Protective devices has recently entered into wide use, due to the increased number of household appliances. But not always, the residents have a desire to connect the apartment to this equipment because of possible false positives.
That is why the popular conventional socket with RCD, which can connect only one device is potentially dangerous: the washing machine, shower, dishwasher. All of the operating principle, design features and types of device protection, you will learn of the proposed article us. We will find valuable tips on installation.
The content of the article:
- The relevance of power sockets with RCD
- The internal circuit of the device
- Possible structural variations
Wiring diagrams sockets with RCD
- The only outlet with earth
- connect the system through outlet Emergency circuit breakers
- Tier system several outlets
- Non-recommended scheme without grounding
Characteristics sockets with RCD
- Advantages of combined devices
- Disadvantages of combining outlet and RCDs
- Rules of connection to the network
- Tips for choosing a suitable model
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The relevance of power sockets with RCD
More than 40% of fires occur because of faulty wiring, thousands of people a year are killed in the home of an electric shock. These sad events could not happen if the electrical circuit was under control RCD - residual current device.
This device monitors the difference between the currents and zero phase, in the case of substantial differences disables power load.
current threshold for wire neotpuskaniya human muscles is 10 mA, so the socket with RCD should provide a clear definition of its level and the operation of the protection. Automatic device is designed in such a way that at the touch of bare live wires a person does not even feel the shock - the device turns off power nearly instantly.
When installing the RCD in the house need to be sure there is no leakage current inside the walls, otherwise the device will simply not be included
Breakdown of faulty wiring in the walls can be invisible for a long time and do not lead to a fire situation. But over time, wire insulation becomes thinner and the current increases, which may cause a fire. RCD detects a problem long before heating cable and unplug.
When the hidden breakdown of the insulation inside the walls of suffering and the user's purse. After electric power actually consumed in heating the concrete slabs and plaster. therefore installation of RCDs It is a great way to improve electrical property and its inhabitants, as well as prevent unnecessary costs for payment of light.
The internal circuit of the device
The protective device based on the differential transformer, which is a toroid with windings. That he is responsible for determining the leakage current, which triggers the occurrence of the electromagnetic relay.
active load disconnection must occur for a maximum of 30 ms, though there are models which are calculated on a threshold of 10 ms.
For domestic purposes issued predominantly outlet electromechanical RCD to trip which does not need additional power supply required
Apparatus for RCD socket has a special design that allows you to fit in all equipment standard Enclosures. Miniaturization of components affects the cost: the purchase of the device components separately the price will be at least three times lower.
Possible structural variations
The combination of outlet and RCD both devices are equal. It is hard to determine the basic role of any of them. Therefore, they can externally be a socket with RCD or RCD with the socket.
Protective adapter is attractive for its low price and ease of use. It can always be moved to another room to connect the right device
Type of construction of these devices may be as follows:
- module embedded in podrozetnik;
- monoblock adapter insertable in a simple outlet;
- Module mounted on DIN-rail.
In fact, these devices are two independent devices connected within the same structure. Their functionality is the same, so the main criterion for selection is the convenience of a particular model in a particular situation.
Wiring diagrams sockets with RCD
Ways of connecting sockets with built-in RCD may be different. They depend on the number of connected devices, wiring layout and ground bus availability. It is important to connect the outlet in the house so as to ensure maximum security for residents and meet all electrical codes.
The only outlet with earth
The simplest scheme insertion socket with mains RCD homepage comprises only one device. For it is not only the phase and zero, but the ground wire. This scheme ensures double protection rights.
Driving with a single socket is the most easy and cheap. If necessary, it can be connected through extension any appliances
Grounding is passively protect people from electrical shock when contacting energized household appliance. In this case, the main flow of electrons into the earth, but the man is still in danger. A residual current device makes it possible to eliminate almost all of the health risks in the situation described above.
The main advantage A grounding circuit is the ability to seamlessly drain current in the ground, causing instantaneous tripping RCDs. In the absence of such a person will act leakage conductor which is in contact with the surface under tension. This may lead to sensitive electrical shock.
connect the system through outlet Emergency circuit breakers
The two-level system and Emergency circuit breakers RCD is optimal in terms of convenience. overall differential automatic It provides additional protection for the whole apartment, not only by the leakage current, but also from network overloads and short circuits. Such a scheme is recommended to use in premises with a highly branched wiring.
Additional RCD as a rosette at frequent expedient to install a power outage when triggered obschekvartirnogo Emergency circuit breakers because of one home appliance
When triggered, electric mechanism outlet happens it off without de-energizing the entire apartment, and the rest of the room will remain under the protection of the reserve.
Emergency circuit breakers may have the same threshold current, as in a socket with an RCD, and maybe more (100 mA). When it is the same value can simultaneously punch out two series-connected apparatus. Benefits of connecting outlet for grounding are the same as in the previous scheme without Emergency circuit breakers.
Tier system several outlets
When connecting to a network with several outlets RCD principle of their operation is not affected. Each device provides safety of its attached appliances.
Sockets with RCD, of course, increase the safety of using appliances, but from a financial point of view, this scheme is impractical
This scheme is installed is quite simple and does not require set the overall Emergency circuit breakers or RCD. Pros grounding connections are the same as in the previous cases considered.
Differences in principles of action RCDs and differential machine are given in the article, the contents of which we encourage you to read.
The only disadvantage of the system of multiple sockets is their cost, because for each piece of equipment will have to pay a hefty price. An alternative to this option is to install a RCD on the entire space.
