Designing and laying a gas pipeline is a prerogative of specialized gas services; it is impossible to do this work independently. The owner of the gasified section is responsible for collecting the necessary documentation, obtaining permits for gas supply and putting the pipeline into operation.
Agree that for those who are faced with such a task for the first time, it is quite difficult to figure out where to start and where to turn. We offer to understand everything in order.
We will tell you which permitting and project documents need to be prepared, we will designate the basic regulatory requirements, the algorithm of actions for laying and connecting the gas pipeline. In addition, we present tips on choosing a contractor and describe how the commissioning, commissioning and commissioning of the gas pipeline takes place.
The content of the article:
- Package of permits
- What influences the preparation of the project
Ways to arrange a gas pipeline
- Classification of gas pipeline systems
- Underground way of laying
- Overhead gas pipeline
- External and internal network
- Which option is better to use?
Polymer gas lines
- Features of plastic construction
- Restrictions on the use of pipes
- General requirements for gasification
When the gasification project is ready
- Contractor selection and contract conclusion
- Putting the pipeline in operation
- Starting and adjusting the system
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Package of permits
The list of such documents can not be made without reference to a specific structure, its composition depends on many nuances. For example, when gas communications have to go through areas of their neighbors, they will have to get permission from their owners.
The specific list can be clarified in the project organization, but in most cases are required:
- Copies of IDs of all owners.
- A certificate confirming the ownership of the land and buildings located on it.
- The act of checking the premises in which the installation is planned. The inspection is carried out by a representative of the Household Gas Equipment Service (SVDGO).
- Permission to gasify, confirming the technical possibility of these actions. The document is issued by the Architectural and Design Office and certified by its head.
- Technical conditions for gasification home, which gives Gorgaz.
A technical passport from the Bureau of Technical Inventory together with a scaled map of the site with all the buildings that are planned to be gasified must be attached to the listed documents. You will also need, certified by the gas service, a diagram of all communications and the projected gas pipeline.
Variant of graphic application for gasification of a residential building, which will need to be included in the package of permits
The prepared package is provided to employees of the selected project organization. On its basis, a gasification project is developed taking into account all the features of the site and the buildings located on it.
What influences the preparation of the project
If there are no special skills, independent design is undesirable and hardly feasible. In the process project work Many factors that are known only to specialists should be taken into account.
Among them are:
- depth of groundwater, soil specificity, landscape and climatic features;
- the depth at which the central route passes;
- distance from the pipeline to the building, taking into account the depth of the outlet;
- SNiPov requirements for equipment and connection points.
In addition to the ones listed in the project, the way of laying the highway, gas pipeline diameter, the necessary set of devices and accessories, materials used, features of the joints and internal wiring.
Ways to arrange a gas pipeline
The main criterion for classification is considered working pipeline pressure. According to this characteristic, for everyday needs, of interest are systems with low pressure, where the maximum does not exceed 5 kPa.
Classification of gas pipeline systems
An important parameter is the way of laying an individual gas pipeline from the main network transporting blue fuel to a private house / cottage.
He might be:
The latter option is relevant for the gas pipeline, which meets on its way a lake, river or sea. For a private house use the first 2 ways.
Depending on the location of the gas network, it can be external or internal. In practice, it is often necessary to combine several laying options, since the trace conditions from the main line can vary greatly.
Regardless of the method of gas supply to a private house, such systems operate with low pressure, not exceeding 5 kPa
For example, a withdrawal from the central highway, passing over the road, will be above ground. Then it goes deep into the ground and is brought to the building in the underground variant.
Underground way of laying
The most time-consuming and costly option that requires preliminary preparation of a trench for removal from the main highway. At the same time, it is necessary to strictly adhere to the plan, which precisely determines at what depth the gas pipeline should be laid. Usually it is from 1.5-2 m.
The following factors can have a significant effect on the laying of communications:
- seismic activity;
- abundance of corrosive elements in the soil;
- the presence of obstacles and pavement.
It is simpler and cheaper, in terms of total gasification costs, to use horizontal drilling. Approximately costs are reduced by 3 times.
In addition, the technology allows:
- reduce the time of laying;
- bypass the pavement and available communications;
- minimize damage to the ecology of the site.
A special device is drilled a pilot well, which is then increased to the calculated size. The walls are fixed with a solution, after fixing which they stretch the gas pipeline.
For the supply of gas can be used aboveground or underground branches from the highway, which are combined with internal or external wiring
With the threat of electrical or mechanical damage, the pipes are protected with a steel case. This increases the cost, but makes the removal more reliable and durable.
