When they were after perestroika, the masses were concerned with how to disassemble an electric motor. They paid little, many, especially military units with rich property, sinned: they helped the state to dispose of unnecessary mechanisms for free. Before - transformers, electric motors. Cables got into the discharge. It was easier to deal with copper - they simply burned insulation, resin, gutted it. Aluminum cast: cheaper, more problems, lower melting point. Loses metal strength - decreases value.
Electric motors of the collector and asynchronous type
Instead of dismantling the electric motor for copper for delivery to the nearest point, we suggest to study the design( we will show how to break).Problems arise when gutting a stator, rotor. Electric motor coils are assembled by a similar principle - they sink into an isolated pre-grotto, sometimes clogged over the wedge. Due to the special shape of the hole, the structure is firmly in place. Most people do not bother with the windings of electric motors: the sidewalls are cut by a grinder, the wiring is knocked out from their homes. See on YouTube. In the rollers discusses the repair of electric motors regarding rewinding coils.
The photo shows two typical household electric motors:
. Collector engine U8330
. The variant on the left is presented and taken from the Philips food processor. We apologize in advance for the refusal to disassemble to the end, you need to remove the ring, which goes deep into the plastic gear. Simply dangerous, the electric motor costs 2000 rubles. Found irrational experiment in this way. The photo shows: the shaft is removed after disassembling the bed( held by two long bolts).Brushes are inconvenient( engine collector), there is a lot of copper. The stator, the rotor is winding. And in the latter case, the wedges are missing. Look closely, you can see: on the ends of the rotor winding( collector) of an electric motor stuck with glue. Dissolve, remove in another way - it is possible to dismantle. On the stator, the poles do keep themselves slyly: a coil of copper is bent on the periphery. A common thing for engines when fixed coils practically nothing holds.
Asynchronous type motor
As understood, the second option is an asynchronous type electric motor. Removed from the domestic exhaust. Approximately so the simplest models are arranged. An electric motor is distinguished by a massive magnetic core formed by two parts: internal, external. Due to the mass, the exhaust fan does not work well. When installed under the weight of an electric motor gradually bent down. The blades begin to cling to the body, the device rumbles like a tank, grinds, makes other sounds. But to disassemble the asynchronous electric motor is a nice thing. It is necessary to knock out the inner part of the magnetic circuit from the outer, insulators, stator coils( for rewinding) will come out parallel to the outside. As for the rotor of an electric motor, is made in a short-circuited scheme, it is unlikely that you will be able to turn in a silumin drum for a favorable price. If the item accepts, they will certainly require the removal of internal copper conductors( indicated by oblique strokes on the surface).It is necessary to do, having enlisted the help of a chisel, a hammer, a grinder. We wish good luck in the persistent desire to earn an extra 30 rubles, breaking the electric motor at the cost of such efforts.
Copper wire with lacquer insulation is used for winding electric motor coils. Apparently, it is necessary to use a solvent, removing the layer. A large mass of wires of an electric motor corresponds to a significant weight of varnish, will cause objections from the merchant. For the most part, insulation( promprovod.oml.ru) is performed on the basis of synthetic varnishes, for example, viniflex( VL 931).In terms of water resistance, organic solvents, the material used in the manufacture of electric motors, covers the possibilities of metalvin( VL 941).Made on the basis of polyvinylformal and phenol-formaldehyde resins, the coating will provide phenomenal stability.
Heat-resistant enamels are formed by PE943( tarephthalic acid, ethylene glycol, glycerin), PE939( lavsan) families. To increase impact resistance, stabilize resistance to heat, the compositions are modified with isocyanurate. Heat resistant coatings reach classes F( 155 C), H( 180 C).Polyether imide varnishes are stronger in this respect polyester. The solvent is cresol in combination with carbonic solvent or xynol.
Some of the varnish insulation is made up of substances on a natural basis( linseed oil).To improve the quality of the mixture is supplemented with synthetic resins, calcium resinate, obtained from rosin. Solvent varnish is kerosene. The good news: varnishes have poor solvent resistance. In industry, thin copper wire is cleaned with formic acid at a temperature of 80 degrees. Remember: the substance is extremely dangerous. Getting on the skin, inside through the respiratory organs causes a variety of damage, most irreversible. It is required to use the hood, it is better to work in outdoor conditions.
