The organization of gas supply is the most important moment of arranging comfortable housing. Practice shows that most often this type of fuel is chosen to ensure the operation of household appliances, but the gas mixture is among the potentially hazardous substances. In order for the system to work efficiently and without problems, it will be necessary to correctly equip it.
We will tell you how to design a gas pipeline, show you how to correctly select a contractor for the project. In the article submitted by us, the preparation procedure is described in detail, the documents that the customer will require are given. Taking into account our advice, you can reduce the time and cost of order execution.
The content of the article:
- Gasification project: what is it?
- How to choose a project performer?
- How to start?
Features that need to be considered in the project
- Type of gas used
- Construction of an external gas pipeline
- Project Creation Procedure
- Available options for saving on the project
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Gasification project: what is it?
Under the project gasification understand the input scheme of power equipment at the facility. It is developed in strict accordance with all applicable requirements and instructions, taking into account the wishes of the customer.
The project includes calculations and indicators of energy efficiency of the facility, detailed specifications for feeding equipment and material, substantiation of solutions for the installation of underground or above-ground gas pipelines and etc.
Actually, a gasification project is a collection of documents, which includes:
- Drawing of the location of gas pipelines, aboveground and underground.
- Drawing of the placement of gas equipment.
- Drawing of the location of all ventilation and smoke ducts.
- Technical conditions for the supply of gas.
- Inspection certificates of all ventilation ducts and chimneys.
- All necessary executive documentation on the gas pipeline to which the connection will be made.
- Passports and certificates for each of the installed gas appliances.
- Explanatory note.
The legislation requires that any reorganization or construction of the gas supply line, installation of gas equipment should be carried out only after the preliminary implementation of the project.
Only with its help you can correctly select the gas equipment, determine the price of installation work and the necessary materials, choose the right and equip premises for the installation of gas appliances. In addition, the availability of the project allows for the necessary coordination in the relevant authorities.
The gasification project is a collection of documents describing a specific solution for gas supply to a house. It includes detailed diagrams, specifications, descriptions and documents for gas equipment.
How to choose a project performer?
It is impossible to complete the gasification project on your own. And save on its development too. This is a mandatory document that is designed to meet a variety of requirements. They are listed in special technical literature, reference books and rulebooks, as well as in state standards.
All these requirements are known to professional designers, who should be engaged in design. Moreover, these should be employees of special project departments, and not just specialists offering their services.
As a rule, in your city you can find several organizations involved in the implementation of projects for the gasification of housing. Most often, trustworthy organizations are members of SROs. This abbreviation means "self-regulatory organization."
All organizations that are members of SROs receive a certificate that must be studied when choosing a company-designer.
It is best for the customer to deal with such companies. In this case, he can be sure that the work will be done efficiently, competently and on time.
Indeed, otherwise organizations will face serious troubles related to problems with reputation and financial losses. Non-SRO companies are limited in the choice of customers. They can not count on serious orders and can not participate in tenders.
To join an SRO, an organization must precisely meet certain requirements. Their staff should be on a permanent basis at least two professional design engineers.
Every three years they are required to undergo an inspection, thereby confirming their qualifications and knowledge. The inspection is carried out by a special commission, according to its results, specialists are issued or no certificates are issued.
In addition, the project can be developed only by an organization that has a license to conduct this type of activity. This moment must be clarified before entering into an agreement for the gasification project.
Also at his conclusion it is important to clarify that the performer assumes the responsibility for the coordination and approval of documents, trips for measurements and visits to gas services. Such a clause in the contract allows the customer to take a minimal part in the design process.
How to start?
You need to know that work on the design of gas supply can be started only after the technical conditions have been agreed and received, or as they are called the technical specifications for the gas supply of the facility.
This is a significant special document, only the gas distribution organization has the right to issue it. Getting a TU gives the site owner the opportunity to order the development of the project.
Obtaining the Technical Conditions allows the owner of a house or a plot for its construction to order a gasification project. Without TU, such a project cannot be developed.
For technical specifications The following documentation must be submitted to the local gas service:
- Application for TU. It can be written only by the owner of the land plot, which is reserved for construction, or the landlord, if the building has already been erected.
- A copy of the document that can certify the identity of the applicant. This is usually a passport.
- Original documents confirming the applicant’s ownership of the house. You will need another document that confirms the legality of the building. This may be a contract of sale / purchase, as well as an act of acceptance of the building into operation or a technical passport from the BTI.
- If construction is still underway, it is necessary to provide documentation confirming the applicant's ownership of the site. This may be a lease or purchase / sale of the site, as well as evidence confirming the registration of ownership.
- Explication of buildings on the ground.
