- 1. Principle of operation and advantages of the drip irrigation system
- 2. The simplest drip irrigation scheme of plastic bottles: 4 possible options
3. Installation of the system 4. Self-made system of medical droppers 5. Basic tips on the operation of the
- Positioning the lid up or down
- Radical irrigation using plastic bottles of
- Suspended drip irrigation system
drip irrigation system Experienced gardeners know how important an org isAnimate a competent irrigation system at your site. Most of them come to the unanimous opinion that drip irrigation is most suitable for vegetable crops, grapes and ornamental plants. The summer residents are special, creative, resourceful and inventive people. Practically from nothing, they can do very useful things for the household. And the drip irrigation system is no exception. After analyzing the many recommendations of experts, in this article we collected 5 the most useful tips on how to make drip watering with your own hands.
1. Principle of operation and advantages of the drip irrigation system
The drip irrigation system can be used to moisten the soil both in greenhouses and in open areas. The principle of its operation is very simple - cleaning filters and drainage pipes are connected to the water source, which are placed along the entire length of the beds, and through special openings along the entire length of the hose, water evenly flows to the plant roots. The water source can be a central water supply system, a well or a well, which are equipped with a pump, a storage tank, or a reservoir that is located near your site. Water from the storage tank can be supplied by gravity, under the action of gravity and pressure, and can be forced to flow through the pump. The system will work in both cases. The difference will be felt only in the water consumption and the duration of irrigation. For example, when using special drip tape , which has a certain rate of water consumption per hour, you must ensure the minimum working pressure. Only with this provided water consumption will correspond to the stated technical specifications.
When water is supplied by gravity, the consumption will be less. This is necessary to know in order not to make one of the most common errors . is a lot of people who, for the first time, take up the system with their own hands. If you realize that you can not provide the necessary pressure or the use of a pump on your site is not possible from a technical point of view, in no case do not think that the irrigation time will be the same as if the requirements are met. To moisten the soil to the required depth you may need half a day, but the plants will receive water all the time.
With drip irrigation, crops are not threatened with sunburn, even at lunchtime, because their stems and leaves remain completely dry. Watering can begin in the early morning and end in the late afternoon without the slightest harm to plants. And if the system is additionally equipped with an timer, with a pair of sensors( for example, a rain sensor and a soil moisture sensor), then your presence at the site is not at all necessary. The timer will either turn the water on and off at a specified time, or do it as needed. This will be signaled by humidity sensors. And if it suddenly rains during watering, the system will react and turn off the water supply.
An important condition for for normal system operation is the use of cleaning filters. Technical water has a lot of impurities and small debris that quickly clog the holes. In this case, the hoses will have to be cleaned very often. Than still good drip irrigation:
- Due to the fact that water gets as close as possible to the roots, the evaporation coefficient is almost absent;
- Economical water consumption;
- Uniform watering;
- Ability to adjust the intensity of irrigation for each group of plants individually;
- Save your personal time and energy;
- Free access of oxygen to rhizomes;
- No heavy air-tight crust on the ground;
- Costs associated with the purchase of polyethylene pipes, drip hoses and all kinds of connecting elements will pay off very quickly, because the service life of such a system reaches 10 years;
- In the cold season, the system is easy to dismantle;
- Thanks to the flexibility of the hoses, they fold up compactly and take up little space during storage;
- Watering with cold water is stressful for plants, which can slow their growth. This often happens when watering a hose directly from a water source. With drip irrigation, water manages to warm up to ambient temperature while inside the hose. Such conditions are most favorable for plants, and the coefficient of moisture absorption increases;
- Due to the fact that regular moisture will only get the soil under the plants, you will soon notice that the number of weeds in the area will decrease.
Not surprisingly, this irrigation system is used almost everywhere, especially if you come to the cottage only on weekends. Next, we will consider the methods of organizing drip irrigation with their own hands, ranging from the elementary scheme to the installation of an automated line.
2. The simplest scheme of drip irrigation from plastic bottles: 4 possible options
If you have accumulated a large number of plastic bottles or canisters, do not rush to get rid of them. In addition to various decorative items that many make to decorate their summer cottage, one can make a full-fledged watering system out of them. Thus, you can provide high-quality soil moisture for 2-4 days. From the observations of many gardeners, we derived a small statistic, , which states that a 1 liter bottle can irrigate tomatoes and cucumbers for 4-5 days, 3-liter for 10 days, and 6-liter for 2 weeks.
Water consumption depends on the type of soil on which you grow your crop. The number of required holes, which will ensure sufficient watering, but at the same time avoid underfilling and overflows, depends on this. For example, sandy soils absorb moisture well and one hole in the bottom of the bottle is enough for them, while heavy clay soils need more of them.
The optimal is to use a plastic system in small areas. In large areas, you will spend too much time and effort refilling bottles with water. Also, such a system is effectively used for fertilizer and feeding of various crops. However, you should use only water-soluble additives that do not have solid particles, so as not to clog the holes.
