- №1.The main advantages and disadvantages of
- №2.LED lamps to destination
- №3.LED lights for functionality
- №4.LED lights on the color of radiation
- №5.Protection class LED lamp
- №6.Power and light output
- №7.What else to consider when choosing?
- №8.Manufacturers of LED lights
- At the end of
, the Civilized countries are actively and universally introducing energy-saving technologies, without neglecting the issue of street lighting. In 2012, Austria and Germany have completely abandoned sodium lamps in favor of LED lights. On domestic spaces, they also actively squeeze sodium and even halogen lamps, because with experience of use comes an understanding that they are in fact the most economical, despite the initially high price. Due to the fact that it is a relatively new type of lighting for our country, not everyone clearly understands how to choose an outdoor LED luminaire, and what properties it must have in order to be used to illuminate a country plot, a reservoir, public facilities, squares or a highway. We reveal the most important secrets of the right choice.
№1.The main advantages and disadvantages of
Let's begin with a few words about the principle of how works with street LED lamps. In fact, these are independent devices whose casing is unique and is usually designed for a specific LED light source. Any such luminaire consists of a base, a metal body with vertical fins for efficient heat removal, a board with LEDs, a translucent hemisphere, and a power converter, which is also called an electronic driver. The body is covered with protective paint. The basis of the operation is the principle of radiation of light waves, which occurs as a result of an electrical pulse. Similarly designed luminaires are highly energy efficient. It is advisable to place street lamps at a height of 4-11 meters above ground level.
Benefits of the :
- low power consumption;
- high durability. On average, a lamp of this kind is designed for at least 50,000 hours of work;
- unlimited power on and off;
- structural strength and high level of protection from external negative environmental conditions, due to the characteristics of the hull structure;
- large operating temperature range( -40. .. + 450C), which allows the use of LED lamps in all climatic conditions;
- comfort glow, because the lighting turns out to be contrast, does not flicker, the devices themselves turn on and work silently, and the color quality is excellent, which is especially important for track lighting;
- lack of heat and the ability to adjust the brightness of the light;
- no harmful effects on the environment, because such lamps do not contain mercury and other toxic substances, so special conditions for their disposal will not be required;
- ease of installation.
- high price, which also discourages the purchase of LED lamps. It is worth making the minimum calculations in order to understand that in 2-3 years such an acquisition will fully pay off, and the remaining 15-20 years of operation will allow you to save significant funds on payments for electricity;
- sensitivity to high temperatures, so they can not be used in baths, saunas and near heat sources;
- over time, you can observe a decrease in the brightness of the light, but this directly depends on the quality of the heat sink, so it is better to trust only products from trusted manufacturers.
Not so long ago, some people complained about a white light that was not very comfortable for the eyes, but today almost all manufacturers produce LEDs, the light of which is fully adapted to our eye sight. You can again advise to pay attention only to the products of proven companies, but let's talk about the largest manufacturers further.
№2.LED lamps to destination
Since the requirements for lighting of different types of sites are different, manufacturers offer us LED lamps for various purposes:
- lighting .Designed to illuminate open areas, sidewalks, roads, yard areas;
- architectural .Used for decorative illumination of facades of buildings, monuments and other objects on which attention needs to be focused;
- landscape .They are used to illuminate trees and parkland, are widely used in suburban areas.
№3.LED lamps by
functionality The principle of operation of the LED lamp described above is typical for typical spotlights and lanterns, but LEDs can also be used as decorative lighting in duralite, dyuraflex and grids. Therefore, it is customary to divide LED lamps into such groups depending on the functionality:
- searchlights are used to illuminate more or less large areas. Large searchlights illuminate roads, sports complexes, facades of buildings, more miniature lamps of this type are used in country and suburban areas to illuminate the territory and garden paths;
- lights give a diffused light, used to illuminate sidewalks, garden plots, squares and other areas;
- duralight is a transparent tube with many LEDs inside, the distance between which is 1.5-27.5 mm. Used for decorative contour lighting of buildings, as well as in landscape design for decorating trees. Some lamps of this type can give a constant luminescence, others - dynamic;
- Duraflex is highly resistant to moisture and highly flexible, so they can even decorate the areas around the pool and other water bodies;
- The range has the form of a flexible plastic tape on which LEDs are mounted in a vertical position. Used for the decoration of buildings, sometimes - in advertising signs;
- The grid is a network with LEDs attached to its nodes. It is stretched between the supports, thus decorating the facades of buildings.
№4.LED lights by the color of the radiation
LED street lights can emit light of different colors, but the most popular is the white color, which is the most difficult to get. Today, there are several of the most common technologies to achieve white light:
- technology RGB involves the use of blue, green and red LEDs in the substrate. For each select the value of the transmitted current to the total radiation had the necessary color. The radiation is mixed using an optical system. Plus technology - the power of the light ceiling, minus - the property of light over time, "swim."With this technology it is easy to get light of almost any shade and even dynamic lighting;
- technology of mixing the radiation of three phosphors( red, blue and green), which are excited by the action of ultraviolet radiation from the LED on them. These lamps are cheaper than others, but relatively quickly fail;
- technology of application to the blue LED of the yellow phosphor .
№5.Protection class of the LED luminaire
The housing of the LED luminaire is usually quite strong and resistant to negative environmental influences, but still the level of protection may be different and must be selected based on the intended operating conditions. Each luminaire is characterized by a specific class, which is given on the basis of the standard of protection of electrical equipment from the effects of external factors IEC-952 .The marking looks like this: IP68, where the first digit( from 0 to 6) means resistance to the ingress of solid particles, and the second( from 0 to 8) - to the ingress of moisture droplets. All data in the table below.
Studying the table, we conclude that it is better to choose the luminaire of protection class IP 64 for installation in the garden plot, and for lighting the area around the pool it is better to choose - IP66.
