Tesla coil is a flat helix with a high inherent capacity along with the inductance. The patent for the invention was filed in January 1894.The author, naturally, was Nikola Tesla. Under this name, a transformer is massively known, the principle of operation of the device is based on oscillatory circuits.
The war of currents
Today it reads like a scientific novel, but at the junction of the 19th and 20th centuries, a war of currents really was fought. It all started when the company did not pay a penny to the young Tesla for setting up the work of the generator in Europe. Although the reward was promised solid. Without thinking twice, Tesla leaves his homeland and swims to the USA.On the way the researcher is pursued by failure, in the end the journey ended safely. Take the episode when all the money is lost on the road. Refuse? Not!
Tesla miraculously sneaks onto the ship and is half way under the auspices of the captain of the ship who feeds the traveler in his own dining room. Relationships cooled slightly when the young Tesla was spotted in the center of a fight on the deck, where he handed out from the right and left, thanks to impressive growth( with low weight).As a result, Tesla came ashore and on the first day managed to help the generator with repairing the generator, earning a small reward.
Having letters of recommendation in her arms, Nikola goes to get a job at a company where she works day and night, spending time sleeping on a bench in the laboratory. Edison played a bad joke with a young future vis-à-vis: he promised a solid reward for improvements in the operation of electrical equipment. The complexity was quickly resolved, and the inventor of the thread for the base of the bulb referred to the commercial rally. Tesla had already mentally distributed the promised reward for conducting experiments, and the joke did not provoke a warm spiritual response from the inventor. A young immigrant leaves the company in order to create his own.
At the same time, Tesla nurtures ideas on the subject of a struggle with an amateur joke. While walking with a friend, he suddenly understands how to implement the theory of the rotating Arago field: two phases of alternating current are required. At the time of the 80s of the XIX century, the idea was considered truly revolutionary. In the past, motors, incandescent bulbs( in the process of improvement) and most laboratory experiments were conducted with direct current. So did George Om.
Tesla takes a patent for a two-phase motor and states that complex systems are possible. Ideas interest Westinghouse, a long story about rightness begins. Edison, as usual, did not stint money. There are stories that he took an alternator and tortured animals to death. Allegedly, an electric chair coined by Edison in collaboration with the unknown. Moreover, the first designer accidentally or intentionally made a mistake, so much so that the convict suffered for a long time, on top of it literally exploded, splashing out his internal organs.
The second poor fellow Westinghouse’s lawyers managed to save by replacing the penalty with a life sentence. Salvation did not stop Edison, intending to invent a chair in addition to the table. Tesla tried to demonstrate a response by putting forward a number of arguments:
- Alternating current is easier to transmit over long distances, due to the possibility of using transformers. Increased voltage causes less loss in the active resistance of the wires. Already in the first experiments, we managed to overcome a distance of 30 km( not conducted by Tesla).Edison barely managed to master the mile. The benefit is obvious - it is possible to leave enterprises in place, and energy can be transported from where( where it is produced).Welcome to the construction of the first hydroelectric station in the Niagara Falls earned Tesla.
- Alternating current of high frequency( from 700 Hz) is safe for humans. Tesla personally argued this fact. I passed a high-voltage signal through the body and there wasn’t much going on. He was holding a light bulb, serving as a base, she was burning! In fairness, the high-frequency currents in the industry did not apply. During the construction of the Niagara hydroelectric station laid the parameters that are still used in the United States. Nikola Tesla argued that the high-frequency current is even useful for humans, when choosing specific numbers for the industrial network won 60 Hz. There are disputes on the Internet about why the indicator has become the standard in the United States. Probably the answer lies in the features of the equipment, machine tools. When using an asynchronous motor, the speed of rotation of the shaft slightly lags behind the field, it turns out 3000 revolutions per minute, which is in the area of typical numbers. The frequency of 700 Hz, safe for humans, would have to be lowered, which is inconvenient.
- The fact that the operation of the equipment required several phases, played into the hands of: power is evenly distributed along the lines. Moreover, the generator in the natural mode supports the method. Unlike those using static electricity.
The enterprising American dealers even issued playing cards, where the mentioned war of currents featured. For example, on the image of the joker there is a famous Vordenklif tower, science-fiction writers, directors of a similar kind of motion pictures, were oriented on the building. Historical facts clarify how tense the struggle turned out to be - the reason for the brilliance of the inventive genius. The Tesla coil twisted from 50 turns of the thick cable was structurally part of the Vordenklyf tower. ..
