When there is no access to the centralized heating system, it is necessary to build a boiler house.
If we approach the matter professionally, boiler room in a private home provides a high return (efficiency) of the heating system as a whole and its operation will be safe and durable.
In this article we analyze in detail the process of selecting the heater and tell at what points should be paid attention to. In addition, it will be about choosing the right place for the boiler and the rules of its arrangement and ventilation.
The content of the article:
Selection of boiler equipment
- Fuel for heating boilers
- How to determine the power of the boiler?
- Comparison of installation methods
- The differences in principle of operation
- We determine the optimal location for the boiler
- What you should know about the boiler room ventilation?
- Finishing inside the boiler
- Construction of modular boiler
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Selection of boiler equipment
Boilers vary in a number of parameters - The fuel used, power, installation method, the operating principle (one-circuit and two-circuit).
Fuel for heating boilers
Boilers in private homes can operate on such types of fuel:
- and the liquefied natural gas - cheap fuel resource, gas boilers can be converted from one type of gas to another;
- solid fuel - the work of the solid fuel boiler it is necessary to monitor and regularly throw into it wood, coal, peat briquettes, coke;
- Liquid diesel (Diesel fuel) - Fuel oil boilers help out in a situation where you are not near any gas line, nor the opportunity to bring up liquid gas in cylinders, and if the prospect of gas will get with the times, it is easy to reconfigure for the best view fuel;
- electricity - expensive but environmentally friendly fuel resource.
Nice to have two boilers, electric and solid fuel in order to reduce power consumption.
Boiler - the basic equipment of an autonomous system, heated private house. Its function is to produce a liquid, vapor or air to the coolant circulation of the heating circuit
Due to the low cost of fuel the most popular units are gas-fired boilers in the floor or wall mounted
Flow-through gas water heaters view discharged wall mounted. They are intended for houses and apartments with an area of 150 m²
Heating a small country house or villa to better organize on the basis of solid fuel boilers. Especially if a site is not summed up gas networks and electrocommunications
Heating device based on gaseous or solid fuel boiler necessarily need a boiler operating with a well ventilated area. Required chimney device
Similar conditions are needed for the solid pellet and liquid fuel boiler unit
If the intention is to automate the heating system, for example, to program its work for the week ahead, it is necessary to choose the oil, gas or electric boiler
For the installation and operation of electric boilers do not need a boiler. It requires no fuel need of storage, does not emit toxic soot and combustion products
A gas water heater outdoor unit with
Gas fired water heater
Boiler for processing solid fuels
The specifics of the organization boiler
Automated heating system
Electric boiler in a private house
How to determine the power of the boiler?
The larger the heated space, the stronger must be the boiler. Add power consumption for heating water for a shower, bathroom, kitchen and the natural heat loss.
Approximate calculation (example):
To heat the 10 sq. m at home, requires 1 kW of power. If the total floor area of 150 sq. m, the power requirement of the boiler is 15 kW + 10% for hot water supply, heat loss by 20% for reserve stock, otherwise the equipment is physically worn out, working at the peak of technical opportunities. We obtain power boiler at least 19.5 kW.
For more information on calculating the capacity of the boiler can be read This material.
Comparison of installation methods
By way of installing boilers are classified into two groups:
- floor - they require a separate room (boiler) and compliance with it some of the mandatory requirements;
- wall - in a compact size casing assembled heat exchanger, circulation pump, an expansion vessel, exhaust pipe system, the control and safety equipment, temperature sensors etc.
Maximum power wall mini-boiler - 60 kW. If the power does not exceed 35 kW, it can be installed in the kitchen, hallway. small dimensions wall-mounted models make it possible to dispense with a separate room - all this is true for private homes to small and medium size.
Gas boiler wall is sensitive to the chemical composition of water. That the equipment did not work out for early hard water, it is advisable to put on water filter or by the end of the heating season each time to do an audit of the boiler and pipes
Outdoor boilers are essential for heating large areas. The outdoor performance heating units take up much more space, they have to doukomplektovyvat independently, but there is one very significant advantage - they have a long service life.
The differences in principle of operation
Single-circuitboiler It designed only for heating the building. To supply water to the hot water system, such unit must be supplemented with 100-150-liter storage water heated by the boiler (the boiler).
Planimetric boiler with a boiler is expedient, if the house is poured from a lot of hot water faucets. Otherwise, we have overspent energy, since the boiler will always have warm water, which is almost not used. In addition to the boiler would have to allocate space in the room.
AT Turbofanboiler initially included two functions - and it heats the building and heats water. Inside it is installed flow coil. Boiler supports the heating system, but when the house is someone opens the hot water, heating the coolant in it stops and switches to the hot water system.
