Autonomous water supply system - a complex technical construction, requiring the use of an impressive range of technical resources. To automate the work of pumping equipment and water supply to the cranes need to install the hydraulic tank. Agree, not every homeowner knows how to install it, and in general, what kind of device.
We describe in detail how you are connecting the accumulator into the water supply. We analyze in detail the need for installation, in which independent water supply systems it is used, with what equipment and how it can be exploited.
Implemented according to our recommendations setting hydraulic tank prevents many potential problems: protect appliances, minimizes the effect of water hammer. In order to optimize the perception of the information supplement photos, diagrams and videos.
The content of the article:
- The device and the appointment of the hydraulic tank
- The operating principle of the hydraulic accumulator
- Role in the water supply network
- Options membrane enclosed containers
Wiring diagrams accumulator
- Standard variant with surface pump
- Using a boosting pump station
- Use of a submersible pump circuits
- Selection of diaphragm tank with skill
- Connecting the accumulator to the circuit water
- Proper configuration of the new device
- The optimum air pressure
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The device and the appointment of the hydraulic tank
hydraulic accumulatorWhich is also called hydraulic tank or a membrane tank, - a sealed metal container, which is placed partly filled with water, the elastic membrane pear-shaped. In fact, the membrane is placed in the hydraulic tank casing and attached to his body with the pipe flange, shares his tank into two parts: water and air.
By increasing the volume of water in the hydraulic reservoir naturally decreases the air volume. The result is increased pressure in the water supplying system. Upon reaching the pressure parameters set by the user is fixed relayWhich consistently delivers a command to stop the pump.
Accumulator - a metal tank, inside which is placed an elastic membrane shaped flask filled with water. The residue of the space between the bulb and the housing takes the gas or air
Changing the volume of water in a flask, and air in the housing is fixed automatics, which controls on / off cycles of the pump
The hydraulic tanks are used as a part of systems with submersible pump, and paired with the surface. In both cases, they are required for the automation system work
Accumulators mounted either on water supply entering the house or near the water well directly in the caisson
The inlet side in the tank is installed a check valve to prevent outflow of water back into production after stopping the pump
The optimal place to install a pressure gauge is considered to be out of the accumulator, it is required to control the pressure in the system settings
In the arrangement of houses and small town houses hydraulic tanks used capacity of 12 to 24 liters. For operation in a pair with submersible pumps take more volume, calculated on the basis of the technical characteristics of the particular unit
If the normal operation of an autonomous system requires water reserve 300 - 500l, the circuit with hydraulic reservoir complement large accumulator, or make a drive
water system components hydraulic tank
Gidoakkumulyator as part of pump station
Install the accumulator in the caisson
Pressure accumulator on the introduction of running water in the house
Location check valve
Place setting gauge
accumulator volume standards
for a reserve stock of water system
Tank body is made of metal, but the water is not in contact with him, it is enclosed inside the membrane chamber, which is made from durable rubber butyl.
It is resistant to bacterial material helps the water does not lose the qualities that apply to her sanitary and hygienic norms. Drinking water is in contact with the rubber retains all its remarkable properties.
water in diaphragm tank It passes through a connecting pipe provided with a threaded connection. Pressure port and output water pipe connecting should ideally have identical diameters. This condition avoids additional hydraulic losses within the system piping.
In the hydraulic accumulator, which are part of household vodosnazhbeniya systems, air is used. If this device is intended for industrial applications, gas is pumped into it
To adjust the pressure in the device, the air chamber has a special pneumatic valve. Air is pumped into the compartment allotted to him through a conventional automobile nipple. By the way, through it you can not only spool the air, but, if necessary, and to pit his surplus.
Air is pumped into the membrane tank, using for this purpose a compact car or a simple bicycle pump. When water arrives in compressed air blower has its resistance to the pressure, without allowing the membrane to break. The pressure within the accumulator is regulated also by means of compressed air.