Tesla coil design
Nikola Tesla noticed a curious fact: the inductance's own capacitance is proportional to the square of the potential difference between adjacent turns. The fact is not taught in the classical course of physics, the effect is considered parasitic, and the forces are aimed at fighting the aforesaid. Tesla decided: if the parasitic capacitance of the inductor can be raised to a considerable size, as opposed to the usual micro or nano-faradas, the oscillating circuit will be released. The main thing is that the parasitic capacitance will begin to store the current, the direction of the discharge of the current back arising when the power is turned off by the back-EMF.
This is an amazing opportunity, in particular way putting coils of copper wire, save on capacitor blocks. If the readers in the subject, then heard about the phase correctors to reduce the cost of electricity. This capacitor blocks, compensating for the inductive resistance of the consumer. Especially important for transformers and motors. Excess expenditure shows only the reactive power counter. This is imaginary energy, not performing useful work at the consumer. Circulating to and fro, heats up the active resistances of the conductors. In the area where the accounting of total power is conducted( for example, enterprises), this significantly increases the bill for payment to electricity suppliers.
Now it is easy to understand how Tesla's invention was planned to be used in industry. The inventor in US 512340 gives two similar coil designs:
- The first drawing shows a flat spiral. One output of the Tesla coil is on the periphery, the second is taken from the middle. The design is easy to operate. When the potential difference between the pins is 100 V and the number of turns per thousand, on average, between adjacent points of the helix falls 0.1 V. To calculate the number, divide 100 by 1000. The intrinsic capacity is proportional to 0.1 square and will not be too large.
- Then Tesla offers a look at the second drawing, where the bifilar coil is represented. It is a flat spiral, but two wires wind alongside. Moreover, the ends of the second circuit are shorted and connected to the output of the first. It turns out that an alternative thread along the length reveals the same potential. If we imagine that 100 V is applied to the structure, the result will change. Indeed, now there are wires of two different threads nearby, and on the only one along the length - only zero. As a result, on average, the potential difference is 50 V, and the Tesla coil's own capacity is larger than the previous circuit, 250,000 times. This is a significant difference, and it is obviously possible to find advantageous network parameters. For example, Tesla worked at frequencies of 200-300 kHz.
The inventor indicates that he has tried various shapes and configurations. In terms of utility, the square does not differ from the circle or rectangle shown in the figures. The form is free to choose the designer. Tesla coils do not find mass use today. The inventor protested entrepreneurs. The conversation between businessmen and Edison is unknown, but, listed as shareholders of the new hydropower plant, the magnates heard that the Vordenklifa tower, built in a convenient place, could become the first bird in transmitting energy to distances without wires.
The construction sponsor was the owner of copper plants and just wanted to sell the metal. The wireless transmission method is unprofitable. If J.P. Morgan knew that today most of the cables are made of aluminum, perhaps they would have reacted differently, but it turned out that Nikola Tesla was finishing the tower in proud solitude, and the design did not accept the intended scope.
According to the second version, Nikola Tesla decided to create energy from the air, which is what they are talking about on YouTube. Some inventor argues that the ether energy is drawn into the core of the magnet, at an equal distance from the poles, and it is required to be able to convert it into electricity. The idea of Tesla is summarized. The self-taught master, who dared to present a 13 kW free energy generator at the exhibition, disappeared in an unknown direction along with his family. Such facts suggest that Wardenklif's tower turned out to have many more opponents than is commonly thought.
According to Tesla, 30 factories in the world were foreseen. They would produce and receive energy, broadcast widely. Apparently, it was considered that this would be a collapse of the local economy, although Bedini’s engines are still being built using Tesal theories. So, the coils were the basis of the transmitting and receiving devices: the design is identical. But today, these curious inventions have been reliably forgotten, except for microstrip technologies, where square and round spiral inductances of a similar sense are encountered.
Above it was said that the basis of transmitting devices lay Tesla coils, it is permissible to call resonant transformers. Through a transformer connection, a high potential is pumped to the Tesla coil. The charge goes up to the breakdown of the spark gap, then oscillations start at the resonant frequency. If one transformer connection through a coil with a large number of turns transmits a high voltage to the emitter or discharger.
Anyone is free to make sure that the construction of the Vordenklif tower resembles a mushroom, but at the base lies the flat Tesla coil. A large torus with capacitive resistance is used as an emitter. In its current form, the intermediate circuit contains conventional capacitors that are configured for the parameters of the “donut”.A great advantage of the design is the absence of ferromagnetic materials.