It should be understood that the intended connection to the gas pipeline will be allowed only when the area where the house is built is included in the gasification plan.
It is important that at the same time have the technical ability to connect. This suggests that the volume of gas in the existing line allows you to add another consumption point.
Gas is a potentially dangerous type of fuel, therefore, only professionals can design gas networks.
By the time the preparation of technical conditions takes about a month. When connecting to the gas pipeline, some requirements must be met. For example, a building can be no more than 200 m away from a gas pipeline.
In this case, the project area of the building should not be more than 250 square meters. These houses belong to the first group of gas consumers. They have the right to spend gas at a speed of no more than 5 cubic meters per hour.
If the area of the house is larger, the connection is also possible, but it will be much more difficult to obtain the TU, since it is necessary to further coordinate the transfer of the consumer from the second group to the first group.
To obtain technical conditions, you can use the services of special companies, but it will cost dearly. Therefore, it makes sense to do the paperwork yourself.
Features that need to be considered in the project
Each project is developed for specific operating conditions, which are always reflected in it. Consider in detail a few important points.
Type of gas used
The easiest way to provide gas at home is to connect to a centralized highway. For its implementation requires permission from gas services and the availability of the necessary technical conditions.
In addition, the consent of the neighbors will also be needed if a gas pipeline passes through their section. In practice, most often such permission is taken in the gas service, which in most cases will be the owner of the gas pipeline.
Autonomous gas supply is used where for any reason it is impossible to connect to a centralized network
Unfortunately, connection to the centralized gas pipeline far from always possible. In such cases, you can equip an autonomous gas supply, which involves the installation of special tanks from which gas will be supplied to the house.
Such a system can be designed as a primary or as a backup fuel source. In the second version, it is used in the event of an accident on the line or when the gas supply is turned off.
Well-proven as the main source of gas in the absence of the possibility of connection to the pipeline autonomous gas supply options.
They have significant advantages, which include the ability to control the amount of gas used in the house and the durability of the system. Provided competent design and mounting the gas tank An independent system will last on average 40-50 years.
Construction of an external gas pipeline
Structurally, the external gas supply system can be performed in two ways: aboveground and underground. Consider them in detail. The method of underground installation is considered the most optimal for the installation of gas pipes.
He assumes that gas pipeline is laid in trenches, the depth of which is calculated in the design process. Recently, however, this method of laying is being supplanted by a more modern trenchless installation.
Properly performed underground pipe laying ensures their safety and operability. True, the cost of installation is much higher
This is due to the lower cost of the latter. The trenchless method makes it possible to reduce the cost of gasification by two or even three times. In addition, it has other significant benefits. Pipe laying works are carried out as soon as possible.
Trenchless method is recognized as the most gentle. If necessary, it makes it possible to preserve the integrity of the artificial and natural objects found on the gas pipeline route, the road surface.
Actually the procedure of trenchless installation is quite simple. First, a pilot well is performed, then a barrel for laying communications is formed using horizontal drilling or directional puncture. The walls of the mine are reinforced with casing or with a stabilizing solution.
After it hardens, the gas pipeline pipes are fed and laid in it. To protect the gas pipe can be used a special case. This is necessary if communications can suffer from stray currents or from mechanical damage.
The latter are quite probable when the highway intersects with the pipes of the water supply system or the heating network, and also passes under the road. It is recommended to protect the gas pipeline with a case in the areas of entry into the building and at its exit from the ground. As the case is usually used steel pipe.
Underground gas pipeline in any performance is reliable, but has a high cost. More budget option - overhead laying of the pipeline. It can be cheaper than the underground by an average of 60%. In this case, gas pipes are placed on special supports, installed in accordance with the installation path. A highway laid above ground is extremely vulnerable.
To protect the elevated highway it is raised to a certain height above ground level. Still, such pipelines are more vulnerable than underground pipelines.
Therefore, it should provide reliable protection from stress, mechanical damage, sudden temperature changes, corrosion. Overhead pipelines require protection in order to exclude the possibility of unauthorized tie-ins or deliberate damage.
Therefore, they are usually located in such a way as to limit the access of outsiders as much as possible. One option is to place the pipes at a certain height. It is necessary to understand that both methods of laying gas pipelines are viable. Which one of them will be used by the design engineer to implement the gasification project.
He does this on the basis of an analysis of a complex of data, which include features of local climatic conditions and landscape, the location of groundwater, chemical analysis of soils, and more. In some cases, a combined stacking method may be selected.
It lies in the fact that part of the pipeline is mounted aboveground, and part of the underground method. For example, if the road passes under the roadway, it should be laid only underground, but before this section it may well be mounted above the ground. You need to know that only the designer decides on the method of laying the pipeline, the customer’s opinion is taken into account whenever possible, but is not decisive.
