this occurs when the value is from 3 to 5 units, and for type “D” it is from 10 to 20.
The graph shows the dependence of the response time range of “C” type automatic machines on the ratio of the current intensity to the value that is set for this switch.
With K = 1.13, the machine is guaranteed not to disconnect the line for 1 hour, and with K = 1.45 - it is guaranteed to disconnect during the same time. These values are approved in paragraph 8.6.2. GOST R 50345-2010.
To understand how long the protection will work, for example, when K = 2, it is necessary to draw a vertical line from this value. As a result, we obtain that according to the above schedule, the disconnection will occur in the range from 12 to 100 seconds.
Such a large time spread is due to the fact that the heating of the plate depends not only on the power of the current passing through it, but also on the parameters of the external environment. The higher the temperature, the faster the automatic operates.
Nominal selection rules
The geometry of the in-house and house electrical networks is individual, so standard solutions for installing switches of a certain nominal value do not exist. The general rules for calculating the permissible parameters of automata are quite complex and depend on many factors. It is necessary to take into account all of them, otherwise it is possible to create an emergency.
The principle of internal wiring
Internal electrical networks have a branched structure in the form of a “tree” - a graph without cycles. Adherence to this principle of construction is called machine selectivity, according to which all types of electrical circuits are equipped with protective devices.
This improves the stability of the system in the event of an emergency and simplifies the work to eliminate it. It is also much easier to distribute the load, connect energy-intensive devices and change the wiring configuration.
At the base of the graph, there is an introductory automaton, and immediately after branching, group switches are placed for each individual electrical circuit. This is the standard scheme tested over the years.
The functions of the input automaton include total overload monitoring - preventing the amperage from exceeding the allowed value for an object. If this happens, there is a risk of damage to the external wiring. In addition, it is likely that the protection devices outside the apartment, which already belong to the common house property or belong to the local power networks, will be activated.
The functions of group machines include control of the current intensity on individual lines. They protect against overload the cable in the designated area and the group of electricity consumers connected to it. If during a short circuit such a device does not work, then it is insured by the introductory automat.
Even for apartments with a small number of electrical consumers, it is desirable to have a separate line for lighting. When the automatic circuit breaker of another circuit is turned off, the light will not go out, which will make it possible to eliminate the problem that has arisen in more comfortable conditions. Practically in each panel, the value of the nominal value of the input machine is less than the sum of the group.
The total power of electrical appliances
The maximum load on the circuit occurs when all electrical appliances are switched on at the same time. Therefore, usually, the total power is calculated by simple addition. However, in some cases, this figure will be less.
For some lines, the simultaneous operation of all electrical appliances connected to it is unlikely and sometimes impossible. In houses, sometimes they specifically set limits on the operation of high-power devices. To do this, remember to prevent their simultaneous inclusion or use a limited number of outlets.
The probability of simultaneous operation of all office equipment, lighting and auxiliary equipment (kettles, refrigerators, fans, heaters, etc.) are very low, so when calculating the maximum power they use correction factor
In the electrification of office buildings, the empirical coefficient of simultaneity is often used for calculations, the value of which is taken in the range from 0.6 to 0.8. Maximum load is calculated by multiplying the sum of the power of all appliances by a factor.
There is one subtlety in the calculations - it is necessary to take into account the difference between the nominal (full) power and the consumed (active), which are related by the coefficient (cos (f)).
This means that for the operation of the device a current of power equal to that consumed divided by this factor is required:
Ip = I / cos (f)
- Ip - nominal current strength, which is used in load calculations;
- I is the current consumed by the device;
- cos (f) <= 1.
Usually, the rated current immediately or through an indication of the value of cos (f) is indicated in the technical data sheet of the electrical device.
For example, the coefficient value for luminescent light sources is 0.9; for LED lamps - about 0.6; for ordinary incandescent lamps - 1. If the documentation is lost, but the power consumption of household appliances is known, then for a guarantee they take cos (f) = 0.75.
The recommended power factor values listed in the table can be used in the calculation of electrical loads when there is no data on the rated current.
How to choose a circuit breaker for the power load is written in next article, the content of which we advise you to read.
The choice of cross-section lived
Before laying the power cable from the switchboard to the group of consumers, it is necessary to calculate the power of electrical appliances when they are working simultaneously. The cross section of any branch is chosen according to the calculation tables depending on the type of metal of the wiring: copper or aluminum.
Wire manufacturers accompany manufactured products with similar reference materials. If they are absent, they are guided by data from the reference book “Rules for electrical equipment design” or produce cable section calculation.
