If a person living in the home, there should be drainage, as the wastes still need to somehow be removed. And it's hard not to agree is not it? Modern industry offers a variety of solutions: from septic tanks to multiple-neat dry closets. But the usual cesspool in a private home is still relevant and in demand.
But, before proceeding to the construction of the sump in the area, will have to weigh the pros and cons. After properly selected location, and the very structure raking subsequently threatens to turn into a lot of problems. The most common of them - the odor. We'll tell you how to avoid this problem.
In this article we will compile and synthesize information on types and design characteristics of cesspools. In addition, here you can find useful tips and advice on how to choose and build a sewage system in the area. The material is accompanied by thematic photos and videos.
The content of the article:
Apparatus types and constructive
- Principles of design and preparation
- cesspools installation Features
- Nuances of operation of cesspools
- Cesspool of concrete rings
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Apparatus types and constructive
Septic Tank - this is probably the oldest and most simple kind of sanitation. It is a depression in the ground, wherein the accumulate and partly processed wastewater.
In any effluent contained a number of bacteria, absorbing and converting these accumulations. Part of the filtered effluent goes into the subsoil.
All that is not processed and not gone into the underlying layers of the cesspool must be periodically removed to not overfill the tank.
The most common type of cesspools for private houses constructed from concrete or reinforced concrete rings with a tight or filter bottom
Sewer organization cesspool now become more likely to buy plastic containers factory production. They are simply placed in a trench and connected to the sewer pipe
As the sump, i.e. waste storage, are often used single-chamber septic tank, which is simply not activated by the process of fermentation and organized withdrawal of clarified water
A simple, but not too cheap option device cesspool - installation of reinforced concrete structures, fully prepared for the sewer connection
If you have time and desire to make their own efforts in the device sewage storage tank, it can be done independently, Gulf of concrete mix into the mold
For receiving, processing and discharge to ground of the clarified gray water effluent coming from baths, showers, kitchens, arrange holes with filtering walls and the bottom
Perfect for service cottages and small country house sewer construction of cubic containers
For the collection and recycling of gray clarified effluent into the ground in the country ideal actually free filter well from tires
Popular cesspool of concrete rings
Plastic containers for drainage device
Single-chamber septic tank in the construction of raking in the area
Ready-to-install reinforced concrete structure
Monolithic version sewage facilities
Budget type drive built of cubic containers
Almost free option raking
On summer cottages often arrange separate cesspool toilet. She looks like a relatively small depression in the ground, on which is installed a light wooden structure.
When the pit is full, the toilet clean, deepening covered with earth. Waste rot in the ground and turned into compost - a useful fertilizer.
Later on this place planted a fruit tree, which will give a great harvest in this place a good fertilizer. A toilet dig a new pit, which later disposed of in this way.
But for the needs of the big house, especially in the year-round, such a solution is, of course, is not enough.
In the diagram shows a device of one embodiment of the pits - filter manhole. The construction with sealed walls, it is arranged at the bottom of the multilayer filter sand, crushed stone or gravel
Modern cesspools have a fairly large amount, and their walls are constructed of different materials.
This can be:
- concrete blocks;
- concrete rings;
- old tires, etc.
For simple devices sump can be purchased ready-made plastic container with solid walls and a hatch.
With the help of the process facilities mini-sewage in the suburban area is made substantially easier and faster at times.
Classical variant cesspool for a country house is a pit depth of about 1.5 m with sealed walls and bottom. For pumping wastewater and removal of the flip cover is arranged to remove odor set ventiduct
Choosing material for the sump, it should be noted that prolonged contact with aggressive media will gradually destroy its walls. To prolong the life of the facilities, it is necessary to choose such an impact-resistant materials.
There are two types of pit latrines: sealed and filtering. The first effluent accumulated and stored until the moment of pumping. Secondly there is no bottom in the traditional sense of the term, and in the walls of the holes may be to the waste entering the ground.
If it is assumed filtering wastewater through the wall construction, then arrange them around the gravel-sand filter thickness not less than 15 cm.
Walls filtering facilities do either monolithic or perforated, depending on the filtering qualities of the surrounding soil and the problems of wastewater treatment plants.
Constructions with the possibility of infiltration into the surrounding soil to advantageously arrange effluent collected rainwater drainage and sewerage. Between the bottom of such conventional facilities and underground water surface must be ground stratum capacity of at least 1 m.
