Septic tanks - one of the most effective options for stand-alone wastewater treatment. These devices are not too cheap, but they are comfortable and reliable.
To understand why whether or not to install such a device in the area, should examine how it works. This is what we are going to talk about in this article. As a current example, we use a septic tank to give Tapas.
And a closer look at the device of the system, isolate the main pros and cons, we give advice on the operation and maintenance of a septic tank.
The content of the article:
- How does a typical septic tank?
- Variety of designs and range
- The principle of operation of septic tanks "Tapas"
- Strengths and weaknesses of the system
- installation and assembly rules
- Recommended use
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
How does a typical septic tank?
Septic tank - a kind of sewer devices, specially designed for the complete or almost complete processing, clarification and disinfection of sewage waste mass.
Operation is based on the principle of biological purification. As an active component is used, active oxygen and special bacteria which decompose the waste water into water and neutral yl.
Sewage station deep biological treatment allows to significantly reduce calls on scavengers portion Vacation
Passing through the sewage plant effluent separated into an insoluble precipitate and the clarified water, purified at 95 - 97%
Formed of a reinforced plastic body is divided into four functional chamber, passing through which drains are clarified and disinfected
Inside the housing is box sewage station for positioning compressor units for all systems for a pump and a compartment if required stimulation flow
Tapas septic tank installed in soils of any category regardless of the occurrence of the height of the groundwater table
The reliability of the system and the strength of the station housing allows to install it in 2 - 3 meters away from the house foundation
Recommended distance from the boundary to suburban area sewage station 2 m in summer conditions may be somewhat reduced
Town sewage station in the area should take into account the possibility of the entrance assenizatorskaya equipment for periodic pumping sludge
biological cleaning station cottage
Opportunities for wastewater treatment
Apparatus septic brand Topas
Boxes for the installation of equipment
Geological conditions for septic Tapas
Distance from the foundation of the house
The distance from the fence to the station
septic Located right on the site
Yl thus it serves as a binder component therein deposited inorganic waste which is not amenable to bacterial processing.
The resulting clean water is usually derived from the device through the absorption filter earthen wells, the filtration field or otherwise. When the proper level cleaning water can be used for watering the plants in the area.
Water obtained from the processing of sewage in septic tanks "Tapas", you can take in a single well, to be used for irrigation or other water
For processing organic matter using bacteria for septic tanksWhich are anaerobic and aerobic. The first live and processed waste water in an oxygen-free environment, which provides a fully sealed container. Second only work in a smooth supply of oxygen.
Regardless of the type, these microorganisms are able to reproduce themselves, so the septic tank does not require regular addition of bacteria to the drains, although in some cases it is necessary to do.
Conventionally, a septic tank, "Tapas" is divided into four sections. Air injection by means of compressors, and for moving the waste water in the device using an airlift
As with any device, a septic tank requires proper care. In particular, the accumulated sludge must be removed annually. From the usual cesspool septic favorably with the fact that the recycling process is completely neutralizes all unpleasant odors.
If the device is properly installed and operated in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations are usually no problems with it.
Variety of designs and range
To understand the principles of operation of a septic tank type "Tapas", should examine its structure. Externally, the device is a large capacity in the form of a cube with large square cover.
Inside it is divided into four functional sections. There is an integrated device for air intake from the surface to provide oxygen saturation effluent.
Tapas septic tank consists of four interconnected chambers, providing a multi-stage cleaning. Flowing from one compartment to another sewage settles, processed by bacteria, disinfected and clarified
Inside the cleaning system contains the following items:
- receiving chamber into which the effluent is fed initially;
- airlift pumping equipment with providing movement between the various effluents device units;
- aeration - separation, which is performed in the secondary cleaning step;
- pyramidal chamber, where the final wastewater treatment;
- post-treatment chamber, are accumulated during operation of purified water a septic tank;
- compressor air injection;
- hose to remove silt;
- apparatus for removing treated water.
Lineup septic this brand is quite broad. There are models for houses and plots of different sizes, the device designed for service gas stations, and even powerful treatment facilities that can meet the needs of a small village.
This diagram graphically depicts septic device "Topas". It consists of four different sections, which move the waste received by the sewer pipe
In the private house building often use septic tanks "Tapas-5" and "Tapas-8." The number next to the name indicates the approximate number of inhabitants, which is designed to service the unit.
