The search for alternative sources of heat becomes more urgent. This is facilitated by increasing the price of gas, coal, oil. A very promising direction - solar heating systems that can efficiently heat the room for many years.
Thinking over the arrangement of the solar system, but there are doubts or questions? We will help you find out where it is appropriate to use the sun's energy to heat, and describe options for heating your organization. In addition, we will offer instructions for making homemade solar systems - flat and tube collectors.
The content of the article:
- Solar energy - alternative heat source
- Where solar power plant will be the most effective
- Possible options for arrangement of solar heating
Types of plants to convert solar energy
- Solar panels
- solar collectors
That you can build on their own?
- Features installation of solar tube
- Flat solar installation
- Once again about the advisability
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Solar energy - alternative heat source
The idea of using solar energy for heating is not new. Moreover, the appropriateness of its use proved American, Chinese, Spanish, Japanese, and Israel.
The market is replete with suggestions of various plants for energy conversion of the sun and its further use for economic purposes.
Solar is actively used as a primary source teplp in many countries around the world. In our latitudes it until used as a supplement to the heating system
The cost of systems depends on the type, area, material used in the manufacture. From year to year there is a steady downward trend in the prices of all kinds of solar systems - solar systems.
This makes them more accessible to the general public. But while not everyone is ready to make such a purchase.
But, if you wish, you can build an effective system of solar heating with your own hands, spent significantly less money.
Installing solar heating devices can significantly reduce the electricity bill during a trip of central systems
The devices constituting the system of water tubes for cruising it heats the heat transfer medium for autonomous systems
Solar panels, consisting of a set of photovoltaic cells generate electricity from them trapped rays. This option is used in heating systems and in the delivery of electricity
Devices for heating coolant or conversion of solar heat can be installed without problems personally
The benefits of using solar energy
Features and functions of solar collectors
The solar panel on the photocells
Installation for solar heating elements
The usual heating system, perfectly fulfills its function for many years, become more expensive. This stems from this - the global rise in prices of energy resources worldwide. Natural desire arising from the owner - to save on heating, eats up a significant proportion of the family budget.
Since solar heating system can fully replace the usual solid fuel, gas, or any other. It all depends on the type and size of the room in which it will be used.
Alternatively, suitable for grain storage is not suitable for a residential building, and the system that satisfies the needs of garden, did not cope with heating 2-storey mansion.
Full replacement of traditional solar heating is sometimes problematic. Owner fears that the system can not cope or are physically not enough space for the installation of the required number of panels.
Therefore, often use a combination heating system, without giving fully the established gas (electrical or other) equipment. usual solar heating substitution level can reach 90%.
Also important is the annual number of sunny days, the area in which the home is located. Moreover, the average daily temperature is not so important. Many installation efficiently absorb light in the winter cold days (solar collectors, using as antifreeze coolant).
Also solar heating installation is capable of dwelling warm water and electricity
Where solar power plant will be the most effective
In the matter of the solar thermal system heating replacement should consider a number of factors affecting its efficiency.
FirstlyIt is necessary to choose the right solar type. In this issue should take into account the area of the room and its purpose. Most often it is private house in which a family of 4-5 people.
SecondlyCarefully calculate the heat demand, based on the maximum consumption during the cold season. Compare these figures with the power generation amount of 1 sq. m solar. It remains to calculate the solar construction area, to cope with the particular room heating.
The resulting value will be a major factor in determining the placement of the system. Usually, household owners prefer to use the roof or wall of a house. Rarely used or the roof portion adjoining garages. Sometimes construct special supports for mounting installation.
Construction of special supports for the installation of solar systems allows the most convenient to place them in the local area
It is important that nothing prevented free penetration of sunlight on the light-absorbing surface. You need to choose the south, southeast or south-western part of the wall or roof.
Determine which will include solar panels, it is necessary to pretreat the home:
- Free up space. To cut down the extra spaces if they interfere.
- Strengthen the roof. Here we must not forget how much weight will have the expected structure.
- Additionally insulate the building. After pointless heat the street.
ThirdlyIt is necessary to resolve the issue: to buy or build their own heating system. It all depends on the financial capacity and the desire to spend time on design manufacturer.
By selecting the second option, you need to understand the principle of the right system, the right to collect all.
Possible options for arrangement of solar heating
Options for solar heating systems facilities are entirely dependent on the wishes of the owner of the household:
- The use of factory products. Buying a ready-made reservoirs with self installation and assembly.
- Construction of a pilot project. He needed to test the effect of the use of the system for the further production of precise calculations.
- Independent full cycle of works. Calculation, design, construction of "from scratch" the solar system, its installation.
option №1. It involves choosing the right location of the solar installations because of this the efficiency of their use will depend. For installation also need special skills.
Count the number of panels is not required - will be enough to sound all their wishes firm-supplier. Still need to answer specific questions managers - all, the selection of the optimal number of panels (collectors) happens without any difficulties.
