For those interested in lighting in the apartment or house offers a glimpse into the SNIP 23-05. It was there that provides guidelines for illumination of premises, given the initial data for the calculation of the lighting in the apartment or house. Known more pragmatic documents. Please look in the manual to the SNIP II-4-79 on the calculation and design of natural, artificial and common lighting. This is an official document in which a fan gnaw granite of science will find good mineral deposits. So today we say what is seen lights in the apartment or house.
Information on the organization of lighting in the apartment or the house of the standards
What distinguishes the lighting in the living room from the bathroom of an apartment or house? SNIP 23-05 types of rooms according to the needs of people characterizes them perform visual work. Accordingly, allocate 8 bits of lighting in the apartment or house, starting with A and ending with Z. Any kind is characterized by the size of the object that you want to see, and tasks. The share of general lighting apartment or house is part of the natural interest (KEO), given by the windows. In all cases, ranging between 1 - 4%. For the last two digits of lighting apartment or house KEO is not regulated due to the nature of the human activity under these conditions.
Designing lighting in the apartment
- A - discharge lighting apartment or home, when it becomes possible distinction of objects with high accuracy, a size of 0.15 - 0.3 mm. The discharge was divided into two subclass. 1 - duty cycle tension of not less than 70% (total time). Illumination of 500 lux (lumen / m²), KEO = 4%. 2 - the same, but the working cycle of intensity less than 70%. Illuminance is 400 lx (KEO 3.5%).
- B - discharge lighting apartment or house, when the value of distinguishable objects grows and becomes 0.3 - 0.5 mm. Allocate 2 subclass, on the same criteria, there are 300 light (KEO 3%) and 200 lux (KEO 2.5%).
- B - discharge lighting apartment or house, when the value of distinguishable objects greater than 0.5 mm. Two subclass, which corresponds to the illumination of 150 (KEO 2%) and 100 lux (KEO 2%).
- The class D intensity is not standardized. The human task is a short-term review of the environment at a relatively high luminance. In this case, power lamps 300 lux provides people (3% KEO).
- Bits D and E are different from the previous reduction of light, respectively, 200 (KEO 2.5%) and 150 lux (KEO 2%). previous task.
- Discharge F involves only a general orientation in space. There are two subclass: a large gathering of people illuminance is 75 lux, with a small - 50 lux.
- Discharge W is used wherever important not to run their heads and understand the direction of movement. In said subclass, depending on the number of people illuminance is 30 - 20 lux.
Lux called the unit of illumination, when 1 square meter have to luminous flux of 1 lm. You must be able to translate the units to put bulbs or conditional Watts, cast to products with a filament, or lumens. And more often - both. It needs to lead and relate. Zabierzow forward: SNIP 23-05 response will not. There are no calculations. The question is why the ratio of natural light (KEO) is so small. For a simple reason: the measuring point is at a distance of 1 meter from the wall at the far window.
Versatile room lighting
KEO is taken with the amendment on the part of the world. Windows in the homes of the same from all sides. Hardly builders take into account the rules thoroughly. In addition, the illumination from the Sun is clearly dependent on the time of year (the measurement is carried out during the day). From these simple considerations omit such juicy details. To measure the illumination is better to use a light meter. Take control point and hold control measurement without artificial lighting and collectively with the specified. Easily will find the right bulbs for chandeliers. And now briefly go over the reference data SP 31-110:
- The lighting in the room, living room, kitchen, bedrooms is taken in the category B-1 and 150 lux.
- Illumination of children is taken over the class B-2 and 200 lux.
- Illumination offices, libraries, reading rooms is 300 lx (category B-1).
- Bathrooms, toilet, corridors illuminated by category F-2 (50 lux).
- Storage and storeroom - discharge W-2 (30 lux).
- Dressing - discharge F-1 (75 lux).
- Saunas, locker rooms, swimming pools - discharge-2 (100 lux).
- Gym - discharge of B-1 (150 lux).
in the children's room lighting more exacting. Note indicator, accounting for lighting design in an apartment or house.
Because absorption of light and the atmosphere other phenomena when calculating the final use safety margins, which make up 1.2 to fluorescent lamps and incandescent to - 1.4. Conditions worsen with increased humidity and dustiness. In wet, dusty, hot and damp the safety factor increases to 1.7 (1 to 4 operational group), but depends on the group operating lamps (Annex F SP 23-05). 1.6 to 5 and 6 operational groups and constantly for incandescent bulbs - 1.4. See that to calculate the object for compliance with standards of lighting is difficult. It is much easier to measure.