However, consumers are often reinsured and choose not the minimum permissible cross-section, but a larger step. For example, when buying a copper cable for a 5 kW line, choose a cross section of 6 mm2when according to the table 4 mm is enough2.
The reference table presented in PUE allows you to select the required cross-section from the standard range for different operating conditions of copper cable
This is justified for the following reasons:
- Longer operation of the thick cable, which is rarely subjected to the maximum allowable for its cross section load. Re-laying the wiring is not an easy and costly job, especially if repairs have been made in the room.
- Reserve bandwidth allows you to seamlessly connect to the network branch new electrical appliances. So, in the kitchen, you can add an additional freezer or move the washing machine from the bathroom.
- Getting started devices containing electric motors, gives a strong starting currents. In this case, there is a voltage drop, which is expressed not only in the flashing of the lighting lamps, but can also lead to a breakdown of the electronic part of the computer, air conditioner or washing machine. The thicker the cable, the less the power surge.
Unfortunately, there are many cables on the market that are not made in accordance with GOST, but in accordance with the requirements of various technical specifications.
Often the cross section of their veins does not meet the requirements or they are made of conductive material with greater resistance than expected. Therefore, the actual maximum power at which the permissible heating of the cable occurs is less than in the normative tables.
This photo shows the differences between cables made in accordance with GOST (left) and according to specifications (right). The difference in the cross section of the cores and the tightness of the insulation material is obvious.
Calculate switch rating to protect cable
The automat installed in the panel should ensure that the line is disconnected when the power output of the current is outside the range allowed for the electric cable. Therefore, for the switch, it is necessary to calculate the maximum allowable rating.
According to PUE, the permissible continuous load of copper cables laid in ducts or by air (for example, above a stretched ceiling) is taken from the table above. These values are intended for emergency situations when there is a power overload.
Some problems begin when correlating the rated power of the switch to the long-term permissible current, if this is done in accordance with the current GOST R 50571.4.43-2012.
A fragment of p. 433.1 GOST R 50571.4.43-2012. In the formula “2” there was an inaccuracy, and for a correct understanding of the definition of the variable In, Appendix “1” should be taken into account.
First, the decoding of variable I is misleading.n, as the nominal power, if you do not pay attention to the Annex “1” to this item of the GOST. Secondly, in the formula “2” there is a typo: the coefficient of 1.45 is added incorrectly and this fact is ascertained by many experts.
According to paragraph 18.104.22.168. GOST R 50345-2010 for household switches with nominal values up to 63 A, the conditional time is 1 hour. The set tripping current is equal to the nominal value multiplied by a factor of 1.45.
Thus, according to both the first and modified second formulas, the nominal current of the switch should be calculated using the following formula:
In <= IZ / 1,45
- In - rated current of the machine;
- IZ - long permissible cable current.
We will carry out the calculation of the ratings of switches for standard cable sections with single-phase connection with two copper conductors (220 V). To do this, we divide the long-term permissible current (when laying through the air) by a tripping factor of 1.45.
Choose an automaton so that its nominal is less than this value:
- 1.5 mm cross section2: 19 / 1,45 = 13,1. Rating: 13 A;
- 2.5 mm cross section2: 27 / 1,45 = 18,6. Rating: 16 A;
- Section 4.0 mm2: 38 / 1,45 = 26,2. Rating: 25 A;
- Section 6.0 mm2: 50 / 1,45 = 34,5. Rating: 32 A;
- Section 10.0 mm2: 70 / 1,45 = 48,3. Rating: 40 A;
- Section 16.0 mm2: 90 / 1,45 = 62,1. Rating: 50 A;
- Section 25.0 mm2: 115 / 1,45 = 79,3. Rating: 63 A.
13A circuit breakers are rarely available commercially, so devices with a rated capacity of 10A are more often used instead.
Aluminum-based cables are now rarely used in the installation of internal wiring. For them, too, there is a table that allows you to select a section for the load
In a similar way for aluminum cables we calculate the values of the automata:
- 2.5 mm cross section2: 21 / 1,45 = 14,5. Rating: 10 or 13 A;
- Section 4.0 mm2: 29 / 1,45 = 20,0. Rating: 16 or 20 A;
- Section 6.0 mm2: 38 / 1,45 = 26,2. Rating: 25 A;
- Section 10.0 mm2: 55 / 1,45 = 37,9. Rating: 32 A;
- Section 16.0 mm2: 70 / 1,45 = 48,3. Rating: 40 A;
- Section 25.0 mm2: 90 / 1,45 = 62,1. Denomination: 50 A.