The accumulator consists of the following elements: 1 - metal body 2 - the rubber membrane 3 - flange provided with valve 4 - nipple, through which air can be pumped, 5 - pressurized air 6 - legs, 7 - mounting platform pump
The operating principle of the hydraulic accumulator
If the system has just mounted, much of the internal volume of the accumulator takes the one camera that is designed for air.
Proceeding in a pear membrane through the pipe, the water compresses the air. This occurs until that time, until it reaches the prescribed pressure. Then switch off the pump. operation of the relay can be adjusted.
When we open the gate and use the water for their needs, there is a depressurization system. Air, pushing the membrane helps water exit the container. This process will occur until the system pressure drops below the specified minimum of -1.5 atm. At this point, to earn a pump forcing water into the tank.
As is known, in the water, too, have dissolved air. When it accumulates inside the membrane sac accumulator work has deteriorated so it is necessary to bleed. On some models for this purpose there is a special valve. If the valve is not necessary every 1-3 months to arrange diaphragm pressure prevention.
It is important to mount accumulator in the water supply system. Then, when malfunction or performing maintenance work on it, the device can be easily disassembled so as not to have to completely empty the entire system.
When opening the faucet system of any amount of water in the tank is decreased as a consequence of the pressure drops. The pressure drop to the predetermined value fixes the relay, which starts the pump (+) to the work
Role in the water supply network
It would seem that the device simply passes through a water. We could have done without him? In fact, it is through the hydraulic tank in the water supply system is maintained stable pressure.
Water pump, if any does not turn so often, it can be used sparingly service life. In addition, water extracting and conveying system is protected from water hammer.
If for some reason the mains power disappear, a small "emergency" supply of water in the tank will help to solve the priority economic tasks.
Specify the list of benefits that it provides a relatively simple device:
- Premature wear of the pump. The membrane tank has a supply of water. It meets the immediate needs of the cottage owners. And only then, when the supply will dry up, turn on the pump. It should be noted that all pumps are switching rate for an hour. In the presence of the accumulator, this figure is not exceeded, and the machine will last longer.
- Stabilization of pressure in the system. If both include two cranes, for example, in the bathroom and the kitchen, the pressure changes can affect the water temperature. It's very frustrating, especially for those households that have at this moment to take a shower. Due to the pressure accumulator such misunderstandings can be avoided.
- Hammering. These phenomena which can harm the pipeline can occur during start up of the pump. With the risk of water hammer hydraulic tank is practically excluded.
- Supply of water. In a country house water supply problem is most acute. If there was a sudden power outage, and the pump is unable to perform his functions, to solve urgent problems no longer need to keep a supply of water in a bucket or other container. The accumulator tank is available and regularly updated.
It is obvious that the presence of this device is independent of the centralized water supply networks is not accidental. It is necessary and useful.
Accumulator in the water circuit performs several important functions: protect the equipment from water hammer, provide a supply of water, it creates the conditions for the automation of its fence
Options membrane enclosed containers
Membrane tanks are operated as part of pipelines installed for various purposes, including:
- Cold water supply. The tank used for the storage and supply of cold water, protects the various household appliances of water hammer pressure when a change in the system. Prolongs pump operation by reducing the number of inclusions.
- Providing hot water. As used in this device must operate successfully in the high mode.
- Heating systems. These tanks are called expansion. They function as a part of the closed heating systems and they are an important part.
Depending on the configuration, hydraulic tanks are horizontal and vertical. However, the principle of their operation is not dependent on the configuration.
Accumulators intended for inclusion in the water supply system, painted in blue, and those who work in the heating circuit - red. These two types of membrane tanks have some constructive features, is clearly seen in the scheme shown ()
Feature is the presence of a special valve for venting air in the upper part of the vertical patterns, the volume of which is greater than 50 liters. This air, as noted above, accumulate at the top of the chamber as the device. Therefore, the presence in this place of the bleed valve - quite a reasonable measure.