"Tapas-5" has a more compact size and lower performance, it is able to seamlessly provide the needs of a family of five in sewage services.
This model is considered to be the ideal choice for a relatively small garden. At night, such a device can process approximately 1000 liters of effluent and simultaneous discharge of waste within 220 liters septic tank will not cause any harm.
Dimensions "Topas-5" make 2500H1100H1200 mm, and weight - 230 kg. Power consumption device is 1.5 kW per day.
But for a large cottage is better to take "Tapas-8." Size and the ability to process wastewater in this model is much higher. Such a septic tank is able to serve even areas where a swimming pool, although in such a situation may be more relevant and "Topas-10".
The performance of such models varies between 1500-2000 liters of wastewater per day.
The numbers next to the names of the septic tank indicate the number of people that this device can be serviced at the same time use. These indicators and benchmarks customers, choosing the right model.
There is also a marking character string describing the special operating conditions, for which particular device is designed.
For example, the designation of "Long" refers to the use of a septic tank with a depth of connection, which is more than 80 cm. Marked "Ex" designated models with the option of forced pumping the partially purified water.
Such structures are supplied with a pump. Models marked with "Ex" is used in areas with high groundwater levels.
Model of septic tanks "Tapas" may vary depending on the amount of recyclable waste, as well as on the operating conditions. For example, for areas with high groundwater levels is recommended to choose a septic tank labeled "Pr"
Availability of the pump in the device of this model Topas septic tank is designed for installation on a site with clayey soils, which are difficult to filter or absorb all the purified water. Marking "Us" simply stands for - "reinforced".
It is more powerful models to be used, if a septic tank mounting depth exceeds the sewer pipe arrangement by 1.4 m or more.
The higher the capacity of the pump, its power, and the more his options, the more expensive the cost of its acquisition, and the harder it is to perform its installation. So do not choose a treatment facility "in mind" if in the near future the number of occupants in the house should not increase dramatically.
More detailed guidelines for choosing a septic tank to give considered in our other article.
The principle of operation of septic tanks "Tapas"
By sewer pipe effluent is fed to a first receiving chamber. Here sewer mass fermented with the active participation of anaerobic bacteria.
When the level of waste water in the receiver reaches a predetermined mark begins pumping waste into the second chamber via the airlift.
Wastewater is received into the receiving chamber, the second saturated with oxygen and recycled aerobic bacteria, it is asserted in the third, and the fourth decomposed into sludge and purified water 98%
The second section holds the septic tank wastewater aeration, i.e. saturation of air which is required to intensify work digesting the sewage organic matter aerobic microorganisms.
Bacteria actively processed contents drain, turning it into a mixture of partially clarified and purified water and activated sludge.
After treatment in the second chamber moves in all sludge separated stabilizer - biomass, actively participating in the purification of sewage liquid component masses. There yl settles and the water released as a result is moved into the sump.
To improve the purification of the waters and of the movable sludge stabilizer is supplied to the primary chamber, to be able to produce a secondary effluent treatment.
Thus, the circuit operation is provided septic Topas circulation of effluents to different compartments of the septic tank until the level of cleaning reaches the required quality level. This provides a high level of safety of recycled waste water to the environment.
If the cut portion is composed sandy soil, for the discharge of sewage to arrange better absorption pit. Its construction is possible only if there is at least 1 meter between the conventional filter of the well bottom and the groundwater table
On completion of the multi-stage processing is retracted purified water filtration fields or absorption (filter) wellWhere the waste mass produced posttreatment and resets it into the ground.
In the absence of a well to arrange the filter or drainage system, clarified and disinfected liquid can be discharged into the gutter.
If septic installed in clayey soil, recycling the purified and disinfected waste is carried out in sewage ditch
The absorbency well or in posttreatment filter fields produced by the passage of effluent through the filter primers. In the first case the structure is a post-treatment with a permeable hole bottom, which is placed on the meter layer of crushed stone or gravel with sand filling.
filtering the field - is a kind of drainage system of perforated pipes arranged - drains. Flowing through the drains, the liquid component of the effluent is further purified and seeps through the perforations in the pipes surrounding soil.
We also recommend you to get acquainted with the peculiarities of laying drainage pipe.
When laying all kinds of sewage pipelines, including the drain system should take into account the level of soil freezing in winter to wastewater is not frozen and not created in the tube intended for them flow channel.