Overhead gas pipeline
This option of gasification involves laying on special supports. It is much cheaper, it allows you to save up to 60% of funds in comparison with the previous method.
A significant drawback is the need to protect against a number of factors:
- deforming effects;
- mechanical loads;
- corrosive damage;
- temperature drops.
The disadvantages include the probability of an arbitrary tie-in to the highway, which requires regular inspection of the integrity of the structure and the absence of violations.
To prevent arbitrarily tapping into the above-ground system, it is necessary to create a security zone that makes access to the highway difficult
Such a threat is reduced to zero when the pipes are laid on the territory of their own section, access to which is unavailable to outsiders.
External and internal network
Internal type of installation is carried out in a specially adapted room. In this case, it is necessary to provide access to the wiring, which cannot be hidden in the walls, closed with any overlays.
Regardless of the external or internal mounting on the wall of the building, the equipment must be accessible for maintenance.
The opposite connection option involves laying pipes on special brackets that are securely fixed to the entrance.
The main requirement is maximum protection from outsiders.
In the fenced area in the presence of the eaves, external installation can be performed without a protective box
Protection from unauthorized access and natural influences provides a box with a door that closes the key. It is usually installed when mounting the gas meter outside the building.
Which option is better to use?
Each of the methods of laying gas pipelines has its own list of advantages and disadvantages. But when designing a gas pipeline, they are taken into account or ignored based on the conditions of a particular section where tracing will be performed.
It will be difficult to conduct an underground withdrawal from the main line through the neighbor’s section due to the abundance of earthworks.
For example, an elevated version would be preferable when the following conditions are met:
- the soil is saturated with corrosive elements that can destroy the metal during use;
- withdrawal passes through the territory of the neighboring area;
- the main pipe is separated from the section by the road surface.
If tracing is performed under high-voltage lines, it is recommended to choose an underground option that will provide protection from high voltage exposure.
Polymer gas lines
For aboveground gasification options, it is recommended to use pipes from low alloyed steel alloys that are resistant to external influences.
Features of plastic construction
Underground installation allows the use of pipes made of polypropylene, which saves on installation costs and provides a number of other advantages.
Pluses are due, primarily, to the material properties:
- high corrosion resistance, which has a positive effect not only on the cost of installation, but also reduces operating costs;
- ease of processing - the material is well cut, amenable to welding, which simplifies installation;
- perfectly smooth internal cavity provides good throughput properties; material features make it possible to avoid their reduction during use;
- lack of sensitivity to electric currentsthat provides high security, removes the need for additional protection.
In addition to these advantages, such pipes have a high level of flexibility, which allows them to be used in horizontal drilling.
Polypropylene pipes gradually force out metal analogs, thanks to high reliability and durability
To this should be added a small mass, which is several times lower than the steel equivalent. An important advantage is the service life of about 50 years. All this time, the system works without losing the specified characteristics.
Restrictions on the use of pipes
Despite the high resistance to external influences, such pipes can be used far from always. There are a number of restrictions under which their installation is not allowed.
- climatic conditions under which the temperature drops below 45 ° C, which leads to freezing of the soil and walls of the branch;
- the use of liquefied hydrocarbon variants;
- high seismic activity with a magnitude of more than 7 points, when there is no possibility for ultrasonic monitoring of the integrity of suture joints.
In addition, polypropylene materials cannot be used to create above-ground communications of all kinds, including bypass areas through natural or man-made barriers.
Highways and branches from them, passing over the road or other obstacles, should be made only of metal
Their laying through tunnels, collectors, channels is excluded. For entering the system into the house and wiring it uses only steel equivalents.
Additional recommendations on the choice of pipes for laying a gas pipeline are given in the article - Pipes for gas: a comparative overview of all types of gas pipes + how to choose the best option
General requirements for gasification
Gas heating refers to communications with a high level of potential danger. For this reason, there is a whole set of requirements that must be followed regardless of the material used and the chosen method of installation of the system.
The basic rules include the following:
- The possibility of permanent and free access to all connecting elements of the gas pipeline system, such nodes can not be bricked into the walls.
- Lack of contact with flammable elements of the building, which include a door box, window frames, partition walls made of combustible materials, and other similar structures.
- Wiring without bevels inside and outside the house. A strictly vertical installation is obligatory, and with a horizontal version a slope of 2 to 5 mm is allowed with a distance of one meter to the instrument devices.