Consider all the advantages of the and the disadvantages of such a system:
- Considerably less water consumption compared to manual irrigation with a hose or a watering can;
- Continuous operation of a system that does not require your participation;
- Minimum costs for organization;
- Possibility of an individual approach to each plant;
- Easy installation and maintenance;
- Targeted moisture.
Now about the disadvantages:
- Due to the elementary design, from a technical point of view, frequent clogging of the system is possible. This is due to the fact that it is impossible to install filters in bottles. Seasoned gardeners were able to find the same basic solution to this problem - ladies nylon pantyhose. Even with the entry of nylon particles into the ground, it does not cause rotting, but it has excellent throughput.
- It will be difficult to talk about the aesthetic pleasure that many people experience when looking at their well-kept plot with young shoots. Indeed, in this case, the whole garden will be "decorated" with plastic bottles;
- A limited supply of water that you need to constantly replenish yourself;
- On very hot days, you still need additional watering.
We can not say that the shortcomings are too critical, so consider the manufacturing methods. Plastic bottles can be used to organize four types of irrigation systems, depending on their location. But be careful, all recommendations are focused on the cultivation of vegetable crops, in particular cucumbers and tomatoes.
Tare lid positioning up or down
This is the most versatile arrangement that is suitable for use both in greenhouses and in open space. A greater number of summer residents use this method.
- Take the size of container that suits you. Depart from its bottom 3 cm and pierce several holes with an awl or a gypsy needle. The number of holes is determined by the type of soil. They must be pierced along the bottle before it begins to narrow to the neck. On average, no more than 10 holes are made.
- Near the plant for which the container is intended, it is necessary to make a hole of the appropriate diameter and depth so that only a narrow part of the bottle protrudes above the ground.
- Wrap the bottle with a thin cloth, put it in the hole, then fill it with water and screw on with a cap.
- As the container is emptied, it can become deformed under the pressure of the earth. To avoid this, pierce a small hole in the lid to equalize the pressure and replenish water supplies in a timely manner.
Such a system is drip though, but irrigation is subsurface. This eliminates the need to push the top layer of soil, because it remains dry. At the same time, the plants are faster saturated with moisture, because water gets straight to the rhizomes. The same principle of operation has the irrigation system when placing the bottles with the cap down. Only The order of execution of the is slightly different:
- The bottom of the bottle is completely cut off;
- A cap is screwed onto the neck;
- A small number of holes are made along the entire length of the bottle, not reaching a couple of centimeters to the top;
- The bottle is wrapped with gauze, placed in the hole, filled with water;
- From above, they stretch gauze or a piece of nylon pantyhose to avoid trash entering.
Radical irrigation using plastic bottles
This method is convenient in that you can direct water drops to the right place as accurately as possible. We need;
- Small volume bottles with lids, it is best to use a 1.5 liter container;
- A gas heated nail or thick needle requires a hole in the center of the lid. To protect your hands from burns, hold the nail with pliers;
- First, determine the optimum angle of inclination, and then cut off the bottom of the bottle at the same angle, so that more liquid can fit into it;
- Now you need to fix the bottle with a few sticks and scotch as close as possible to the bush, tilting the neck so that the drops fall directly on the rhizome;
- Fill a bottle with water, see if there is moisture and whether the attachment can withstand the weight of the structure.
A more convenient similar irrigation method will be if you buy in the store special cone-shaped nozzles made of plastic, which are specifically designed for basal watering. You can avoid the need to mount the container at an angle so that it could not be thrown down by a gust of strong wind. To do this, a full bottle of water is instilled into the ground at a shallow depth. Previously, a small diameter hole is made in it, so that can be inserted into a beverage tube.
It is very convenient to use tubules with an inclined end. The hole is located as close as possible to the ground level. The tube is inserted into the hole, the junction can be missed with silicone. The end of the tubule must also be silenced. The liquid will not be fed from it, but from the hole that you will pierce yourself on its bottom. Direct the tubing under the roots and see where it is more convenient to do it. Now fill the bottle with water and tighten the cap. Your system is ready.
Suspension system of drip irrigation
For the small areas of the , a suspension system that is very easy to manufacture will be suitable. To do this, we will need :
- Above the bushes you need to build a support on which water bottles will be suspended in the future. To do this, you can use a wooden beam of appropriate length or metal pins with hooks. Sticking elements of the support into the ground, take care not to damage the roots of the plants;
- Prepare the required number of bottles - one by one between two bushes;
- Cut the bottoms of the bottles;
- Not reaching 1-1.5 cm before cutting, make two holes opposite each other. They will be threaded twine, for which the container will be hung;
- Make one or more holes in the bottom of the bottle above the stopper. Water will seep from these holes.
- Hang the container over the garden bed, fill it with water and see where the drops fall. If necessary, move the bottles slightly to avoid getting water on the leaves.
The recommended height of the system is 30-50 cm above the ground. In the future, you can add a few holes to increase the intensity of water inflow, so do not immediately get too much. If this is more convenient for you, you can make holes in the lid.