Project Creation Procedure
Work on the project of gas supply to a private house begins with calculations that determine the amount of gas required for the uninterrupted supply of all appliances using it. After that, the engineer proceeds to planning the route of the gas pipeline.
It is carried out taking into account all recommendations and requirements of building codes. A pipeline connects the building with a gas pipeline or with an underground tank. In any case, a shut-off valve should be installed at the tie-in area, cutting off the gas supply, and a metering device at the entrance to the building.
In the process of creating a project should be taken into account all operating conditions. For example, a pressure reducer should be installed on the gas pipeline outlet to the house.
The important point is selection of gas equipment. This should be done by the design engineer, taking into account the wishes of the customer. The specialist will be able to select equipment models whose characteristics are optimally suited for operation in the existing conditions.
Acquire the selected device should be only in specialized stores. That will make it possible to exclude the possibility of acquiring low-quality or non-certified products.
Each of the gas appliances used must have a special technical passport and a certificate with appropriate marks. This documentation is subsequently provided to the gas service representative, who will authorize the commissioning of the system.
The designer carries out the plan for the gas equipment and the internal distribution of pipes. After it is ready, the hydraulic calculation of the designed pipeline is performed.
This is necessary to determine the exact size of pipes in all sections of the pipeline. In addition, the hydraulic calculation determines the pressure loss in the pipeline and confirms the operability of the designed gas network. Only after that you can start drawing up the specification.
Design of gas supply to each device is carried out in strict accordance with regulatory requirements.
The result of the work done are:
- Gas network diagrams from the tie-in area to the equipment installation area.
- The sections of the building and floor plans, which show the layout of the pipeline and equipment installation sites.
- Detailed wiring diagrams with explanations and recommendations for their construction.
- Specification of equipment and materials.
- Description of measures necessary to protect the system from various negative impacts.
- Recommendations regarding the operation and maintenance of the designed gas system.
At the end of all work on the project, he surrenders for approval to the technical department of the service, which previously issued the TU. Experts carefully check the project for safety and compliance with all applicable regulations. At the end of the inspection, a decision is made to agree on the project approval or it can be returned for revision.
The subsequent installation of the equipment and the laying of the gas pipeline should be carried out in strict accordance with the agreed project. If any changes are planned during construction, they should be reconciled with the technical department and wait for the decision of the specialists. Otherwise the system cannot be commissioned.
You need to know that all executive documentation illustrating the work done is in the archives of the gas service. Therefore, to prove the legality of arbitrary changes to the project will not succeed.
Available options for saving on the project
The cost of the project concerns many customers. The company - the designer does not always clearly answer this question, often gives approximate figures, citing the varying complexity of the work in each case. However, a general idea of the amount can be obtained.
Practice shows that state-owned companies will have a minimal cost of design. For example, the same Gorgaz can provide such a service.
Attempting to save on the gasification project may end in failure. Only competent specialists, whose services cannot be very cheap, should perform the work.
But in this case, you need to be prepared for the fact that the timing of the order may be significantly delayed. Sometimes up to six months. Those who do not want or cannot wait for so long need to contact private companies that work more quickly.
But the cost of their services will be much higher. It is very important not to make a mistake in choosing the organization that will carry out the design.
The finished project must exactly comply with all regulatory requirements. Competent and experienced professionals are well versed in the many subtleties of regulatory documentation and know how to work with it.
Each new project requires a thorough study of the rules and regulations. Professional designers know that requirements for gas systems may vary depending on the method of laying the highway, construction conditions, the type of equipment chosen and many other factors.
If at least one of the existing rules is not fulfilled, the project is returned for revision. Gas services very carefully check all the documentation provided to them, and there is no reason to hope for their carelessness.
Each of these improvements significantly delays gasification. Therefore, it is worth entrusting the design to competent specialists in order to get a quality project in the shortest possible time.
All expenditure items related to connecting a gas to a country house are given in next articlewith which we advise you to read.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Video # 1. Consider all the stages of gasification of a private house:
Video # 2. What happens if the gasification project is broken:
Video # 3. Advantages of autonomous gas supply:
Gasification of the house is impossible without a competent project. This is a defining document, which specifies all the features of specific gas networks, wiring and equipment.
On the basis of the project, the system is subsequently installed and a permit for its further operation is issued. It is extremely important that the project was completed correctly, therefore, it should be ordered only from competent specialists.
Please write comments in the box below. Tell us about how you designed the gas pipeline, as well as how much time passed between the issuance of the project and connecting the house to the main line. Share useful information and photos on the topic of the article, ask questions.