The difference in the single-circuit and bypass the boiler:
a) 1 - planimetric boiler 2 - heating system, 3 -
hot water supply, 4 - boiler, 5- cold water
b) 1 - double-boiler, 2 - heating system, 3 -
hot water supply, 4 - cold water
Rationally designed combi boilers, water for hot water supply is heated only if necessary therein. Depending upon the aggregate power produced per minute 10-15 liters of hot water.
This is not enough, if the hot water in the house at the same time enjoying a few people, but the problem is easy to solve, because you can buy double-pressure boiler with built-in case of a small boiler of 25-50 liters to was her stock.
We determine the optimal location for the boiler
Let's say you started a large-scale renovation of the old private house. Boiler room in it must necessarily be, but outdated layout limits the possibility of placing it in the house. You can not cram boiler equipment in a tiny room without ventilation, you can not pull the stack from top to bottom through the bedroom or living room.
You can, of course, to build a boiler for an extension to the country house, but this is unlikely to architectural extravagances successfully fit into the overall look. It still remains to build a free-standing boiler - good but expensive idea.
Freestanding boiler should not be located too close to home. But if you place it away, will the heat loss due to unnecessarily long heating duct
A new construction procedure of designing the boiler room inside the house no problems does not cause, if in advance to study the requirements for the installation of the boiler equipment:
- the amount of space for boiler up to 30 kW must be at least 7.5 m3 and from 30 to 60 kW - 13.5 m3 over 60 kW - 15 m3;
- ceiling height - not less than 2.2-2.5 m, the width of the entrance doors - 80 cm;
- standard for natural lighting - 300 square meters. see glazing per 1 m3 of the room, the window should be with a transom for ventilation;
- pipe for supplying gas to the gas boilers take only metal, flexible hoses use is prohibited;
- a boiler supply circuit is necessary to provide a thermal overload relay, and smokers with the boiler operating gas, need to install a gas analyzer - a device intercepting leakage of gas and the supply signal to the gas alarm overlap pipes;
- from adjacent spaces to be separated from the boiler walls material with zero flame spread index - concrete, brick, wood impregnated with the fire retardant;
- on the explosion and fire safety project is consistent with the fire inspection.
Details about all the rules and regulations written in SNIP for boiler plants with the code II -35-76Set of rules SP-41-104-2000 the design of autonomous heat supply systems, document MDS 41-2.2000, Which sets out the requirements for the placement of units for heating and water heating in a low-rise residential construction.
Place in the boiler room is selected in each case individually, taking into account the technical characteristics and the financial capacity of the owner - the first floor of the house, basement, cellar, extension, loft or detached structure
Compliance with the numerous requirements dictated not by the bureaucracy and security appliances. Freestanding boiler - it trouble with the construction of the foundation, main walls, liner pipes and their insulation.
But in the house you get to the absence of 100% of harmful chemical additives, will inevitably accompany any combustion process, and full confidence does not hurt during an accident, the probability of which is scanty, but theoretically not excluded.
We also recommend you to read our other article, which describes in detail circuit boilers for a private home.
What you should know about the boiler room ventilation?
Running the boiler to maintain the combustion process requires oxygen, and it has to be taken from the air. It is also necessary to prevent carbon monoxide build up in the boiler room and to penetrate into the house. The inflow of fresh air in the boiler room in relation to the outflow is supposed to be a triple.
The boiler is necessary to make the supply and exhaust ventilation. For natural ventilation of the boiler in the opposite wall of the boiler cuts through the channel diameter of 13-15 cm at the boiler output to 35-40 kW and 17 cm at a higher power. It is inserted into the vent pipe, complete with damper and mesh.
Natural ventilation boiler is easy to do yourself. But it does not allow to control the inflow and outflow of air, air quality depends on the weather conditions
If the boiler is placed in a separate room, the air supply can be provided outside via louvres mounted directly on the door - in the bottom thereof.
The specification for the size of air-supply holes - not less than 8 cm2 basal area per 1 kW of power boiler, if the air thrust comes from the outside. Ventilation of the boiler room and connect with the ventilation system of the house. If the air flows inside the hole size should be calculated, based on other standard - 30 cm2 1 kW.
An alternative to natural ventilation or in addition to it is a forced ventilation. To reduce power consumption, it is connected to the boiler equipment - fans will rotate only when the boiler. The gas and diesel boilers ventilation system should be placed in the body in order to avoid fire, explosion.
An innovation for those who are interested in the specifics of the boiler unit in a private home will be automated climate system. They support given climatic parameters in a room in the automatic mode and alter them if necessary without human intervention.
Boiler in the extension to the vertical flue of steel on natural draft. It will be more durable ceramic tube. Alternatively one can consider ceramic chimney in the steel casing. It retains the advantage of durability, but more simple to install
All boilers are equipped with a combustion chamber open or closed. For equipment with a closed combustion chamber volume of space restrictions there, the presence of a window is also not necessary.
