All of us can not but worry about the quality of water in the water supply, which we drink and use for household needs. Cleanliness should also be taken care of at headworks where water is taken and in water mains.
Protecting against pollution is necessary not only for water intake, the protected zone of the water supply system along its entire length must fully perform its function. Let's try to figure out what a security zone is and what responsibility is provided for non-compliance with sanitary standards.
The content of the article:
Three belts of the sanitary protection zone
- #1. For open source water supply
- #2. For water supply from an underground source
- #3. For facilities and water lines outside the water intake
- The specifics of the prohibitions in the boundaries of the BAN
- Subtlety laying sewer
- List of regulatory documents
- Responsibility for noncompliance
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Three belts of the sanitary protection zone
For the purpose of environmental protection, a sanitary protection zone is created around all water supply facilities.
Sanitary protective zoning involves the formation of 3 belts:
- strict regime - №1;
- restrictive - №2;
- observational - № 3.
The water intake facilities and the place of water intake from accidental or deliberate damage are strictly guarded in strict mode. The second restrictive belt is designed to protect the water source from microbial contamination, and the third observatory is needed to control the level of chemical contamination.
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Water pipeline design accompanies the creation of a project of sanitary zones necessary to protect the source from negative external influences.
The first zone, distinguished by the most stringent mode of sanitary protection, includes the territory of the water intake and the water intake structures located on it
The second belt of sanitary restrictions protects against germs. Its area depends on climatic specificity and on the speed of microorganism spread.
The third sanitary protection belt is designed to protect the water intake from contamination of chemical genesis. Its size, as well as the boundary of the second belt, is determined by hydrodynamic calculations.
Sign of protection of water intake facility
Strict sanitary protection zone
The second zone - protection from microbial contamination
The third zone of sanitary protection
If the first belt can be delineated manually, operating with a small number of normative figures, then the second and third belts are determined as a result of complex hydrodynamic calculations by a complicated method.
It is much more convenient to master a computer program. AMWELLSbut for now we will consider the general principles of building sanitary protection zones in several ways.
The source of water is located on the territory of a strict regime, followed by a belt of restrictions and observations, which have their own rules
#1. For open source water supply
Suppose water is supplied from a river to a water supply system - this is an open (or surface) source. The first belt is determined by the location of water intake structures (head elements of the water supply system). We add to them 180-200 meters upstream and 90-100 m downstream.
Paramilitary guards control the water intake and the adjacent water area, and strangers are prohibited.
Having decided on the length, let's find out the width of the coastal strip that enters the Sanitary Sanitary Station. There may be 50, and 200 m with the seizure of the opposite bank, which depends on the power of the river itself. Along a large and deep channel with an intense current, no more than 50 m of the coast on both sides is isolated. And if the river is small - in total up to 150 m and more. This includes the width of the two coastal edges and the river itself.
The water intake structure consists of receiver windows, a suction chamber, a 1st-lift pumping station, a service pavilion housing the staff, and a viewing gallery.
When water is taken from a large lake, the reservoir, when it is very far from the opposite shore, in all directions are measured at 100 m. It is similar to a circle with such a radius, and some part of it passes on water. The water boundary of the zone is marked with buoys and buoys with illumination.
The second belt is the territory that immediately follows the first belt and adjoins it. There are strict restrictions on it: factories and industrial production, farm lands, construction, arrangement of beaches and places of mass out-of-town recreation are prohibited.
To know where to locate the boundary of the second belt upstream, it is necessary to study the ability of river water to self-purification.
On average, a river recycles pollution from 3 to 5 days. During this time, the flow of the river should not have time to bring polluted water to the point of intake, self-cleaning should occur earlier. If you translate into kilometer, then include in the second zone 20-35 km of the channel for large and 35-60 km for small rivers above the water intake is enough.
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The rules of operation and protection of reservoirs, protected from the harmful effects of economic activity, are set out in Article 65 of the Water Code of the Russian Federation and in similar documents of the CIS countries
Maximum restrictions apply to the operation of the coastal zone adjacent to rivers and water bodies of various sizes.