If next to the plot there is unused land or country estate is different impressive area, sewage disposal system may be formed as a drain, and performing additional cleaning discharge water priming
Strengths and weaknesses of the system
Septic Tank "Tapas" are used in the territory of Russia and abroad for more than two decades. During this time, buyers fully appreciated the merits of septic Tapas and revealed its shortcomings.
Judging by the fact that the demand for a septic tank is not reduced, an autonomous sewer system of this brand can be considered reliable enough.
Through the scheme of biochemical and septic Topas multistage purification process up to 98-99% of organic impurities, i.e. It provides almost complete neutralization.
Installation of the device is relatively simple, it does not require complicated preparatory work, such as filling concrete, etc. No need to regularly call a car vacuum trucks, as the owners are forced to make cesspools.
The main part of the septic tank "Tapas" is located deep underground, just outside the visible cover, so the presence of such an autonomous sewer will not spoil the landscape
Of course, airlift, compressors and other components require constant access to the power supply. However, the cost of electricity for such a septic tank is relatively small, as well as general operating costs for its maintenance.
Water was also obtained as a result of the septic tank may be used for irrigation and yl which accumulates in the tank - as a fertilizer for the soil at the site, which is somewhat reduces the costs it improvement.
Septic tank - a closed system, so no odors home residents will not be disturbed. It is completely absent and unpleasant noise, since the device is in the ground, and its constituent components and mechanisms operate very quietly.
Such a septic tank, you can use almost any type of soil. As with almost any autonomous sewer system, septic tank, "Tapas" is under the ground, ie, without prejudice to the landscape area.
In case of incorrect installation or operation of the septic tank "Tapas" can cause serious damage, for the removal of which will have to call an experienced master
In severe measures on warming does not require such a device, except in areas with very harsh climate. Microorganisms in process waste produce a certain amount of heat energy, which does not allow freeze container.
The manufacturer assures that with proper installation and operation of septic tank "Tapas" will last about 50 years.
its dependence on electricity is most often mentioned among the devices drawbacks. When power outages occur frequently and for a long time, it makes sense to take care of an additional power supply.
Another "minus" - a relatively high price, if you wish, you can find a septic tank and cheaply. But the positive performance and reliability of the device is fully justified expenses.
The feedback is sometimes heard complaints about the incorrect functioning of septic tanks "Tapas" or even breakage. In practice it turns out that in the event of problems there is a fault the owners themselves: either the device has been properly installed and running, or have not been complied with its rules of operation.
installation and assembly rules
that to install a septic tank "Tapas", Especially its compact models, not necessarily invite a specialist. This can be done even without the help of special equipment, although its absence will make the work more difficult and time-consuming. To begin, you will need to dig a pit of suitable size and configuration.
For "Tapas-5" will do well with a size of about 1,8H1,8H2,4 m. For larger devices need large pit. Between the walls of the septic tank and the soil should remain free space of about 200 mm.
Step 1: Septik according Topas select family water consumption, gain and order delivery
Step 2: In dug or excavated trench manually set housing sewage station
Step 3: To a septic tank summing the trench intended for the sewer pipe to the calculated cut depth holes and welds the plastic tubes to input pipe
Step 4: Enter the sewer pipe station sandwiched from home or baths, derive from the station pipe to the cleaning object
Step 5: The septic tank disposed in the housing box installed and connected compressors needed to inject oxygen into the
Step 6: Connecting septic Topas to power lines. If the system is in need of stimulation of waste movement, the pump is installed in a box dedicated to him
Step 7: Check the horizontal installation level. If you need to align, by the bedding under the bottom of the rubble
Step 8: Verifies systems. Making sure we fill the trench and pit sand, occasionally ramming filling
Transport to the cottage septic tank
Installation design into the pit
Cutting and installation of fittings for pipes
Input and output pipe
Connecting to the power station
Filling the pit with sand
At the bottom of the pit is constructed of sand bags, compacted layer of 100-150 mm will be enough. Is then lowered down and set septic tank. The unit must be perfectly flat, to check its position, using conventional building level.
Thereafter the device is fed sewage pipe and connecting it at the level of its cut opening as perimeter, as inlet constructively is not provided due to the difference in the depth of connectivity on different areas.
The pipe is welded using the existing equipment in the welding rod.
Pit for the septic tank "Tapas" must be large enough. That ground is not showered, the walls of the pit set wooden formwork
Then, the cleaning object connected power supply. The cable is protected by a corrugated tube and laid in the same trench as the sewage pipe. Subsequently, to the outlet fitting connected pipe segment connecting the selected hosts septic aftertreatment system.
