- How does a septic tank work?
- Choosing a septic tank
- Volume and productivity
- Material septic tank
- Septic tank and soil type
- Manufacturers of septic tanks for giving
All owners of cottages, cottages and country houses are well aware of the problem of wastewater disposal. If the house does not have a connection to the central sewer system, then an autonomous sewage device is needed. Previously, cesspools were built for this, which required regular cleaning, and in themselves they are not a reliable and safe construction. Now, it is much easier to solve the problem of sewage in the country, because septic tanks can be used, but when choosing them, a lot of factors must be taken into account.
How does a septic tank work?
To know what kind of septic tank is needed to give, you need to imagine the principle of operation of this device.
Septic is a special design for wastewater treatment. It consists of several cameras, each of which performs its function. According to the principle of sewage treatment, septic tanks are divided into anaerobic and aerobic, but there is also accumulative.
The sewage pipes run into the first chamber of the septic tank, where the primary cleaning is carried out: filtration and sedimentation. Clarified waters without large inclusions pass into the next chamber, where bacterial purification occurs, and from there they can be directed to filtration fields: through the opening, purified water enters the soil, where it is being cleaned, or even reused for technical purposes( in the case of aerobic treatment).
If is used anaerobic bacteria , then air is unnecessary for their vital activity and normal cleaning. They recycle wastewater, eventually forming gas and mineral sediment: the gas is discharged to the outside with the help of special pipes, and the sludge is deposited. By the way, if a lot of sewage comes into such a septic tank, it may be justified to install special equipment that will collect the outgoing biogas for further use. Almost purified water is directed to the next chamber, where anaerobic bacteria clean it, and from there almost pure drains are directed to the filtration fields.
The principle of operation of the anaerobic septic tank
When cleaning, you can use aerobic bacteria , and then the efficiency rises to 98%, but for their normal vital activity, during which decomposition of organic matter occurs in drains, oxygen is needed. It is served with the help of compressor units, which are automatically turned on after a certain period of time, and for their work they need electricity.
The principle of operation of the aerobic septic tank
Accumulative septic tank - the simplest structure, which consists, as a rule, of one chamber. It is tight enough to accumulate sewage, which then needs to be pumped out, and for this use a cesspool machine and the services of professionals. In some septic tanks of this type, capacitance filling sensors are provided. This option is preferable for those who are very rare in the country, and arranging a more technologically advanced cleaning does not make sense or is impossible at all for other reasons.
Accumulative septic tank
Now there are two main ways to equip your summer cottage with a septic tank: this is the purchase of a finished structure or its independent construction. The first option is simpler and faster, because you only need to dig a pit and connect the sewer pipes to the finished structure. Moreover, all dirty construction processes are absent, and installation can be carried out even independently.
Choosing a septic tank
At the moment, the choice of septic tanks is so wide that it is easy to get confused even by quite an experienced person. To buy a septic tank for giving cheap, and at the same time to get a quality construction, you need to take into account a lot of parameters: performance, soil type, climate, etc.
Volume and Performance
The volume of the septic tank depends on the number of people staying at the cottage. Thus, it has been established that per person has a standard rate of wastewater generation per day. is 200 liters. This value must be multiplied by the number of residents in the country, and it turns out the daily volume of waste formation. But at the same time, the SNiPs require that the volume of septic tanks could contain at least three-day amount of wastewater, so the resulting value is multiplied by 3. The value of the required volume is obtained in liters, but in stores this parameter is specified in m³.It is easy to translate one into another; it suffices to remember that 1 m³ = 1000 l.
The choice of the design of the septic tank depends on how much wastewater is produced at the cottage per day. If this value does not exceed 1000 l, then you can safely purchase a single-chamber septic tank, if 1-10 m³ of wastewater is generated, then it is better to use a two-chamber structure that will most certainly cope with such a load. With an even greater amount of waste formation choose the most productive three-chamber model. If the family plans to come to the country only periodically, then a single-chamber septic tank will do, and even an accumulation facility would be quite appropriate.
Material Septic Tank
Septic tanks can be made of plastic, metal or concrete, each material having its own advantages and more preferable in certain conditions.
Plastic septic tanks
These are lightweight, durable, reliable and durable devices. They can serve for decades, and at the same time their installation is quite simple and does not require the use of special equipment. But the ease of a plastic septic tank can be considered not only an advantage, but also a disadvantage, since it can simply float to the surface. That is why such containers during the installation process concreted or fixed with special straps.