The width of the protection belt is set from the source to the mouths of streams and rivers. The size is equal: for streams up to 10 m in length, the protection zone is 50 m; for rivers up to 50 km the zone will be 100 m; for rivers more than 50 km is 200 m
In case of violation of the mode of operation of protected water bodies, an administrative fine is imposed: for citizens 3-5 thousand. rubles, for legal entities 300 - 500 thousand rubles
Signs designation of water protection zones
The most strict security zone
Security sign near the open pond
Protection from river bed pollution
And downstream the border will be at a distance of 250-300 m from the water intake. Here it is required to exclude the reverse movement of water against the current due to the wind.
The third belt - cities, towns, villages that are supplied with water from this source fall into it, the territory needs constant monitoring, but there are no longer any restrictions like in the first and second.
#2. For water supply from an underground source
In the variant with an underground source, a sanitary protection zone is also needed. For shallow water wellsrevealing aquifers of sediment, the strict regime zone is enclosed with a radius of 50 m, and for deep wells reaching aquifers in bedrock, this figure is half as much - 25 m
There can be no extra structures, except for the primary pumping station, water tower, a minimum of outbuildings.
Surface and drainage drains must be removed outside, and the territory itself be landscaped, landscaped, enclosed with a fence, at the same time ensuring unhindered access of special vehicles with maintenance crews to eliminate possible sudden problems, scheduled maintenance activities and equipment repair.
The well is covered with a decorative warm house, the surrounding area of strict regime is fenced around the perimeter, landscaped and kept in perfect order
The second belt is defined so that pollution from its limits cannot penetrate underground aquifers and reach water intake in term from 100 to 400 days - a specific figure is calculated based on the laws of hydrodynamics, taking into account the characteristics of soils and climatic factors.
The third belt is a zone of active human activity. It is assumed that the movement of pollution from this area towards the water intake will be slow and will take longer than the planned life of the well (25-50 years).
Sanitary protection zones are drawn on maps, information about them is published, and a strict mode belt is marked all sorts of warning signs and signs on the ground, enclosed with a solid fence, a grid with barbed wire etc.
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Around the underground water source, regardless of the pumping volume, they arrange a security zone, since Rocks are not considered reliable protection. The radius is determined by the type of soil and the depth of the aquifer
The radius of the security zone of the well on the sand according to technical and sanitary requirements is 50 m, the area of the protection zone is 1 ha
The well, buried in indigenous limestone, is not so extensively guarded. Around such sources, some of which are flowing, there should be a security zone with a radius of 30 m, its area is 0.25 ha
Sources used to supply water to private homes are mostly buried in the sand. Are protected in the same way, if operation is planned as a drinking water intake, for technical development such strict measures are optional
Water Well Equipment
Head for wellhead protection
High production artesian well
Protection of private sources
#3. For facilities and water lines outside the water intake
Outside the territories related to the abstraction of water from sources, there are zones of sanitary protection of strict regime around such waterworks:
- spare tanks, filtering stations - 30 m;
- water towers - 10 m;
- pumping plants, chlorine and reagent warehouses, septic tanks, etc. - 15 m.
Sanitary strips should be laid along the water lines both on the left and on the right. Their width varies from 10 to 50 m and depends on how high the groundwater rises, what is the diameter of the conduit pipes.
If the cross section of the pipe does not exceed 1 m, a strip 10 m wide is sufficient for a pipe with a diameter of more than 1 m the width of the strip is doubled, and at high groundwater - up to 50 m, regardless of size pipes.
When the water pipeline is laid on the already built-up areas, the reduction of protected areas is allowed, if the sanitary-epidemiological service does not object.
The specifics of the prohibitions in the boundaries of the BAN
The most stringent requirements are imposed on strict regime zones (first belt). In their territories, it is impossible to erect buildings and buildings, dig trenches or otherwise dive into the ground, store any materials, apply fertilizers, litter, cut down green spaces, graze livestock, engage in fishing, equip marinas for boats, swim.
Prohibition signs are attached next to the warning sign indicating that it should not be done in the sanitary protection zone.
An extensive list of prohibitions has been drawn up for the second security belt. Prohibited construction and blasting, driving piles and other actions that create vibration. It is impossible to dump drains, develop the subsoil of the earth, cut down forests, place warehouses of toxic chemicals, fertilizers, fuels and lubricants, plow virgin soil, drain marshes.