If the bleed air mass is required for operation of the horizontal models, used for this purpose a separate sink or faucet located behind the diaphragm tank. To withdraw air from small size devices to be completely drained of water therefrom.
Since the vertical and horizontal patterns are equally effective and functional, then select the appropriate device should be, based on the dimensions of the room in which it is located. Which model would fit better into the room, and the charge.
In addition to structural features and various purposes, tanks may vary more and its capacity: this photo presented accumulators of various capacity, design and purpose
Wiring diagrams accumulator
This device can be connected to a plumbing system in different ways. Selection of wiring diagrams accumulator depends on the capacity in which it will be used, and what functions it is supposed to rest on. Consider those wiring diagrams that are most popular.
Standard variant with surface pump
The most common embodiment of an autonomous supply with the pressure accumulator is tandem with surface pump. In this case, the hydraulic reservoir may be part complex pumping equipmentAssembled by the manufacturer at the factory, or a separate component placed near the pump or in the caisson in a heated storage room.
Before give accumulator check valve to prevent the change in flow direction, after the a pressure switch responsive to the pressure change and the pressure gauge to monitor workers parameters.
For a normal connection to the water circuit tank is usually equipped with an angular pipe, which is connected to the flange:
Before connecting to an autonomous water supply should be prepared in advance to facilitate the connection of the accumulator at the installation site
The output of the hydraulic tank is necessary to equip the area to which you will connect the pipe. A threaded connection is sealed sanitary underwinding
With the application of force is necessary to fasten the fitting to the pipe accumulator
At the output is connected to the corner of a tube with an automatic valve, necessary for the release of air caught in a circuit or an automatic device is connected directly to tank
Preparing to connect the hydraulic tank
Installing the bracket on the outlet
Wound on a pipe fitting
Mounted on the output device
Using a boosting pump station
Booster Pump unit type is used to maintain a constant and controlling the pressure in the pipes with the active water consumption. Usually these stations has a pump that works continuously.
If there is a need to connect additional pumps, accumulator helps offset arising in this case the system pressure drops.
As part of boosting pump station water supply system accumulator performs emergency function supply source and a kind of damper, preventing water hammer in the case of connecting additional capacity
The same scheme is used, if the power supply to the booster pump in the system is unstable, and water, however, must be uninterrupted. During a power outage the supply of water is used, which is contained within the accumulator. In fact, the membrane tank plays a role in this period, the reserve water source.
The more powerful pumping station, the enormity of the tasks that are assigned to it. It should support more pressureGreater should be the volume of its accumulator.
Use of a submersible pump circuits
To maximize the life of a submersible pump unit, the number of its inclusion within an hour must comply with the stated specifications of the device. Usually this figure the order of 5-20 times.
If the pressure in the water mains drops, when the minimum value of them relay comprising a pump feeding water. When the maximum values of the pressure switch switches off the water supply stops.
If water is present scheme submersible pump, the accumulator will prolong its life, because he does not have to be switched on and off, if the water will cost consumers minor
If the water supply system is autonomous and small, even a small amount of water consumption can start the pump. In this case, the pump operation will be ineffective. And the device itself does not serve as long as we would like it to the owner.
The supply of water, which is contained in a membrane tank, save the situation. In addition, he will not allow the release of pressure at the moment when it begins its work submersible pump.
To select a suitable volume of hydraulic tank, you need to know the following characteristics: power and pump switching frequency, the estimated water consumption per hour and a height of installation.
If the wiring diagram appears water heater, The accumulator performs its function expansion tank. If the water is heated, its volume increase. It will expand. For a closed space, what is the water supply system, such a process could lead to devastating consequences if the tank is not.
In the circuit with accumulator water heater is used as a surge tank, saving system from discontinuities as well incompressible water expands when heated
For inclusion in this scheme it is necessary to choose the accumulator, considering his next characteristics: the maximum temperature of the heated water and the maximum pressure in the water system.