- Placement of the riser outside habitable premises. In the absence of a suitable interior, it can be opened outside the facade, the permissible slope cannot exceed 2 mm.
When designing the installation, it is recommended to pay special attention to the installation of cranes. In any case, their center line should be parallel to the wall.
When installing the equipment, be sure to check the correct location of the gas taps relative to the wall
Without observance of these and other requirements of the SIPP, the gas pipeline will not be accepted for operation. Additional costs to eliminate such violations - the smallest of the trouble. Starting up with such defects can have more serious consequences.
When the gasification project is ready
A prerequisite for the transition from the design stage to construction and installation works is the coordination of the project with the technical department of the gas service. Usually this procedure is performed within 2 weeks.
Contractor selection and contract conclusion
After approval to the project should be attached:
- estimates for the implementation of works stipulated by the project;
- technical supervision contract;
- The inspection report of the smoke ventilation channels, drawn up and signed by the representative of the VDPO service.
When the entire list of necessary documents on hand, you can proceed to the arrangement. As a rule, any design organization has a license for construction and installation work. If there is no such license, you will have to attend to the search for a contractor.
Since the installation organization will be responsible for the construction and delivery of the gas pipeline it is desirable:
- check the license for gasification;
- view other permits;
- make sure that there are appropriate tolerances for employees.
Before concluding a contract, it is necessary to coordinate and approve the terms of installation, which should be fixed in the contract.
When mounting, there should be fire extinguishing equipment for class “C” fires (burning gases)
The agreement on the execution of work, in addition to other obligations, must be fixed the following conditions:
- the presence of the employees of the organization working at the facility, a protective screen that protects the walls from heating, and all the necessary fire extinguishing agents;
- issuing to the customer the hands of the technical documents immediately after the calculations for the works provided for in the project;
- the contractor’s obligation to complete the installation within the agreed time, in accordance with the established standards and the required quality level;
- the contractor’s obligation to prepare in due time all the required technical and executive documentation.
The contractor must provide the customer with the specified documents, after completion of the installation work, before visiting the facility acceptance commission.
Putting the pipeline in operation
Delivery of the finished gas pipeline is carried out in the presence of a commission, which includes representatives of the contractor, the gas service and the customer himself. In the process of acceptance, it is necessary to check the availability of all the equipment provided by the project, the correctness of its installation and connection.
The commission accepts works from 2 weeks to a month. If there are no deficiencies, the representative of the gas service issues a receipt for payment, which the customer pays, and gives a copy of the document to the contractor.
After acceptance of the finished gas pipeline, the meter of the system must be sealed in the presence of the customer.
The contractor transfers to the gas service all the technical documentation, where it is stored for the entire period of operation. According to the results of the commission’s work, the gas service must seal the meter for 3 weeks, after which the system is considered ready for gas supply.
The agreement with Gorgaz regulates the maintenance of the system for which this service will be responsible. It is the basis for the supply of gas.
In addition to the conclusion of the contract, you will need to undergo safety training. It is conducted at the company's office or at the place of residence by a specialist with the appropriate admission. In any case, after the briefing, the customer must confirm the passed briefing with a signature in the log book.
Starting and adjusting the system
The sidebar is performed by the corresponding service, the procedure is paid, is carried out in a predetermined time when all equipment has been accepted and is recognized as functional.
Insertion into the main pipe under pressure must be carried out by specialists using appropriate equipment.
After this is held test run, checking equipment and meter for leaks.
The final debugging of the equipment and the launch is carried out by the organization-supplier of equipment, with which there is a maintenance agreement:
- the system starts up;
- it is adjusted to the optimal mode of operation;
- A company representative is obliged to explain all the nuances of the equipment, the rules of its operation.
In cases where malfunctions and other malfunctions are noticed, the launch is suspended until they are fixed.
If everything is in order and the launch was successful, a bilateral act is signed, confirming the completion of the work.
About the rates for connecting gas to a private house and the financial costs of putting the system into operation, see this article.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Video on the collection of documents, requirements, equipment and its maintenance:
The video will tell about the necessary documents, indicative prices, equipment purchase, connection problems and the main stages of the process:
Using natural gas for heating is one of the most economical ways. All gasification costs are relatively quickly paid off. The only drawback is increased danger. But proper installation, timely maintenance and operation without violations minimize all risks.
Do you have something to add, or have questions about the gasification of a private house? You can leave comments on the publication, participate in discussions and share your own experience in laying a gas pipeline. The form for communication is in the lower block.