3. Do-it-yourself installation of an irrigation system using drip hoses.
If you decide not to save money on creating an irrigation system, then this is the right decision. Made of high quality materials and connecting elements, it will serve you for many years. Remember that the is simpler than the system, the better it will work. Try to use the fewest connectors. At the site of each such connection, the pressure decreases, and particles of small debris accumulate. Let's consider the scheme of a simple arrangement of drip irrigation for a small area and calculate the amount of materials needed:
- Any large-scale work begins with a small working drawing. In this case, he should visually display the location of the water supply, the length and number of beds and the distance between them. When you see all this on paper, you can correctly decide where the trunk pipe will be located, how many branch pipes you need, how many connections are needed for installation and what type of drip tape you need to purchase.
- If you have not yet acquired a water storage tank, now is the time. It is better to give preference to a synthetic material, such as plastic, upon contact with which there is no rust in the water, which, when released into the system, clogs it;
- Next we need to install a water tank at a height of at least 2 meters from the ground. If necessary, immediately install a submersible pump of such power into it so that it can provide uniform pressure along the entire length of the watering line. For normal operation of the simplest system, it is necessary to ensure a minimum pressure of 2 bar. Each meter of height at which you raise the barrel, gives only 0.1 bar.
- Now you need to connect to the tank trunk hose or plastic pipe.
- The main branch should have a larger diameter than branch.
- It must be perpendicular to the beds.
- Its width, respectively, will be equal to the width of the landing strip.
- Slip the hose into the barrel, do it at a height of about 10 cm from its bottom. This is necessary in order to debris that will fall, do not fall into the system.
- A coarse filter must be installed between the tank shut-off valve and the main pipe.
- Now you need to drill holes in the trunk branch to attach drip tapes to it. This should be done at a distance equal to the distance between the beds. Attach the tapes with starter fittings.
- Lay them along the beds so that the hoses are as close as possible to the base of the plants.
- At the end of each tape, place the plugs.
- Now you need to fill the tank with water and check the performance and tightness of the system.
- Open the tap gradually, do not immediately give a large head.
- When the valve is turned all the way down, carefully inspect all connections for leaks. It is also necessary to check whether the water flows evenly from the droppers at the beginning and at the end of each line.
As you can see, there is nothing difficult in organizing a home-made irrigation system - the main thing is to correctly calculate the amount of materials needed.
4. Self-made system of medical droppers
Not less than an effective method of irrigation is the use of ordinary medical droppers. Due to the fact that they are equipped with a special wheel, you can adjust the flow rate for each particular plant. To do this, you do not need to do several watering lines, which in turn can reduce the overall cost of organizing the irrigation system. The principle of operation of the is almost the same as in the paragraph above. Only instead of special drip hoses, we will use ordinary rubber or polyethylene pipes.
- Routing feed pipes throughout the site;
- The layout should be such that you can reach all plants;
- Use tees to connect elements;
- Now connect the entire system to the water source. It can be both an accumulative tank, and the central water supply system;
- At the end of each hose, install the plugs;
- Now, make a hole in the hose opposite each bush.
- The most convenient way is to pierce a rubber with an awl, and plastic - with a self-tapping screw;
- Insert the plastic end of the dropper into each hole;
- Dissolve the dropper tubes under each bush and enjoy the excellent result.
There is an and an easier way for to equip a medical drip irrigation system. In this case, the droppers will be used with the liquid container:
- In the right place, install a support for hanging the dropper. It can serve as an ordinary stick;
- Fill the reservoir with liquid, fix it on the support;
- Medical systems with thick needles or medical hoses with a diameter of 1-2 cm are used as supply hoses;
- Insert the needles diagonally into the main hose and place the ends of the tubes in the right place.
Easier, probably, nowhere. Droppers clog quite rarely, and even if this happens they are very easy to clean. The deficiencies of the include the rapid fouling of the system with algae when exposed to direct sunlight. To avoid this, you can cover the structure with a dark cloth.
5. Basic tips on the operation of the drip irrigation system
In order to extend the life of any system, it is necessary to conduct technical maintenance correctly and in time. To do this:
- Clean the filter from the accumulated debris at intervals once a week. In the future, you can do it less often if you see that there is not enough time to accumulate a lot of sediment between the cleanings.
- Before the first watering it is necessary to rinse the entire system.
- If you want to use fertilizers, you can add them directly to the storage tank. Choose easily soluble compounds. After spending the entire amount of water with fertilizer, the system must be washed with clean water. To remove residual impurities, it is enough to let it work for 10-15 minutes.
- If you want to dismantle the system in the fall, rinse it well and dry it thoroughly.
- After that, gently fold the hoses or tapes, cover them with a cloth, or place them in boxes.
So that small rodents do not spoil the hoses, it is better to keep them in limbo.
Following these recommendations, you can count on the fact that your system will work properly for more than one year.