It is not allowed to allocate space for cattle cemeteries, silage and manure pits, livestock and poultry complexes, etc. The use of the protected area for living, recreation, sports events. It is forbidden to pull water conduits on the territory of landfills, filtration fields, near cemeteries.
Subtlety laying sewer
Accidents on sewer networks - a frequent phenomenon, and the cause is not only natural wear of pipes and systems. Sewerage, like water supply, has a security zone, but it is not customary to denote it with signs and signs. The presence of sewer pipes and their location has to be judged by the wells, closed by massive metal lids labeled "K" or "CC".
Before starting excavation work in the sewer protection zone, it is necessary to study the plans and schemes of engineering communications, to receive appropriate recommendations and expert advice.
Otherwise, it is easy to break the sewer pipe with one careless push of the excavator bucket, and then who will count the losses and material costs of restoration? And if a water supply system runs alongside, the damage and negative consequences increase many times over.
The letters "K" or "GK" on the lid of the manhole denote the sewer or city sewer, respectively, on the lid of the water well should be written "B"
The security zone of sewage networks is established in proportion to the pipe section:
- up to 0.6 m in diameter - not less than 5 meters in both directions;
- from 0.6 to 1.0 m and more - 10-25 meters each.
Seismological characteristics of the terrain, climate and mean monthly temperatures, humidity and soil freezing, and soil features must be taken into account. The presence of adverse factors - a reason to increase the protection zone.
The distance to the sewage networks located underground from such objects is also regulated:
- the sewage system should be 3-5 meters away from any foundations (for the pressure head distance is greater than for the self-flowing one);
- from the supporting structures, fences, racks, the indent is from 1.5 m to 3.0 m;
- from the railway track - 3.5-4.0 m;
- from the road curb on the roadway - 2.0 m and 1.5 m (standards for pressure and gravity sewer);
- from ditches and ditches - 1-1.5 m from the near edge;
- street lighting poles, racks of contact networks - 1-1.5 m;
- high-voltage power lines - 2.5-3 m.
Figures reference, accurate engineering calculations allow us to obtain more reasonable data. If you do not avoid the intersection of water and sewer pipes, water supply should be placed above the sewer. When it is technically difficult to carry out, a casing is put on the sewer pipes.
The space between it and the working tube is tightly tamped with soil. On loam and clay, the length of the casing is 10 meters, on the sands - 20 meters. It is better to cross communications of different purposes at right angles.
For more information on the calculation of the slope of sewer pipes can be read. in this our article.
When a large-scale breakthrough of the sewage system, it is necessary to shut off the supply of tap water so that if not stopped, then at least reduce the discharge of fecal water to the outside.
When opening water and sewer pipes due to repairs, it is allowed to use equipment in earthworks to a certain depth. The last meter of the earth strata above the pipe is removed gently by hand without using a tool with shock and vibration action.
When laying, it is strictly forbidden to touch the sanitary zones of water pipes with sewage, but the requirements in the city are less stringent.
In urban conditions, with the forced parallel arrangement of the main water and sewer pipes, it is necessary to withstand the following distances:
- 10 m for pipes up to 1.0 m in diameter;
- 20 m with a pipe diameter of more than 1.0 m;
- 50 m - on wet ground at any pipe diameter.
For thinner household sewage pipes, the distance to other underground utilities is determined by its own standards:
- to the aqueduct - from 1.5 to 5.0 m, depending on the material and diameter of the pipes;
- to rain drainage systems - 0.4 m;
- to gas mains - from 1.0 to 5 m;
- to cables laid underground - 0.5 m;
- to the heating plant - 1.0 m.
The final word on how to ensure the safe coexistence of the water supply and sewage systems remains with the water utilities enterprises. All controversial issues should be resolved during the design process and not float up to the operational stage.
If you do not control domestic and industrial wastewater, landfills, the amount of chemical fertilizers and poisons in the fields, water reserves will become unusable.