For the installation of the solar thermal system on the roof with his hands need to enlist the support of at least one assistant. One will not be able to cope with such work
variant №2 - the construction of a pilot project. It will be the best solution for confident men. After the final decision on the replacement of the heating system is difficult to directly take. Build a solar collector (air or water), small size and test it "in action" will be a rewarding experience.
Assessing the real costs of production, comparing them with the market value of similar systems and calculate savings from the use of the farm, make a responsible decision will be easy.
option №3 - the choice of these masters.
For the full heating facility will need to spend a great job:
- Calculate the required area of the solar system.
- Determine the location of the future installation, to strengthen it.
- Additionally, warm home.
- Acquire all of the elements for the construction of the system.
- build solar battery.
- Set system structures, focusing on the key requirements - the angle of inclination relative to the sun's rays.
Full cycle of works on the system device can not be called easy, but the process is very exciting. In addition, to help save quite a substantial amount.
Choosing the type of heating using the solar energy must determine whether it will be further used to heat water and generate electricity (click to expand)
Types of plants to convert solar energy
Depending on the operating principle are two types of devices which absorb sunlight:
- Batteries on the photoelectric converters. Representing the system in series or parallel connected semiconductor elements. They supply power for the household heaters.
- Solar collectors. Panels tubing filled with heat medium: air, water or antifreeze mixture. They deliver a solar-heated coolant in the heating circuit.
Consider each option separately.
The solar cell converts the absorbed light into electricity. It consists of photovoltaic cells (usually silicon) capable of solar radiation directly to extract a constant electric current.
Such an installation can be used to ensure operability of the electric heating equipment. It must be connected to the home's electrical system.
Step 1: With the right choice of inclination of the solar panels generate enough energy. They are perfect for decorating the flat roofs of the garages and domestic buildings
Step 2: Before performing the installation work check the packaging of the device on the solar cells, and carefully examine the instructions for installing it
Step 3: The delivered equipment to the site should be thoroughly investigated. On its body and svetoulavlivayuschey surface should be free of cracks, scratches, chipping
Step 4: Before assembly, unscrew the mini power converter, fixed on one of the support legs adjustable instrument stand
Step 5: The solar panel is fixed on the two pillars of the stand. the slope angle is determined according to the season and the direction of the sun's rays in a particular region
Step 6: The collected solar panel carefully moved to the roof of the garage, which it will provide electricity for heating and supply of electrical equipment
Step 7: On the flat roof solar panel is positioned so that it catches the largest number of sunlight
Step 8: If you want to optimize energy generation increase the number of solar panels, is designed to practice the required amount
The choice of the angle of inclination of the solar battery
Preparation for installation of solar batteries
Check the mini-power station after transport
Detach the battery converter
Mounting the solar module on the stand
Transportation of mini power station on the roof
Location of solar panels on the roof
The modular panel assembly principle
The conversion efficiency of this solar installation - from 5% to 20% depending on the type of solar radiation processing device. Performance 1m2 solar batteries - 120 watts.
It remains to calculate how many squares the area will need to ensure that the specific needs household, based on the size of the home, the individual needs the warmth and level of insulation structures.
Positioning the solar panels it is most convenient to the roof of the house, going for it its southern slope
For heating solar panels most effectively used in the southern regions. Their main disadvantage - reduced efficiency at dusk and cloudy weather, the complete lack of efficiency in the night.
To make a solar panel with your hands, you will need to first collect frame soldered solar cells, then all neatly tucked away and use sealant.
used wooden slats, aluminum angles for the manufacture of the frame. It all depends on the size of the collected construction and place of its installation. Solar cells - silicon wafers - the expenditure part design. They are monocrystalline and polycrystalline. First a bit more expensive, but their performance is 5% higher.
Do it yourself - it is impossible. Photoelectric converters is better to buy from the already soldered wires.
They will be placed on the basis of MDF and then fix in the frame, to bring out the wires from the elements and all the holes fill with sealant. Writing a dry well structure and cover of glass or transparent plastic lid.
mounting schemes and ways to connect solar cells described in this article.
A fundamentally different way to convert the absorbed light in the headers. At the heart of their work - coolant flowing through the pipes.
Depending on the design, there are three main types of collectors, most often used for the construction of a solar heating system:
- Flat. Heating unit - an absorber made of a sheet of metal with a blackened outer surface. Heated, it transfers energy to the coolant heating system.
- Vacuum. Manifold vacuum-type system performed according to the scheme thermoses, whereby nearly two times better retained heat obtained from the sun.
- Concentrators. The apparatus is equipped with a concave mirror part with large surface area, the focusing solar light on a small area of the absorber.
Most common in household solar tubes equipped with a system configured as a parallel-connected elements or coils. The tubes are filled or industrial water, or a mixture of water with antifreeze or air.
Visualize the main parts of the solar thermal system, it is easier to decide where best to place these or other components (+)
Aerial installation can be used as an additional heating source. Fully meet the household heat, regardless of its location in the region it is not able. The main feature of this type of solar - air, acting as a coolant.
Tubular system rather actively used for heating all year round. Antifreeze or antifreeze mixture heated under sunlight, then passes through the internal heat exchange tubes, and then sent to the storage tank.