Non-recommended scheme without grounding
Schematic diagram of the connection sockets with RCD in the absence of ground hardly differs from the duplex and the single-level embodiment proposed above. The only difference is the absence of a wire that provides power to eat appliance housing with its insulation damage.
Wiring sockets with RCD can be used without grounding in the presence of common Emergency circuit breakers, and in the absence of
In fact, the vast majority of homes and high-rise buildings are not equipped with grounding, so this scheme is to connect up to 2000 is the most common. However, it contains a hidden danger - the lack of contact with the casing of the household appliance "ground".
This fact is not only a health problem of people, but also has a negative impact on the performance of chips in consumer electronics. Therefore, the presence of ground bus wiring in the home is extremely necessary and desirable.
Characteristics sockets with RCD
Modern outlet with RCD is not installed in each apartment. The reason is the predominant mounting these devices on a common Emergency circuit breakers or wires entering the premises.
To determine the best option arrangement Electrical home, you need to get acquainted with the ins and outs of sockets with RCD.
Advantages of combined devices
Devices for protection from the "2-in-1" leakage current is not often used, but they have a number of advantages that are essential in some cases.
The threshold differential current is always indicated on the front panel outlet, because it is a key characteristic that determines its electrical safety function
The advantages of sockets with RCD include such features as:
- guaranteed blocking of electric shock in the presence of diversion;
- no need for additional wiring the common or purchase expensive high power Emergency circuit breakers;
- flexibility in networks with different voltages;
- the possibility of including in the socket of any appliances up to 3 kW;
- control operation using special test push-button;
- possibility of triggering when leakage current of 10 mA;
- protection in case of damage of the neutral conductor;
- ease of installation;
- voltage presence indicator in a conspicuous place.
These benefits sockets with RCD make them indispensable if you want to quickly provide additional protection against leakage current. In addition, these devices are quite mobile and they can always move to another place for a few minutes.
Disadvantages of combining outlet and RCDs
Sockets with RCD and similar portable device sold not so much. The reason is the number of defects that cause consumers to make a choice in favor of other devices.
With the same functionality RCD value sockets with different brands may vary by tens of times, although the reliability of these devices is roughly analogous to
On the downside protection outlets include:
- The high cost. It is much easier to install one RCD for the whole apartment or on a group of space than to mount on a separate device in each socket.
- Availability of competitive devices in the form of Emergency circuit breakers that provide more and more protection if there is network congestion or short in the wire.
- Frequent false alarms, especially in older homes with tainted insulated wires.
- Many models require deep Enclosures, complicating their installation.
Thus, with the RCD socket are fairly niche product. It is used only when there is no desire or ability to establish the general Emergency circuit breakers in an apartment, or a need for protection with a threshold level of 10 mA.
Rules of connection to the network
Connect panel socket with RCD network is quite simple.
Maximum list of actions for that might look like this:
- Choose Escutcheon device under appropriate dimensions.
- To drill crown in the wall opening and to bring it to the phase zero and grounding (if any).
- Turn off the electricity.
- Connect the electrical wires to the appropriate terminals on the socket.
- Secure the unit in Enclosures.
- Including electricity.
- Press the "Test" button and check the efficiency of the device. Normally, the power supply should be turned off immediately.
Installation of the device in the form of a one-piece adapter is generally not required. It is inserted into a simple wall outlet, and the other side will connect to the appliances.
The drilling depth must take into account the ability to install and flush, and most sockets
Due to the large volume of sockets with RCD wiring length in podrozetnik should be minimal
RCD does not emit heat during operation, so the need for ventilation in the outlet no
A failed test result, check the proper connection of wires to terminals
Step # 1 - Drilling holes for socket
Step # 2 - Stripping electrical wires
Step # 3 - Screwing to the wall outlet
Step # 4 - Response Testing RCDs
To install a socket with an RCD for DIN-rail just need to fix it, attach the appropriate wires to the terminals and test. The device is then ready for use.
Tips for choosing a suitable model
Selection of a suitable outlet with RCD is simple, because the manufacturers offer mainly standard solutions and range of these devices is small.
Could lead to fire, leakage currents are much higher than those which are able to kill a man. Therefore household outlet with RCD provide full fire safety in case of breakdown of isolation
The main consideration when buying should be paid to the following nuances:
- Bathroom degree of protection shall be at least IP44, and for dry rooms - IP21 or IP22.
- For the modern appliances you can take the device to the level of residual operating current of 10 mA, and when connecting older devices - 30 mA.
- If you plan to connect to a power outlet long cables or several appliances, it is recommended to use a model with a leakage current of at least 30mA.
- The maximum power the connected equipment should not be above that of the socket. It is recommended that the allowable current was 30-50% higher than real work.
- Statistics of marriage and false positives is virtually the same in the majority of well-known brands, so pay extra for the name is not worth it.
- On each device, unlike simple sockets must be the log or manual with the technical parameters.
If purchased A female adapter, check its performance can be right in the store. Just turn his grid and click "Test", simulating leakage current.
After the purchase is necessary to keep a check, in case of detection of a marriage could be exchanged device.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The operating principle of the device and the RCD:
Demonstration of the C wall adapter with RCD:
The best option Electrical premises is, of course, the installation of a two-tier system Emergency circuit breakers. However, such a scheme requires major installation work and costs.
Compromise, if necessary to protect individual appliances, is integrated with the purchase outlet RCD. This device will help in time to determine an electric shock, turn off the power and save the life of a person.
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