Ready concrete structures of various types is relatively inexpensive and allow you to make a cesspool in the shortest possible time
Cesspool with sealed bottom and walls of the monolithic arrange for collection and subsequent removal of domestic and commercial waste.
Need it and at a high occurrence of groundwater, because in such situations, a direct connection is necessary to eliminate waste from the environment.
Sealed needs to be done and cesspools large volume, which is expected to accumulate a large amount of waste in a short time. A considerable amount of waste will be processed for too long increases the risk of soil contamination.
Located within a comfortable home with a backlash-closets cesspool different from the street version of a special kind of ventilation. play channels available in the structure create steady streams of ventilation, air and raked, and the room restroom
Principles of design and preparation
Even such a simple structure as a cesspool, requires competent preparation and planning. It is necessary to determine the appropriate location for its care, select the type of design, its size, works technology, materials, etc.
The location of the sump - the most important moment. According to the building regulations, it should be at a distance from the fence, residential buildings, etc.
For example, from a well with drinking water is the sewage facilities must be at least 25 meters, and from the residential building - at least five meters.
When choosing a suitable location for the sump at a private home should be possible directions for sewage truck
If the terrain in the area is uneven, it is not necessary to arrange the cesspool in nizinke. During spring tide it can with high probability to sink, and this will lead to groundwater contamination at the site.
The volume of construction depends on the number of tenants in the building and the time of residence. Per person usually take from 0.5 to 2.0 cubic meters. m.
It is better if the volume of construction will be a multiple-capacity vacuum trucks machines, as payment for the use of technology is usually on the amount of waste is independent, paid the cost of each departure.
At a private home ownership are allowed to build a stand-alone sewer cesspool, if not within the area is laid centralized network or you can not connect to it
From the foundation of the house to the manhole of any type should be a minimum distance of 5 m. This padding is needed in the event of an emergency leak, do not tempted foundation
In addition to the varying distances from the boundaries of communications and neighboring areas need competent planning, focused on simplifying and reducing the length of the track and
Cesspools and septic tanks like requiring much less vacuum trucks for emptying, positioned so as to be able to approach close enough special equipment
Prerequisites for the construction of the sump
The distance from the foundation of the house to the subject
Comfortable and eknomnaya lay sewer at the site
Overlapping arrangement cesspool
Thinking over the place to put the sump, you should immediately attend issue its cleaning. The easiest way to do this faster and unpleasant procedure, you can use the car-vacuum truck. Therefore, sufficient space should be provided for the passage of such equipment.
It also happens that the relevant norms plot cesspool does not allow assenizatorskaya car. The accumulated runoff in this case is removed with a special pump or a conventional bucket.
Make a hole or sealed with openings for filtering. The choice affects the level of groundwater at the site. If it is less than a meter, the pit have to be completely sealed.
Otherwise drains can penetrate into the aquifer and adversely affect the quality of water. Restore the normal structure of it in such a situation will not be easy.
For tight cesspit can take a special plastic container. To establish such an element to be careful to not caved wall or burst under pressure from outside the soil
Everything for a sealed sump performed concreting bottom wall constructions do without gaps. Alternative - plastic container installed inside the pit.
It will also ensure the necessary tightness, but it should be remembered that on the strength of plastic substantially inferior concrete or brick.
If the first surface of the aquifer lies below the bottom of the pit is being built on a 1 meter or more, it can be arranged on the principle of filtering or absorbing wells.
Bottom hole is formed of a material having high filtration properties of sand, gravel or gravel sand filling. Power filter backfill is not less than 1 m.
The filtering structure makes no sense to hold on rock and semi rocks, loams and clays, as processed effluent will not be able to migrate further into the ground.
He did not do as well, if there is a possibility of discharge in open water near the bathing places or water intake points for technical purposes.
Cesspools absorption type constructed in the ground, capable of transmitting treated wastewater. Arrange them is allowed only in cases where conditional between the bottom of the filter well and the highest level of ground water soil thickness is ranging from a full-length
For a small number of families in three people have national standards raking device. Arrange them at the rate of 0.5 m3 on one face, a depth in average of 1.0 - 1.5 m, a width of 0.8 - 1.0 m.
If over the cesspool will rise small closet for truckers who do not reside permanently in the country site, standard dimensions and calculated volume can be somewhat reduced.
To make a hole scavenger type using brickwork, leaving a small gap between the bricks. The gaps can be made across the clutch, but only in certain places
cesspools installation Features
So, the place is chosen, it is time to begin construction of the pit. Usually this is done using a special technique, as to remove large volumes of soil by hand - too long and hard. The configuration of the excavation can be square, rectangular, round - it all depends on the chosen material.