Selection of diaphragm tank with skill
Hydraulic tank - tank, wherein the main operating body is a membrane. On its quality it depends on how long it will last device from the moment of connection to the first repair.
The best are the product of the food (izobutirovannoy) rubber. Metal body products is only important for the expansion tanks. Where the water is contained in the pear, characteristics of a metal are not critical.
If you do not pay much attention to the thickness of the flange of your purchase, then after a year and a half, and not through 10-15 years old, you want to have to buy a completely new device, or, at best, to change himself flange
Particular attention when selecting apparatus is concentrated on the flange, which is usually made of galvanized metal. The thickness of this metal is very important. At its thickness of only 1 mm product lifetime will amount to no more than 1.5 years, as in the metal flange necessarily formed tear, which will bring down the entire device.
At the same warranty on the tank is only about a year at the declared useful life of 10-15 years. So that the hole will appear just after the warranty period. And solder or weld the thin metal will be impossible. You can, of course, try to find a new flange, but will likely need a new tank.
To avoid such trouble, should look for the tank, the flange is made of stainless steel or of thick zinc coating.
Connecting the accumulator to the circuit water
As it became clear from everything written above, a membrane tank - it is not just a container with water. This special device involved in a continuous working process. Therefore, the procedure for its installation is not so simple as it may seem. Hooking it should be very carefully, taking into account the factors of the vibration and noise.
To be fixed on the surface of the accumulator by means of rubber gaskets to reduce noise levels during its operation and to reduce the influence of vibrations on the device itself
By its floor is fixed with the use of rubber spacers, and to a pipeline - by means of adapters of rubber. And yet it should be noted that the diameter of the liner can not be reduced at the output of the hydraulic system.
With the new tank should be handled with particular care, filling it with water under mild pressure. The membrane of the long-term storage could compacted. Strong water jet can damage it and even permanently damage. Correct to remove the membrane from the pears all the air before you start filling it with water. Location for the accumulator must be selected in view of its availability.
The process of connecting the accumulator is produced in a standard order:
To connect the outer threads running water to the inside of the pipe is introduced into the house through the foundation or plinth
Together with the supply pipe to the house cable introducing feed pump. For electrical cables, attach the capacitor box
After assembly of autonomous water supply, tune accumulator and pressure switch
By the plastic corners to advance the connected located in the bottom of the hydraulic tank pipe, fasten tap water supply with automatic valve
If in addition to the main line that supplies water to the house, it is expected another branch for watering the garden automatic irrigation in the caisson put another hydraulic reservoir
Additional tap branch with its own accumulator equip the pressure gauge at the outlet and ball valves for pipes
The water line before the accumulator check valve include overlapping path after disconnecting the electric water
Both water lines as input into the house and for irrigation equipped with drain valves required for the preservation of an autonomous system
Step 1: Enter the water supply through the basement or foundation
Step 2: Input power cable submersible motor
Step 3: Set up the accumulator after the assembly line
Step 4: Connecting the hydraulic tank to the water system
Step 5: Location of the second hydraulic tank in the caisson
Step 6: Install a pressure gauge for the second accumulator
Step 7: Check valve for hydraulic tank branch on watering
Step 8: Drain valve water line for irrigation
Proper configuration of the new device
The new tank is necessary to check out what is the level of its internal pressure. It is assumed that it should be 1.5 bar. But in the process of transporting the product from the production site to the warehouse and during storage could leak, reduce the time of sale, this is an important indicator. Check the pressure can by removing the cap on the spool and running the measurement.
Pressure measuring gauges can be used different kinds:
- Electronic. These are expensive devices. The result of their operation could affect the temperature and battery charge.
- Mechanical. It is produced in a metal casing called in another vehicle. If this device has been successfully tested, it is better not to find him. To obtain the most accurate value because the measure will have only a 1-2 atm., It is better to buy a device with a large number of divisions on the measuring scale.