In some cases, firing is used, but not thin wire. Will burn, there will be no trace. You need to look at the type of varnish in more detail, the brand of the wire will help to find out. For example, some varieties dissolve in ordinary alcohol. Typically shellac. We believe that the technique should be simple, as safe as possible - hardly anyone wants to be able to hand over metal to pay with health and financial well-being.
Disassemble the electric motor for repair
Highlighted aspects characteristic of a poor country: how to disassemble an electric motor for scrap. Add here: the magnetic circuit is formed by plates of good electrical steel, which is permissible to use, making transformers. Let's see how to repair an electric motor. We will describe the component parts, since it is far from always the cause of the breakdown of a product will be burned windings.
Suppose one winding of the stator of an electric motor broke. Wind up: the wire is laid out by the store, the footage is small. Better than paying a couple of thousand, buying a new electric motor food processor. Funny, the wire is sold. .. cubic meters, kilograms. Traders, roughly speaking, clog people's heads with unnecessary worries. How to measure cubic meter winding of an electric motor? Draw your own conclusions: sometimes you look at the dealer, the language is full of mate. More pleased with writing: the price of the wire windings of an electric motor should be requested.
The coil cannot be expensive: 550 rubles are asked for 1 kg of copper. Stop winding the stator( both poles) with half a dozen motors of a food processor. Therefore, the economic effect is obvious, you need to disassemble the motor winding to measure the parameters. Let's get started
- You will quickly notice, although for the operation of most electric motors it is required to bring 230 volts, in fact, there are much more conclusions than is required.
Normally, thermal relays and thermal fuses are placed in the winding. Protect against overheating. Already wrote: each lacquer insulation has a limit, so the fuses are made in accordance with the requirements. Typical values are 135 - 145 degrees Celsius. On the asynchronous engine we see two black wires: between the turns, the magnetic core is a protective element, calculated to withstand a temperature of 145 degrees.
In this case, the contact is bad enough. There are models of electric motors, where the thermal relay is tightly screwed to the plates, or wrapped in insulation between the turns of the windings. Start the security test. Sometimes there are their own terminals of the power connector, often the thermal fuse is simply turned on in series with the winding. When triggered, the tester will record a break. Please note: it is not always possible to measure the resistance through the terminals. It is much better to call engines with an active indicator screwdriver.
- The composition of many domestic engines is supplemented by sensors measuring the speed of rotation of the shaft. Use the Hall effect, there are other varieties. Kohl soon decided to repair the engine, gauges, most likely, are not interested.
- If you plan to disassemble a vacuum cleaner's electric motor, you will immediately notice: near the collector, “drops”( rounded shape) close to the case.
Not breakage, even if blackened by heat. Tear-shaped varistors help protect brushes against power surges. With a sharp increase in the potential of the resistance of the elements falls, the spark is extinguished by the thickness of the steel motor housing. The motor on the left( see photo) is equipped with varistors( there are thermal switches containing a Klixon 3MP tablet-type sensor).Varistors are difficult to check, can cause breakage in only one case - with a short circuit. Tester check whether there is a place to be. In a quiet state, without power, the resistance of the varistor is large( often more than 20 MΩ).
- For collector electric motors, brushes are a weak point.
Wear brings to circular fire. Disassemble the asynchronous motor with a squirrel cage rotor is much easier. On the lamella brushes abut springs. If you try to pull the engine manifold out, it will jump out in the direction of the shaft. In power tools holders are bolted, covered with covers, it is relatively easy to remove graphite. When it involves food processors, maintenance of products outside the workshops is not provided for by the manufacturer. The holder is held by a curved brass mustache. Obviously, we try too hard to practice flexion-extension, otherwise it is easy to break off fasteners. It is better to remove brushes, anticipating shaft removal. Facilitates the subsequent assembly process, saves graphite against destruction.