In submerged in the pit, and if necessary leveled capacity installed technical stuffing: pump, if it is available in a complete set, compressor.
To remove the methane which is formed during biological waste processing, it is necessary to install at least one vent standpipe. A suitable place for its location - out of the house sewer.
Ventilation can be arranged at the outlet of the septic tank, but it is better to use both in combination.
Stacking septic around the neck of the upper layer of 20 cm fertile flower provide the opportunity to arrange
Green sunroof sewage station is almost invisible against the background lawn tonsure
Neck cover sewage station can hide seedling perimeter shrubs
If you do not want to mask around the hatch can make a small platform with a track. The main thing is to arm the machine assenizatorkoy "get" to the pumping space
Apparatus around septic flowerbed
Cover the station on the background of the lawn
Luc in the garden among the bushes
track pad apparatus with
After all the functional parts and to validate the connection start to carry out the filling of the pit. To balance the external pressure on the soil septic tank wall with backfilling it simultaneously filled with water. The injected water will be gradually replaced as the receipt and processing of waste.
To septic worked fine for a long time, to use it should be in accordance with the rules established by the manufacturer. It is necessary to avoid moving into the sewer system, various inorganic waste, such as plastic, polyethylene, construction waste, etc.
Proper installation of a septic tank "Tapas" is extremely important for the future success of the independent water drain of this type. Violation of the instructions may cause destruction of the device capacity
Such substances are not amenable to bacterial processing, therefore, at best, they simply settle in the septic tank, reducing its storage capacity and performance. In the worst case, the presence of inorganic contaminants may cause damage to the septic tank or equipment failure.
A detailed review of the common septic tank failures "Tapas" and their solutions discussed in this article.
Not recommended into drains substances that contain antibiotics and compounds or chlorine manganese, as thus creating a hostile to bacterial culture medium may simply perish.
If the number of bacteria in the septic tank markedly reduced, recycling will slow, unpleasant odor appears in the septic tank.
For the same reasons, are not allowed to use a septic tank for recycling of large amounts of alcohol-containing fluids, industrial oils, antifreeze, acid or high alkali concentrations, e.g., household cleaners.
You should not empty into drains wool. Although it is an organic substance, it can not be processed quickly enough in the septic tank, but it can cause clogging of the device.
Routine deletion accumulated on the bottom of the septic tank "Topas" neutral sludge - an important part of the service device providing trouble-free operation
Problems can also arise as a result of a power outage. If the septic tank does not work, and waste continue to come, it will cause an overflow capacity, will result in a flow of crude into the soil mass.
In short blackouts recommended possible to reduce the amount of waste water flowing into the sewage system. In the event of prolonged outages should provide an alternative source of electrical energy.
regular maintenance maintenance of septic tank It helps to notice the problem and prevent possible problems. The purity of the resulting water purification should occasionally check.
If the amount of impurities increases, should be to find the cause and fix it: adjust operation of a septic tank, to update the composition of the bacterial cultures, etc.
About three or four times a year to be pumped from the tank the accumulated mud with a special hose and clean the container in which the collected waste is not recycled. Every two years, the membrane must be replaced with new compressors that these mechanisms work properly.
But filters need to be replaced every month, they quickly become soiled. Aerator replace rarely - once every 12 years, but do not neglect this measure.
If the septic tank will not be used in the winter, it must be right to preserve.
It should be understood that this is not the heating system, the total fluid pumped from septic detrimental impact on populated into the device bacteria. Before conservation device purified and leave it partially filled with water.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Process works and installation of septic tank "Tapas" is available is described in the following materials:
How to install a septic tank "Tapas" is shown in detail here:
This video shows the procedure for cleaning and maintenance of septic tanks of this type:
Septic Tank "Tapas" - reliable and useful devices. They are diverse and functional features, and at a price that allows you to choose the right version of the septic tank for any site.
It is very important not only to choose a septic tank for your home or garden, but also to carry out its competent installation and regular maintenance. In this case, the device will work properly for a long time.
You have set the country compact septic tank of the family "Tapas"? Tell me you are engaged in assembling or cause the master? How often do you do it and whether cleaning in general satisfied with the system? Leave your comments and upload photos of your septic tank in the block under this article - your comment will be useful to many villas owners.