How to measure the illumination of premises
Now readers are known lighting standards in the kitchen. And to see if enough power bulbs should buy a light meter. We believe that 2000 rubles not ruin the family budget. Look carefully descriptions. Assume for Yandex-market caught heresy: instrument measures from 0 to 50000 lux with an error of 10%. Total points of reference in 2000. It is unclear: 50,000 divided by 2000 turns 25. This step additionally - the error of plus or minus two frames of reference. It turns out excessively, you can not even really measure the light in the bathroom.
It turned out everything is simple. On Yandex-market rushed. In fact, the aforesaid light meter has three scales, each to 2000 counts. The first is just used for domestic purposes. The upper limit is 2,000 lux, the error does not exceed 10. This will be enough to safety margins.
Meters of illumination
Measurement usually takes a lot of time. In light meter remote sensor to which light is directed from the operating point. Measurements were carried out on a horizontal plane. Conditions are described in detail in the snip 23-05 (n. 5.4). We were limited to only general information, it is impossible to list all the details. Terms and conditions vary for individual and group rooms, bedrooms, children's, and dining halls, public and residential buildings. Read on and select the desired information.
How to make the lighting in the apartment
If you decide to change incandescent bulbs to LED to save energy, take the product to 220 V. This is easily explained: the price does not matter, do not need to change the wiring. Other things being equal the supply voltage 12 V, the current would be much higher. LED lights on the order of economical intensity, but the amps will double. Older wiring can not pass the tests. We explain.
The heat generated in the conductors depends on the current. This follows from the law of Joule. The power generated in the resistance is proportional to the square of the current. It turns out, it will increase already four times at least. Will have to radically rethink the relationship. It highlighted a number of cases when voltage 12 becomes a great way out - talking about the damp places. This is a term in the framework of the table 4.8 SP 31-110. Premises, according to the documents falling within the category of wet and damp, equipped with lighting in a special manner. Ballroom GOST 50571.11, which shows how the room is divided into zones:
Zone in the bathroom
- Zero occupies an area of bathtubs, sinks, shower trays.
- The first is located within the perimeter of the bath or shower tray and goes down to the floor and up to the horizontal plane at a height of 2.25 meters.
- Is spaced from the second perimeter at 0.6 meters from any side, it extends up to 2.25 meters.
- The third zone ends at a distance of 3 meters from the perimeter of the bath or shower tray. Top limited to the horizontal plane at a height of 2.25 meters.
Apparatus with an operating voltage of 220 V is allowed to put only in the third zone. It applies a number of special measures for protection against electric shock:
- The use of individual-separation transformer without grounding points of the secondary winding. This allows you to perform a galvanic isolation and protects against impact. Hard to believe, but the developers of the system assure that touch on current-carrying parts will not do harm if no point of the secondary winding is not grounded. The epithet individual means that any device should own Transformer stands.
- SELV is allowed to apply the voltage with the proviso that the body are protected by the extent not lower IP2X. Lamps of this type are allowed to be used in all areas. Unlike voltage 220, where they are permitted only with the second zone. Simultaneously Strengthened (double) or an equivalent electrical insulation device. The degree of protection lamps 12 is determined according to the general rules. For example, zone 1 is IP25, for the second - IP24, for the third - IP All products are directly for mounting in damp places, as insulation required to withstand a test voltage of 500 V for one minute.
- As a protective measure allowed differential circuit breaker with a threshold does not exceed 30 mA. The device is correctly connected localizes any leakage through the trip circuit. As a result, no one gets hurt by definition, the response time is extremely small. However, should the differential machine expensive.
Isolating transformers is difficult to find for sale. Available are, rather, water heater, according to the power. And failed to find a model for DIN-rail, although the product is likely to have been developed and sold. Select power supply lamps should be carried out by the differential protection devices. Astute readers will notice that we have given the requirements for the network 220, and the third zone.
We reasoned that documents such as GOST 50571.11 written to ensure the safety of people and buildings. But about the lighting devices in the turmoil forgotten. Suppose lighting consumes 100 watts. Where can I get such a RCD? They are sold with the denomination of at least 10 A (2.5 kW). Imagine a picture: buyers are looking for non-existent under the lights in the apartment or house. We recommend not to get into such a strange situation.