Under old tires, concrete rings etc. It will need a round pit.
Pouring concrete or erecting wooden walls conveniently carried out in a square or rectangular hole. And here brickwork It can be performed in a circle, and in a straight line.
Cesspool of bricks can be rectangular or round configuration. Laying can be sealed or lumen depending on the facilities of the type
After the tank is ready, it is necessary to proceed to the arrangement of the bottom filter of compacted crushed stone sand mixture. With gravel pit in the pour passage of time if a part of the filter material is squeezed under the weight of waste water into the underlying layer.
If you need a sealed tank, the bottom is in the form of a concrete tie for the foundation. Then build a wall. You can continue to work with concrete, make the formwork and pour over the walls.
It is easier and faster to do the sewers of concrete rings. They are placed in a pit and then buried and sealed seams.
Plastic container, put on the compacted sand bed. Backfilling the excavation in this case should be done very carefully so as not to damage the plastic. It recommended simultaneously poured into the water container to equilibrate the pressure inside and outside.
The quality of the brickwork in the sewer construction particularly stringent requirements do not exist, the result will be hidden under the ground. This work is quite possible to entrust mason novice.
Yet it must be remembered that even in the sewers too curved walls are not necessary. This increases the likelihood of their destruction under the influence of external factors.
Conventional masonry construction will provide sufficient tightness. If the plans to create the sump with natural filtration in field welds leave clearance approximately half bricks.
Structures sewer object filter bottom is carried out only in soils with a high filtration properties of sand, gravel and gravel deposits
When the absorbent device into the well bottoms to insufficient capacity for absorbing filter, for example in sandy loam increase the filter area with filter walls stacking holes
By absorbing pit with filter bottom fed sewer system, conveying only gray wastewater: contaminated water from the kitchen, shower, basin, bath, bath
Holes, increasing the capacity of the absorbing well, satisfied with the height of the soil filter - ie 1 m from the bottom of an object
If there are doubts about the treatment of gray wastewater dirt filter pit is better to do with overflow. This embodiment substantially increases the degree of wastewater treatment
Receiving effluents section with overflow holes make the sealed bottom. Defend it clarified water is fed into the second chamber, there is disposed in the ground
Above absorbing embodiment as over all kinds cesspools should build overlap, for example of an angle as beams and plywood sheets
Absorbent pad around the object, it is desirable to equip sewage: pour large-sized plate, excluding the ground collapse in the well, to put the fence
Geological conditions for the device absorbing pit
The specifics of the construction pit in the sandy loam
Liner sewer drains gray
Location of weep-holes
The complicated design with overflow
Double chamber sewage treatment plant
Device overlap over the cesspool or septic tank
Construction of platforms around the sump
In coordination with local inspection bodies in rare cases is permissible construction of raking wood. Wood is recommended to pre-treat with special materials to increase its service life.
As practice shows, wooden latrines serve a short time and in a few years may need to be repaired.
For watertight gap between logs prosmalivayut and caulks, and the bottom wall is applied and waterproofing layer of clay 45 cm thick. raked top cover tightly stacked logs, and for the possibility of pumping wastewater satisfied hatch about 80 × 70 cm.
Another option walls sump - old tires. They are placed in a pit stack to prevent the hole wall from damage. Of course, on some special tightness in this case we are not talking.
This temporary option, which does not provide for the accumulation of a large volume flows. But to make a hole in the tire is relatively easy, and it performs its functions satisfactorily.
Cesspool of tires - it is a relatively small absorption structure. Its main advantage - the availability of materials and ease of execution
Nuances of operation of cesspools
If the septic tank is arranged correctly, the big problems with her work will not arise. The main problem - the regular cleaning of the container from the accumulated waste. It is not necessary to wait until the container is full, the removal of waste need to start earlier.
However, a simple pumping of sewage does not automatically clean facility. The cesspools with time observed phenomena such as siltation and pollution of the bottom walls of fatty deposits.
All this leads to a reduction in the volume of construction, it is filled faster and scavengers have to call more often.
Over time, the bottom of the sump can accumulate silt deposits, which prevent the natural removal of fluid from the sewage tank
In addition, contamination and reinforce the already not appetizing aromas characteristic of the sewage. One way of solving the problem - the use of special bacteria for cesspools. These microorganisms are simply poured or poured into a container in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
The presence of bacteria to accelerate waste processing and prevents the likelihood of contamination of the surrounding soil. In addition, microorganisms capable of largely loosen and even completely eliminate unpleasant odors impurities.