Fluid motion stimulates the pump, whereby it is moved from the tank to the heating system. The heated heat transfer fluid displaces a portion of the cooled liquid, which will have to go back to the collector and heat.
The principle of operation is based on a flat solar penetration of sunlight into the panel where the heat sink. It is heated and radiates heat which is transferred to the liquid circulating through the metal tubes (usually copper).
That you can build on their own?
Build a solar heating system using an air collector type, you can own hands. It is best to place on the south side of the building.
The larger the area of heated space, the greater the area of the reservoir will take - perhaps an entire wall of the house. Also, it is possible to build solar plants in the attic.
Intending to establish air heating system in the attic, care must be taken in order to withstand the weight of the installation (+)
Solar collector heating air mass - performs its function of heating by the air stream passing inside the system. Heat transfer fluid circulates through the loop, cooling, re-enters the system. air flow can be naturally or with the use of the fan.
As for the materials for the manufacture of air manifold, then you can use a variety of handy tools. Single rule does not exist.
Handyman improve this type of solar and collected at home. Someone seeking a cheaper option, sacrificing the performance, someone - on the contrary.
Having dealt with the basic elements of the air manifold, it is easier to decide on the place of its installation - a roof or a wall ()
Consider the basic ways.
Features installation of solar tube
tube type heating Geliosistema can be used in different regions. It does not depend on the ambient temperature. The main thing that fell to install the maximum amount of sunlight.
Antifreeze is used as a coolant does not freeze at low temperatures. On clear winter days, the amount of sunlight exceeds the amount of light entering the summer.
The tubular solar collector consists of a system of transparent vacuum tubing interconnected. They contain a substance with low boiling point. Boil it evaporates, transfers its heat to the copper tip and drip down, where everything is repeated again.
Vacuum tube made of heat-resistant glass, filled with a substance inside, able to boil at low temperature (+)
Vacuum tubes absorb up to 90% of total solar radiation (visible and infrared). Solar energy is converted into heat, supplied to the coolant. He passes this energy on the system - the heat exchanger located in a special storage tank.
Movement of the coolant water and heating systems is due to the pumps. It is important that the tank has good thermal insulation. Heat exchangers usually two: one is connected to the additional heater, the second - the collectors.
In homes with this type of solar installations is further advantageous to connect the system of underfloor heating. This allows more efficient to heat the building.
As for the mounting tube collectors, it can be installed in the home. Only to consider the working angle - it should be at least 20 °.
Tubular solar collector is placed on the roof by the most sunny area. It is important that a number of high-rises were not impeding the free penetration of sunlight
Build a vacuum system with their own hands will not work - to make the vacuum tubes in the home is not possible. It is doing a factory specializing in the production of vacuum solar systems.
Flat solar installation
heating is often used flat Solar collector.
For its construction will need:
- a metal frame;
- a solid bottom;
- layer of insulation;
- layer of solar radiation absorber black (canister);
- transparent cover - plastic, glass;
- tube for fluid (copper, aluminum).
Structure need to equip the inlet and outlet and a pump for circulating the liquid effectively.
Collect solar unit can be flat with their hands. For this purpose often use means available, selecting a cheaper materials as analogue (+)
Install flat-plate collector can be at any angle, a necessary condition - cleaned of snow and dust. It is especially good for warm climate.
Low efficiency and high heat loss occurs in the cold season. Which casts doubt on the use of only one of the solar system for a full heating. Optimally will use a flat solar installation together with a gas, solid fuel or electric heating view.
Please find articles on a makeshift assembly of solar heating systems:
- How to make a solar collector for heating their own hands - a step by step guide
- How to make a solar panel with your hands: how to build solar panels and installation
Once again about the advisability
Used for heating instead of conventional energy sources solar energy profitable. Depending on the type of solar and heat savings for the paid consumption may be up to 100%.
Version of the complete replacement of the heating system - the use of collectors with vacuum tubes. This is quite an expensive project at an early stage. In the future, it can guarantee the full energy independence, will pay for itself in 6-8 years.
Ingenuity house masters knows no boundaries - as a labyrinth for the circulation of the fluid inside the reservoir can accommodate ordinary hose
The service life of solar power plants to 25 years. They require little maintenance - periodic cleansing of surfaces from snow, dust, and debris. As for repair, it can be done in-house. A significant drawback - flat plate collectors and solar panels are "afraid" of hurricanes.
Such heating is safe for residents of the house and the environment. It is absolutely free and does not depend on exchange rates, energy prices.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Movie will demonstrate the process of construction of solar autographic:
Visual aid for the construction of an air heating system:
technology for manufacturing flat solar installation with his own hands:
Solar heating system or solar heating systems have proven themselves around the world. They allow you to get free heat, reducing the cost of payment of utility bills for heating by 30%.
The variant of the complete replacement of solar energy in its heating system. Another significant advantage - the solar unit can collect their own hands.
Do you have practical skills of the assembly or operation of solar heating systems? Share accumulated knowledge, ask questions on the topic and participate in the discussions. Form for comments is below.