Concrete septic tanks
Reliable simple designs that are not afraid of corrosion. Such septic tanks are rather durable, but differ in big weight, and establish them in several ways. One of them involves the installation of special concrete rings, and without special equipment here just can not do. The second method involves the step-by-step pouring of concrete into pre-prepared formwork.
Metal septic tanks
These facilities are characterized by advantages such as low weight and ease of installation, which, together with the affordable price, makes metal septic tanks one of the most popular among summer residents. Against such structures, only their high susceptibility to corrosion speaks, therefore durable metal septic tanks can be called only with a big stretch.
Septic tank and soil type
When choosing a septic tank, it is necessary to take into account such factors as soil type, because it depends on it which type of cleaning will be more acceptable. Thus, on sandy soils can be equipped with efficient filtration fields, which makes it possible to use cheaper anaerobic septic tanks in such conditions.
On clay soils it is better to use septic tanks with biological or even biochemical purification, since natural filtration under these conditions is practically impossible: clay absorbs water very slowly. Alternative - organization of a sand filter and installation of additional equipment for the discharge of purified water.
If the groundwater in the area is very high , then you should take care of the maximum tightness of the septic tank, so that untreated drains do not contaminate the soil, and that the groundwater does not destroy the structure. In this case, the best option is a plastic septic tank, and filtration fields in such conditions cannot be used, therefore it is better to use bio-cleaning.
Ideally, before beginning the installation of a septic tank, conduct an study of soils in the area, which will make it possible to clearly determine the required depth of the septic tank, diameter and slope of the pipes so that the drains quickly and correctly flow into the septic tank.
When choosing a septic tank with a biofilter, it is worth remembering that prolonged downtime in his work, which is associated with the absence of people in the country and sewage, respectively, can negatively affect microorganisms. They will not be able to live without a nutrient medium, which comes to them with wastewater, and will gradually die. That is why it is better to use such aerobic cleaning systems, if at the dacha someone stays regularly.
is also affected by climatic conditions in the region. Concrete construction is best suited for the northern cold regions, since among all the materials it is most resistant to temperature extremes.
For a small family, who comes to the country from time to time, an anaerobic septic tank is ideal, whose maintenance activities will be minimal: sometimes to clean it from sludge, which is the result of bacteria, and to warm it periodically.
Deep cleaning stations are more efficient, but also expensive to operate. They are suitable for a large family, regularly visiting the country, or will be an excellent option for several suburban areas.
Manufacturers of septic tanks for giving
Experts advise to stop septic tanks only from those manufacturers that have already proven themselves in the market. To date, a large number of companies offer their facilities, but such septic tanks are deservedly trusted and very popular:
- Tank are domestic septic tanks that are noted for their low price, high degree of purification, ease of installation and autonomy to work. Septic tanks are made of plastic, whose thickness varies from 10 to 17 mm, depending on the modification. All manufacturer's septic tanks are equipped with additional stiffening ribs, which makes them even more durable and reliable;
- "Topas" - septic tanks that many summer residents like due to the absence of the need to buy additional drugs to speed up the process of sewage disintegration, as well as due to the relative ease of operation and low frequency of sludge cleaning;
- "Yunilos" - septic tanks with different performance, but all of them are easy to care for: once a year you just need to scoop out the accumulated solid sediment. The rate of sewage treatment here is very high, due to the use of aerobic bacteria and the need to supply electricity;
- "Tver" is a reliable septic tank that requires special attention during the installation process, since its incorrect operation is often associated with errors in the arrangement. That is why it is better to entrust the most important and important parts of the work to professionals;
- "Bars" - septic tanks, which are characterized by a wide selection, reasonable price, high quality and reliability in operation;
- "Topol" - one of the least problematic septic tanks with an excellent price / quality ratio.
The equipment designed for the autonomous treatment of sewage water in the country is very diverse, and in order to choose the right septic tank it is necessary to take into account a lot of factors. You need to familiarize yourself with the main types of septic tanks and the principle of their work, weigh the conditions in which the structure will be operated, consider the type of soil and climate, the number of people who are in the country, the duration of these visits, evaluate your budget, and only then make a decision.