№6.Power and luminous flux
Different areas require different levels of illumination. When planning the lighting system for particularly important areas( highways, stadiums, etc.), serious work is carried out to calculate the required luminous flux, the number of luminaires and their luminous efficiency. The illumination of the surface of the is measured in lux( lux) with a special device - lux meter. For example, a full moon in clear weather gives an illumination of 0.2 lx, and 300 lx is enough to perform painstaking jewelry works. To understand what level of illumination is needed in each particular case, you can follow the SNIP 23-05-2010 "Natural and artificial lighting", which spelled out the requirements for different objects. For example, for pedestrian streets it is 6 lux, playgrounds - 10 lux, and for economic platforms - 2 lux. Accordingly, street LED lighting should provide a predetermined level, but it is better to immediately take the lamps with a margin, as the light flux decreases with time.
The concept of illumination is closely related to the value of the luminous flux, , expressed in lumens( lm).This is the amount of light power that the light source emits. The higher the luminous flux, the higher the level of illumination of the territory - these values are proportionally dependent. Illumination on an object of 1 m2 in area when a luminous flux of 1 lm falls on it will be 1 lx. When away from a light source, the illumination level decreases inversely proportional to the square of the distance: if at a distance of 1 m from the lamp the illumination is 900 lux, then at a distance of 2 m the illumination will decrease by 4 times, and at a distance of 3 meters - by 9 times.
In order for to calculate the required amount of luminous flux, the does not use the simplest calculations, which use data on the required level of surface illumination, illuminated area, distance from the luminaire to the surface, and take into account the angle of radiation of the luminous flux. It is much easier to use special calculators for such calculations.
The characteristics of each luminaire indicate not only the luminous flux in lm, but also , the luminous efficacy of the , which is the ratio of the emitted light to 1 W of power. LED lamps consume electricity much more economically than all their counterparts. To achieve a luminous flux of 7400 lm, for example, a LED lamp must have a power of 85 W, and the most economical sodium lamp - 185 W.
As for the luminous efficiency, expressed in lm / W, the larger the indicator, the more economical the luminaire. The indicator usually ranges from 80 to 100 lm / W.
№7.What else to consider when choosing?
When choosing an outdoor LED luminaire, also pay attention to the following parameters:
- service life .Manufacturers usually specify a period from 50 to 100 thousand hours, but the exact value strongly depends on the temperature inside the case. The higher it is, the less the luminaire will last, so you should pay attention to the efficiency of heat removal. Even if the lamp will last for at least 50,000 hours and will be switched on only at night( on average, 10 hours per day), then it will be enough for almost 14 years of work;
- color temperature, as a rule, ranges from 3000 to 6000K and is selected depending on your own requirements and preferences;
- color rendition index for street lamps is not important, but if you want to cover particularly important objects, where it is extremely important to keep all colors exactly, then choose a lamp with a color rendition index greater than 90. All modern LED lamps have a value of this parameter at a level above 80;
- the possibility of dimming .If you plan to adjust the brightness of street lighting, then pay attention so that the lamp driver can understand and execute dimmer commands;
- operating temperature range .In this case, the most interesting is the parameter of the minimum temperature, which cannot be lower than -400С, but some manufacturers indicate -55 and even -600С, misleading the buyer. By the way, this is a good marker of the integrity and honesty of the company;
- integrated sensors of illumination, movement and noise can significantly save energy and turn on the lighting only in cases where it is really necessary.
№8.Manufacturers of LED lamps
The number of manufacturers of LEDs and ready-made LED lamps increases in direct proportion to the growing popularity of technology. To ensure quality products, it’s better to give preference to the products of large companies. If the seller or manufacturer reluctantly reveals the detailed characteristics of the LED, then there is no guarantee that after a couple of months of operation the light flux will not decrease by 50% and the color temperature will not shift. Today you can trust some well-known foreign brands, as well as several domestic companies:
- Osram Opto Semiconductors , a German company with more than 40 years of experience, manufactures LEDs, semiconductor lasers, detectors and other products that are developed internally. This is a true innovation leader, and products have become the benchmark for quality;
- CREE - an American company, which is considered to be the world market leader in innovative solutions and LED production;
- Nichia is a Japanese company that owns large-scale discoveries that are used today in the production of LEDs everywhere. All LEDs of the company have increased resistance to electrostatic breakdown( up to 1000 V), for the manufacture of LEDs are used crystals of their own production;
- Seoul Semiconductors is a South Korean company with manufacturing facilities located in different countries of the world. Carries out a full production cycle: from growing crystals to manufacturing LED lights. The quality is high, the price is lower than that of European and American counterparts;
- Philips-Lumileds is one of the world's leading manufacturers of LEDs. Produces products under the brand LUXEON, LEDs differ in small size, long service life, efficiency and a host of other advantages;
- Samsung LED is a Korean company that offers LEDs and ready-made LED lamps for street lighting. Products have a good price-quality ratio;
- LLC "Vsesvetodiody" - one of the largest domestic manufacturers of LED products. By quality, it is not inferior to foreign counterparts, and at a price much more affordable. The company is engaged in the development, production and sale of LED lamps, has 4 factories in different regions of Russia, sells throughout the country. There is a mass of ready-made LED street lamps in the assortment, most of which are equipped with Osram LEDs;
- LLC Ledel is another large domestic company operating since 2007.Today, its range includes a large selection of LED lamps for any application, includingFor street lighting, Osram LEDs are used.
When purchasing, it does not interfere with requiring manufacturer's documentation for the luminaire, but pay special attention to the technical characteristics of the LEDs. Experienced people advise not to be stingy and take a lux meter and a multimeter to the store to immediately check the stated qualities of the lamp.