Before using bacteria should carefully read the instructions. Such drugs are not always compatible with certain types of household chemicals. You need to choose a different composition or to change the cleaners, washing and other needs in the more appropriate.
Sometimes the bacteria do not work, the walls and bottom of the container are covered by deposits. In this case, it will help mechanical cleaning capacity. After pumping wastewater into the pit descends worker who cleans the dirt off the walls.
Is then removed from the bottom layer of sludge. Purified bottom should fill fresh crushed stone or gravel layer.
The cleaning cesspools, not only time consuming but also dangerous. They should be carried out in special protective clothing and a respirator. Do not interfere as safety glasses and, of course, gloves. It is not recommended to carry out such work alone.
The deposits can release dangerous to human health gas. Inside the pit worker may suddenly lose consciousness under the influence of fumes. Even if the bottom is staffed by two or three people, they must insure someone on the surface in the event of such a trouble.
Cesspool of concrete rings
The use of prefabricated reinforced concrete structures, in this case - concrete rings, significantly accelerates the building, so they are used quite often. Such elements can be used for everything, and sealed, and absorbing sump.
In the first case taking monolithic ring, and in the second - using special rings with holes.
For the construction of permeable sump designed for the purification of septic effluent displaced can buy concrete rings with perforations
Of course, you should use the whole cells with no cracks, so that the operation of the construction does not fall apart.
To make a cesspool of concrete rings, perform the following steps:
- Choose a place for the construction.
- Make a layout.
- Dig a pit.
- Align the bottom.
- Bottom of the pit pour a concrete screed.
- Set concrete rings.
- Get the necessary pipes.
- Seal the seams.
- Carry out works on waterproofing and sealing.
- Run backfilling the excavation.
- Set concrete slab with a hole and cover.
- Set the ventilation design.
Of course, for absorbing concrete sump bottom is not necessary. Instead the bottom of the screed must put a layer of gravel or crushed stone to improve drainage facilities. A construction for the sealed can find ready concrete ring, which already has a bottom. But such options are not common.
Concreting is performed via the bottom tie thickness of about 10 cm. To impart additional strength to the layer of the crushed rock is added. the solution should be as homogeneous as possible to achieve uniform drying.
Until screed is dry, continue to work on improvement of the sump can not. Will have to wait at least a week. After drying on the screed may appear flaws - cracks, bumps and the like They must be removed by a special repair mortar.
Concrete ring should be installed very carefully. This can be done by crane or manually. Connections sealed with rubber gaskets, we can use the old car camera. At the junctions of the ring is isolated by means of the solution.
from the inside waterproofing sump recommended performed using waterglass.
For the installation of concrete rings in the sump it is recommended to use a special construction equipment. This work can be done manually, but it is necessary to involve several people
For laying sewer pipes dig a trench with a slight slope - about 3 degrees. It recommended a trench depth - at least one meter to the pipe from freezing in winter. To the same end of the pipe are covered with a layer of insulating material.
The hole in the concrete ring to connect the sewer pipe can be done using the perforator.
Sewer pipes recommended to put to a depth of one meter, i.e. below the depth of soil freezing to waste water is not frozen and not torn structure
After the stacked pipes, check the quality of work, taking some water into the sewer. Making sure that there is a leak, you can begin to backfill the trench. In generally used as the upper reinforced concrete slab covering.
It is best to choose the design, which has already carried out a round or square opening for service. Such an opening cover of standard cover.
Good ventilation sump improves waste management and removal of unpleasant odor. For ventilation in the upper slab must necessarily make a special opening and bring up the pipe.
Suitable plastic pipe diameter of at least 100 mm. From above it is necessary to cover a special deflector to prevent the penetration of precipitation into the waste water.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
It contains a detailed overview of the device cesspools made of different materials:
An interesting variant of the sump, lined with brick, is shown in this video:
In this video you can see a clear example of mounting the sump of concrete rings:
Cesspool - ancient building, but useful. It is the most simple and relatively cheap way to provide a reliable home autonomous sewerage.
It is only necessary to choose the right place, to determine the volume and accurately observe the technology works.
Own secrets arrangement Autonomous sewage from cesspool? Perhaps you have recently built their own hands to drive sewage from scrap materials? Tell us about it - your experience may be useful to other owners of suburban housing.