List of regulatory documents
The compulsory creation of a Sanitary-Sanitary Sanctuary with a breakdown into belts is provided for by the law “On the sanitary-epidemiological well-being of the population”No. 52FZ, 03.30.99). According to this law, it is necessary to attach the development of a water source water supply system to a project for the operation of a water supply system and to issue it with a separate project.
Designing a BWC is based on SanPiN with cipher 220.127.116.110-02. This regulatory document defines how to calculate the sanitary protection zones, and describes the requirements for them from the standpoint of sanitation and epidemiology. Ignoring the rules and regulations prescribed in SanPiN 18.104.22.1680-02, is fraught with a high probability of outbreaks of serious infectious diseases, mass poisoning, epidemics.
Documents with abbreviations will also be useful. SNiP: 40-03-99 (new version 2.04.03-85), 2.07.01-89 *, 2.07.01-89 *, 2.05.06-85 *, 3.05.04-85 *, 2.04.02-84 (section 10 - Sanitary Protection Zones ). In the building codes with the specified ciphers you can find the necessary information on the design water and sewer networks, on building of settlements, on main pipelines.
Standard laying depth of water supply - not less than 0.5 m from the top level of the pipe without taking into account soil freezing in winter. To the left and to the right of the trench there is a land acquisition for a sanitary-guard strip 10–20 m wide
Regulatory materials - the basis for developing standards, taking into account the local characteristics of a particular region. The approval and adjustment of standards for the BWC are handled by urban and rural administrative authorities.
Responsibility for noncompliance
Security zones are a kind of guarantee of water purity and protection from pollution. All business entities and individuals are obliged to follow the rules in these zones. For violation there are such sanctions:
- damages - the perpetrator must compensate for the damage caused by the unauthorized construction, storage and storage of materials, the accumulation of debris and waste closer than 5 m from the aqueduct;
- administrative measuresi.e. fines - for neglecting building codes, rules, for erecting buildings and any other construction without a project approved in advance;
- criminal liability for self-capture of land in the zones of sanitary protection.
It is stupid as an excuse to say that you did not know about the location of the protected zones - this is no excuse.
Before performing any construction, land and other works, you should contact the water utility and get acquainted with where Protected zones are located in your settlement and its surroundings, and what actions cannot be carried out in the selected place This is the only way to avoid unpleasant and unexpected consequences.
It is not always possible to catch those who throw garbage in the water protection zone at the crime scene, and all that remains is to appeal to the conscience and conscience of all citizens.
Since the first ZSANO belt must be marked with warning signs, in the absence of such signs, responsibility for the order in the security zone lies on the operational organization, and there is no reason to make claims to those who accidentally invade the forbidden territory.
However, if there are warnings, the offender cannot be blamed for illegal entry into the sanitary zone and the implementation of any actions there.
With land swindlers who arbitrarily seize construction sites in the sanitary protection zone, You can only fight by toughening penalties and moving from administrative responsibility to criminal
The legislation of the Russian Federation determines the degree of responsibility and punishment for those who violate sanitary norms and requirements. You can read about this in the RF Code “On Administrative Violations” (№ 195ФЗ, 12/30/2001). In particular, Article 8.13 concerns water bodies and their protection.
You can fine for violations in the zones of sanitary protection of water supply systems and water intakes of an ordinary person in the amount of 500 to 1 thousand. rubles, official - by 1-2 thousand rubles. Fines for legal entities range from 10 to 20 thousand. rubles.
If the zone of sanitary protection of a reservoir, lake, river involved in water supply is damaged, the fines are higher - 1-2 thousand. rubles, 3-4 thousand rubles and 30-40 thousand rubles, respectively. Compliance with the rules and regulations of the legislation of the Russian Federation is strictly checked.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
What does a strict-security area look like:
How does the program for calculating the sanitary protection zones of underground water intakes:
To summarize... Security zones are an important condition in creating water supply systems. And they have to fully fulfill their functional purpose if we want clean water to run from the water taps.
When the filtering stations on the water pipelines do not cope with the level of contamination, harmful chlorine is added to the water for disinfection. Is it not better to remember about ecology and not to disturb the order in sanitary protection zones?
Want to ask a question on the topic of the article? Please leave your comments in the block below. Here you can express your opinion or tell interesting facts about the sanitary protection zones.