Electrical floor heating - built-in type heater is based on the principle of the Joule law. The product bases algorithm working on the fact that when an electric current flows through the conductor huge amount of energy is released with a high resistance. The ambient temperature rises, and most of the transferred surface of the floor. A further exchange with the environment comes in two ways: convection and radiation.
The history of the development of systems Floor heating
Cliché: keep your feet warm, your head in the cold. The above thesis explains the prevalence of warm floors above the suspended ceilings and infrared heaters. The last hours of work can greatly bake head. Possible thermal shocks. We look through Wikipedia:
Korean floor heating method
- For 5000 years BC. e. in Korea and constructed Manchurian furnace (kana), where the floor really warmed.
- For 3000 years BC. e. Korea started to use the oven for cooking and as a heater. Unlike Russian couches - heating area is located directly on the floor (and center in the basement).
- 1 millennium BC there were similar systems in Alaska and the Aleutian Islands.
- 500 years BC, hypocaust floor heating brought to Greece and Rome.
The key is considered in 1945, when in America by William Levitt built a large-scale system of water heating residential buildings floors. First low temperature in poor neighborhoods became the main cause of morbidity. A preceded by a host specified date discoveries concerning the polyethylene of the invention, studying the thermal properties Alloys with a high ohmic resistance, the theoretical description of the heat transfer through the vacuum means radiation. And today, often referred to as Floor heating infrared heater that is considered to be only part of the truth.
How does the system Floor heating
Floor heating has become a combination of two principles: convection and radiation. We are talking about the radiation in the infrared range. I heard at the forum that the notion confused with radiation alpha, beta and gamma types. In fact, there is a common link with electromagnetic waves. The extension of these formations in the air is called radiation, the word already leads directly to the Latin root, where the term radiation. But the frequency is much lower infrared range of gamma radiation (outgoing far up on X-ray), there is no danger.
On the contrary - the waves coming from the underfloor heating, helpful. The system is calculated so that the surface temperature was 40 degrees. Scientists have found that in the latter case, the body emit waves, the most useful to man. The only condition becomes excess at room temperature.
Heat fluxes directed from the bottom upwards
Most of the heat away from the surface by convection. This naturally formed flows upward toward the ceiling. As a result, warm floor heats the room by convection. A radiation can heat the only items.
Think for example of the sunrise over the horizon. It seems: the air is cold, but the illuminated side of the body is experiencing a pleasant warmth. Likewise is the case with a warm pool rays (far infrared spectrum range): warm the ceiling, the walls, the residents, but the climate of this is changing slowly, do not be in the nature convection. Plus the fact that the house slippers with similar equipment is no longer needed.
How does the process of installation Floor heating system
Distinguish two kinds of Floor heating systems worthy of mention:
- Based on the ability of water to store energy. Instead of installing an electric floor heating is necessary to reflect on the subject of the use of the boiler. The specific heat of the most common liquid on the planet is so great that it is often already tempted to use it., Built in 1945, the system (USA), based on the known laws of physics. The water is drawn in a closed conduit in the right place gives warmth. For simplicity, under the floor is laid branched channels network. All screed poured on top protects the reinforcing mesh.
- Cable heating systems are based on the conversion of electric current into heat. The effect is similar to other heaters. Just system is distributed over a wide area floor. Cables are distinguished: typical resistive where passes inside core of nichrome matrix (self-regulating), wherein the polymer complex structure retains particles of a conductive material, but by thermal expansion or contraction of the electric resistance varies portion. It is extremely effective for residential use foil. We need to find a commercially available material from nichrome, the thinner, the better - higher resistivity.
Variants of the device heated floor
Floor heating options set, choose the appropriate. Suppose, if you have the house cheap energy source preference is given to him. The heat pump gives an abundance of hot water, which is not always spent for other purposes, and the solar panels are able to persuade the owner's preference for electricity choice. The bottom line comes down to one thing: under the floor is made installation of the heating element. Procedure for electric versions of the system:
- Produced waterproofing base to prevent wetting of the structure, the offending layers.
- The heat insulating layer shuts receives heat from overlapping. Energy goes in the coating direction. Often layer is, for example, penofol and other types of reflective insulation. Its surface must be protected from damage.
- Laid on top of the cable or heated film. Operations are carried out according to the manufacturer's installation instructions. Most applied sheathing made of wood, metal.
- It spreads over the rough floor of the sheets of thick plywood, particleboard or fiberboard less. Then, a final finish.
There are systems in which cement is used. Initially made of concrete subfloor desired thickness, and then are aligned. The order is due to the high cost of the screed. This is not a simple concrete thought ignorant people, and a special composition. Minus - in a large mass. Those who wish to see the video details recommend A. Zemskova about the tie (29 September 2014). There, an exemplary calculation is given, which states that a bag of cement covers an area of 1 square meter layer of 2 cm. Cool weighs 40 kg.
Then readers imagine the consequences yourself. If the foundation slab, no basement, sometimes possibly expanded clay flavor solution (Council A. Zemskova) and solve the problem. But in most cases it is better to do subfloor of plywood. Moreover, should ensure both good heat conductivity in the upward direction. The solution has yet been found. Video Alexei gives an answer, what are the features of the screed as compared to other construction materials.
Installing underfloor heating under different coverage
Floor heating systems are not recommended to be put under the parquet, laminate materials, are afraid of drying. It looks perfect screed: no air gap close contact determines a good energy transfer. From this partly depends on efficiency of the device, in addition, it withstands high temperature every thermal insulator, leaving a danger to humans. Solution looks bad use of any glued material (wood pulp, plywood, chipboard, etc.). We mentioned that the subfloor is laid so, but in the latter case it is the class of formaldehyde emission to the parameter requirements increased.
What do warm floor
Discuss from what makes the heating element. When calculations in the sale of cable guides (there are no reservations) accepted the power density of 100 watts per square meter. The result is that little room 2x2m required to purchase a system with a total capacity of 400 watts. Readers may have guessed, it is not too correct option.
Open source does not say how many watts take per square meter, although many other rumors in the network. Certain views are not called. The document is available, we have seen and read, it may be closed for access. We recommend:
- In the Internet enough online calculator, by which it is easy to calculate the loss through the supporting structures. It is required to find a suitable occasion and perform calculations. Then it remains to compare the data from an external source, not to sit in a puddle.
- The second part of the experiment is to introduce into the room calculated heater power. Remember the central heating radiators, can radically change the climate. Depending on the task allowed central heating switched off for a while. The essence of action is reduced to maintain the desired climate. At rates - up to 22 degrees Celsius heat at a humidity of 60%.
Electric floor heating mat
Next, select the type of heating element. For pipes of a hot water heat transfer is calculated, determined by the required number of turns. Cables carry the specifications direct information on the rated capacity. This takes into account the type of system. If resistive cable breakage anywhere adversely affect the performance. In the case of self-regulating variants are possible.
In the latter case, we have two parallel copper bus, separated by the polymer matrix. To the point of breaking the power available, respectively, functional site. In view of the considerable cost of a desire to make an electric warm floor with his own. It is recommended to find a choice of materials or alloys:
- Nichrome massively known. It is recommended to use the brand H20R80, H15N60.
- Zhelezohromalyuminievy H23YU5T alloy.
Aluminum alloys in high added for longer life. Simply, this problem is solved with the help of silicon. Uptime grows in 1.5 - 2 times. Excellent show themselves in the alloys of nickel, iron and chromium (especially when the latter percentage of 20/20, 10/20, 10/27) with additions of aluminum.