In the first case, the smoke discharged to the outside by natural draft through the vertical chimney. Part of the air from the room out there, and therefore it is necessary to ensure constant ventilation of the room.
In the second case, the combustion products are removed from the chamber by a fan is forced through a special double chimney - coaxial. It is embedded in one pipe to another. By moving the inner smoke, foreign flows in the opposite direction to maintain the required combustion air.
Length conventional vertical chimney - at least 5 meters. Its end should extend beyond the top ridge of the roof, and not always technically possible to build under it a through shaft
Chimney according to the principle "pipe in pipe" shorter and may be directed horizontally. it is important for both types of chimney to chimney-sectional area was not less than the cross sectional area of the nozzle, to which it is connected.
And finally, a few words about the design of burners. They are atmospheric and forced draft. Devices of the first type are only used in gas boilers. Gas is fed into them by the pressure generated in the gas line or tank. I hear the burning flame, no other noise.
In the devices of the second type fan mixes the gas with air to the burning was more even. With the fan noise to put up. Forced draft boiler with burner and working gas, and diesel fuel, they require a smaller section chimney.
In coaxial chimney air from outside, passing through a pipe is heated from the inner channel through which the combustion products are moving. Air enters the furnace heated, which reduces fuel consumption and increases the efficiency of the equipment
Finishing inside the boiler
Brick and concrete wall boiler plaster and paint with latex paint. Additional decorative finish - ceramic tiles, metal cladding panels. Leave the wall surface in its original form is not necessary. She dusts, and it harms the boiler equipment.
In a wooden house walls impregnated with flame retardant. Above them it is recommended to sheathe the incombustible sheets of drywall and plaster, too, but for a boiler for reassurance attached to wall surfaces of aluminum sheets.
Plastering - is another protection against wet fumes, fire, and other influences. To increase the level of fire resistance by using a special heat-resistant plaster. It can withstand high temperature heat and open flames even 30 minutes. to 2.5 hours.
Paul leveled cement-sand screed. The strength of conventional ceramic tiles is not enough to pave its floor, as the boiler equipment is quite heavy, and there is a risk to drop any heavy object. More reliable will be granite. Tiles made of heavy duty material not fear being heated to a high temperature and fire.
From accidental leakage will prevent the discharge chute. If you do not, then the perimeter of the height of 5-10 cm from the floor it is necessary to pave the waterproofing, and the boiler to raise on a pedestal, freeing thus from possible contact with water. It is easy to build with bricks and revet granite, designed for sex.
Tiles on the walls and on the floor of the boiler room will contain appropriately clean. Its installation does not differ from similar operations in other areas, but it is important to start the work perform exactly the layout of all communications entry points
Ceramic granite on the floor is better to choose light matte texture. It is not as noticeable traces of shoes and dust.
Under the ceiling in the boiler room are pipes, wires. To disguise them, make a box of the same drywall that was used on the walls. Box outside the plaster and paint. It makes sense to leave auditing windows and close them with removable metal bars.
There is no difference, what windows installed in the boiler room - plastic or wood. In case of fire will burn, and those and others. Plastic also begins to melt and release toxic substances.
Construction of modular boiler
And what if the place for the installation of the boiler equipment in the house is missing, erect a separate building there is also the possibility, and the boiler for a country house really need? In this case, the rescue modular boiler. It has a factory complete and assembled quickly.
The maximum amount of space to heat in this way is 1300 m3. The module itself is a small mobile cabin (container), whose length does not exceed 2.5 m. Made of he double durable metal frame with a heater of special fibers.
The modular boiler assembly in a 3-layer pipe, with insulation for supplying to house a length of 6 m, which can be extended if necessary. The equipment is delivered as a finished product and only requires connection.
Modular boiler capacity of 10 kW is quite cope with the task of a private house heating and supplies it with hot water. It can be disassembled and transported to another location
For the operation of the block-modular boiler need:
- Place a container close to the house;
- bring electricity (220V);
- prepare fuel (diesel or solid depending on the type of boiler);
- fill with water heating system.
The device modular boiler provides backup power, which is enough to support the normal operation in case of power failure during the day. The temperature is controlled automatically.
Modular boiler can be purchased in standard or custom design based on your own needs. Installation is recommended by a specialist.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Principles of operation of autonomous boiler room in a private home:
Boiler room in a 2-storey private house with outdoor gas boiler:
room arrangement rules of the boiler and installation much - perhaps delve into all the nuances and do not need. Entrust business professionals. The main thing to understand that the boiler room in a private home - a pledge that you will always be warm and hot water.
You are going to build the boiler room in a private home, but do not know where to start? Or maybe you are well familiar with this topic and you could give our readers the sensible advice of the arrangement? This can be done in a block located below. There you can ask questions on the topic of the article.