- Section 35.0 mm2: 105 / 1,45 = 72,4. Rating: 63 A.
If the manufacturer of power cables declares a different dependence of the permissible power on the cross-sectional area, then it is necessary to recalculate the value for the switches.
Formulas for power versus power for single-phase and three-phase networks are different. Many people who have devices rated for 380 volts are mistaken at this stage.
How to determine the technical parameters of the circuit breaker by marking, in detail set out here. We recommend to get acquainted with the informative material.
Overload prevention from consumer work
Sometimes an automat with a nominal power much lower than necessary is installed on the line in order to guarantee the preservation of the efficiency of the electrical cable.
It is advisable to lower the rating of the circuit breaker if the total power of all devices in the circuit is significantly less than the cable can withstand. This happens if, for security reasons, when some of the devices were removed from the line after the wiring.
Then reduction of the nominal power of the machine is justified from the standpoint of its more rapid response to the occurring overload.
For example, when the motor bearing is jammed, the current in the winding increases sharply, but not to the short circuit values. If the machine responds quickly, the winding will not have time to melt down, which will save the engine from an expensive rewinding procedure.
Also use the nominal is less than the calculated for reasons of severe restrictions on each chain. For example, for a single-phase network, a 32 A switch is installed at the entrance to an apartment with an electric stove, which gives 32 * 1.13 * 220 = 8.0 kW of permissible power. Suppose that during the layout of the apartment 3 lines were set up with the installation of group automat of 25 A.
If the number of group machines installed in the switchboard is large, then they must be signed and numbered. Otherwise, you can get confused
Suppose that on one of the lines there is a slow increase in load. When the power consumption reaches a value equal to the guaranteed tripping of the group switch, only the remaining two sections will have (32 - 25) * 1.45 * 220 = 2.2 kW.
This is very small relative to total consumption. In this scheme, the distribution panel input automaton will be more often disconnected than devices on the lines.
Therefore, in order to preserve the principle of selectivity, you need to put switches with nominal values of 20 or 16 amperes on the plots. Then, with the same imbalance of power consumption, the other two links will account for a total of 3.8 or 5.1 kW, which is acceptable.
Consider the opportunity switch installation with a nominal of 20A on the example of a dedicated line for the kitchen.
The following electrical appliances are connected to it and can be simultaneously turned on:
- Refrigerator with a rated power of 400 W and a starting current of 1.2 kW;
- Two freezers, 200 W;
- Oven, power 3.5 kW;
- When operating an electric oven, it is allowed to additionally turn on only one appliance, the most powerful of which is an electric kettle that consumes 2.0 kW.
A twenty-amp machine allows over an hour to pass a current with a power of 20 * 220 * 1.13 = 5.0 kW. Guaranteed shutdown in less than one hour will occur when current is passed in 20 * 220 * 1.45 = 6.4 kW.
In the kitchen, a permanent electrical connection should be at the refrigeration equipment and stove. If there is a risk of exceeding the current, the simultaneous operation of other devices can be eliminated by allocating only two sockets for them.
At the same time turning on the oven and electric kettle, the total power will be 5.5 kW or 1.25 parts of the nominal of the machine. Since the kettle does not last long, it will not turn off. If at this moment the refrigerator and both freezers come into operation, the power will be 6.3 kW or 1.43 parts of the nominal.
This value is already close to the guaranteed trip parameter. However, the likelihood of such a situation is extremely small and the duration of the period will be insignificant, since the operating time of the motors and the kettle is small.
The starting current arising at the start of the refrigerator, even in sum with all working devices, will not be enough to trigger the electromagnetic release. Thus, in the given conditions, it is possible to use an automaton on 20 A.
The only caveat is the possibility of increasing the voltage to 230 V, which is permitted by regulatory documents. In particular, GOST 29322-2014 (IEC 60038: 2009) defines a standard voltage of 230 V with the possibility of using 220 V.
Now, most of the networks supply electricity at 220 V. If the current parameter is reduced to the international standard of 230 V, then the ratings can be recalculated in accordance with this value.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
The device switch. Selection of input automaton depending on the connected power. Power Distribution Rules:
Selecting a switch for cable bandwidth:
The calculation of the rated current of the circuit breaker is a complex task, for the solution of which it is necessary to take into account many conditions. The convenience of service and safety of the local power grid depends on the installed machine.
In case of doubt in the ability to make the right choice, you should contact an experienced electricians.
Please write comments in the box below. Tell us about your own experience in the selection of circuit breakers. Share useful information and photos on the topic of the article, ask questions.