Cheap pumps and pumping stations, vending machines often staffed gauges in plastic housing. The error in the readings of the Chinese model is too big.
If the tank is a smaller volume of air than is necessary, it will be replaced by water. This will affect the water pressure in the water. At high pressure and pressure will be constantly high. More pressure provides a smaller supply of water in the membrane pear, so the pump will have to be included more often. If the light is not, water reserve may not be enough for all needs.
That is why it is sometimes wiser to sacrifice the pressure to achieve other important goals. However, pressure below the recommended values is better not to reduce as not to exceed the limit characteristics. Lack of pressure may lead to the contact surface of the pear with the tank body, which is undesirable.
Pressure measuring device can use different, but it is optimal with respect to inexpensive automotive pressure gauge with a metal housing and sufficiently expanded scale results measurements
The optimum air pressure
To household appliances worked fine, the pressure in the hydraulic tank is required to be in the range of 1.4-2.8 atm. For better preservation of the membrane, the pressure in the water supply system at 0.1-0.2 atm. greater than the pressure in the tank. For example, if the tank pressure inside the membrane is 1.5 atm., Then the system it should be 1.6 atm.
It is this value and should be set to relay water pressureWhich works together with a pressure accumulator. For single-storey country house, this configuration is considered to be optimal. If we are talking about a two-storey cottage, the pressure should be raised. To calculate its optimal value the following formula is used:
Vatm. = (Hmax + 6) / 10
In this formula, V atm. - optimal pressure and Hmax - the height of the highest point of demand. As a rule, we are talking about the soul. To get the desired value, should calculate the height of the location showerhead relative accumulator. The received data is entered into the formula. The calculation will be obtained an optimum value of the pressure, which should be in the tank.
Note that the value shall not exceed the maximum allowable characteristics for other household and sanitary devices, otherwise they simply will fail.
If speak about independent house water system simplistic, its constituent elements are:
- pressure switch,
- check valve
The last element is used in order to allow the pressure was quickly controlled. His constant presence in the water system is not required. It can be connected only at the moment when the test measurements are made.
As you can see, it is on this circuit a pressure gauge is not displayed, but this does not mean that he does not need. Just include it in the moment of performance of control measurements
With the participation in the scheme of a surface pump, hydraulic reservoir are mounted next to him. The check valve in this case is mounted on the suction pipe, and the other elements constitute a single bunch, are interconnected via pyativyvodnogo fitting.
Pyativyvodnoe device is perfectly suited for this purpose because it has the conclusions of various diameters. Incoming and outgoing lines and other elements can be connected with ligament fitting with American help, to facilitate maintenance and repair work in some areas water supply.
However, this connector can be replaced by a bunch of connecting elements. But why?
In this diagram, the order of connection is clearly visible. When there is a connection fitting to the pressure accumulator, you need to ensure watertight connections
Thus, the pump accumulator is connected as follows:
- one inch conclusion attaches itself to the pipe fitting hydraulic tank;
- to terminals connected to a quarter-inch gauge and a pressure switch;
- inch were two free output to which the tube is mounted on the pump, as well as distributing, running water to consumers.
If the scheme works the surface pump, then connect it to the accumulator is better with a flexible hose, which has a metal coil.
For those parts which end the couplings, will join the pipe from the pump and plumbing wiring which goes to the consumers water
For submersible pump accumulator is connected in the same way. A special feature of this scheme is the location of the check valve, which has no relationship to the one on which we are considering today.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
If, after reading the text you still can not understand how it should be connected accumulator, check out this video, which briefly, but very clearly shows all the nuances of the procedure.
Hydraulic reservoir is an important component of the water distribution system. With its help to solve a complex task. A competent to perform their own hands to connect the accumulator, as it turns out, it is not difficult. But the benefits of its use are indisputable.
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