Three-phase current - signal appearance, extending at least three wires, with the frequency on each branch of the same, and the phases are equidistant from each other (120 degrees).
Complicated way of three-phase current
It is well known that the theory of Arago on a rotating magnetic field is first able to put into practice the Nikola Tesla. Illumination came suddenly, while walking with a friend in the countryside. Taking a patent, Tesla simultaneously laid in document veto on the use of any number of phases greater than one. Because Russian scientist Dolivo-Dobrovolsky, voluntarily fled to the German company the AEG, was unable to acquire a patent for its own three-phase motor ...
This historical review is made to the reader understand how the Lord works in mysterious ways. As fate had been laid florid young Tesla, who gave - and this is said without exaggeration - the world variable, including a three-phase, current. And in addition - outlined the approximate range of variation of frequency and voltage. Without Tesla's genius, perhaps today would continue to use the battery. It is understood that the technical progress without AC is not possible.
Arago and a rotating magnetic field
Most modern inventions are based on discoveries made by the British and the French in the first half of the XIX century. Metric system conceived by Laplace, who held an important post in the Academy before Bonaparte. The basis laid SI length, a fraction of the ten-component quarter Paris meridian (arc passing through the Earth's magnetic, true location remains unknown).
Preparation of the magnetic field
In so doing, Arago originally went to Spain to carry out measurements. Will focus on a simple fact: the times were turbulent. At the time of travel Arago relates fact surrender in Spain 22-strong army under the command of Dupont. Contrary to the terms of surrender of the children Arragona sent the French - after a long ordeal - on a deserted island, which were kept in appalling conditions. As a result, he returned home only a quarter, and Dupont Emperor Napoleon imprisoned in the castle, disastrous French prison.
Arago repeatedly for short term duration of three years, found himself on the verge of death and invariably continued patiently to carry out work on measuring the meridian. Nuance - Laplace proved resizing of the globe according to the movement of the moon. You can not exactly be considered a generally accepted nowadays meter (from the Greek. - the standard measure) explained by scientific measure of length. A copy of the special alloy is stored in special conditions. However, in the United States, Britain and some other countries still use the yard, the exact origin of the unit is not known.
Arago one of the first to recognize the majesty of the works in the electricity Oersted and Volta, in general terms, claiming that these two men have laid the foundation for the construction of a new building for centuries. In line with the ideas of Laplace, caught Shveyggerom, Arago begins to experiment with the first inductors and quickly finds a new direction. We are talking about induction. To live for 8 years prior to the experiments of Michael Faraday, and Arago, together with Foucault demonstrates Academy the mutual influence of the compass and rotating copper disk - metal, a non-iron and alloys.
So, the first induction motor appeared long before patenting May 1, 1888 (US381968 A) Nikola Tesla AC synchronous machines. Arago discovered eddy eddy currents, which gave hundreds of ideas to future generations. Michael Faraday considered the father of collector engines. On the latter, see the article about the law of electromagnetic induction. At first it seems that the engine Faraday synchronous, because it uses a permanent magnet, but the view is mistaken. In the future development of the idea led to the sliding contacts, changing the polarity of the windings of the poles, which already leads directly to the distribution manifold.
Nikola Tesla and AC
Account of events related to Nikola Tesla, is conducted on the first biography of the authorship of the domestic Rzhonsnitskogo. As the writer at the end of 1881 the inventor struck an unknown disease, accompanied by unusual symptoms:
- Feelings become aggravated so that Tesla could hear movement carts on the street and felt the vibration produced in the house.
- Light touch seemed to blow.
- Vision allows you to see, even at night.
- Whisper sounded a cry.
The described time engineer consciousness (connected company in Budapest) is working on the task of creating an AC motor. As anticipated, getting rid of the symptoms occurred suddenly, the cause remains unexplained. While recovering, Tesla February evening stroll in the park with a former classmate Szigeti, quoting his favorite poets, such as Goethe, together admiring paintings of nature, sunset. Saying the next couplet remember Poems, Nicolas realized that the difficult technical problem is solved.
And in the appendage subconscious told him the technique of reverse shaft. In his autobiography, Tesla stated that quickly made a sketch of a future construction. Thus, the invention relates to the 1882 year.
Rather than relying on the common opinion that Dolivo-Dobrovolsky made a great contribution to the development of three-phase current, it is too true. The proof text review provides a customized image of Nikola Tesla's patents. It can be seen that the stator and rotor six poles. Dolivo-Dobrovolsky noted the superiority of the three phases of the two. This great merit scientist as the invention of "squirrel cage" rotor induction motor. But the three-phase current and the number of phases greater than one, entered into the life of Nikola Tesla. Similarly, Westinghouse worked to mid-80s, but the success of the latter is not accompanied.
Although the work of the Budapest Telegraph takes a lot of Tesla barely managed to put them in a notebook the new structure of the synchronous AC motor. At the end of 1882 Nicola was waiting for transfer to the post of engineer commissioning of electrical installations. Traveling across Europe, Serbian genius constantly faced with the brainchild of Thomas Edison and had studied the principle of action. Talented Tesla suggested many improvements to existing equipment and quickly gained respect in the professional environment.
Work stalled in Strasbourg, invited Tesla to bring the composition of missed first trimester of the impasse. In 1883, the inventor gets to France, where gets to work. On the basis of the workshops at the same time adjusting the equipment Edison young man constructs a first synchronous AC motor. Success came with the speed of joining the last wire. Bauza, acting mayor, after a single demonstration of novelties became an ardent admirer of the talent of the inventor.
French businessmen, seeing the advantages of AC, did not dare to invest, not There was at that time the tradition of using several phases - unit would be required to buy source of power. In the meantime, Tesla brilliantly executed instructions and the company was waiting for the agreed in advance, but not attached contract awards. Means-found, according to the Nicola, would initial capital for the production of AC motors.
Ac motor Tesla
But to Edison probably heard rumors about the demonstration of two-phase AC motor. Probably a businessman donos to the latest information the American telegraph. Continental Edison Company beginning redirect Tesla from official to official. Last Nicola sent back to the first, and the first - back to second. Circle. Realizing that he was fooled on a solid amount of $ 25,000, Tesla decided to change the specified time occupation.
Travel three-phase current to America
Uyazvlonny young Nikola planned to look for happiness outside the country. Already elected as the new seat of Russia, Nicholas hears the advice of Charles Bechlora reach Edison personally and to offer their own services. So the fate of Tesla sent to the United States. Simultaneously Bechlor confided that in Russia there is a mess with science - for this reason Yablochkov was forced to bring experiences to the end in France.
Good-hearted man, Charles gave Tesla a letter of recommendation to a young scientist took welcome overseas. In Paris, a lover of poetry was robbed by local crooks, lyubivshimi chanson. Little things in the pockets enough for the cheapest ticket to Le Havre. Hungry and the frozen Tesla was sitting in the cabin, but happily caught the attention of the ship's captain. He invited the scientist to the cabin and heard the story of unfortunate not refuse hospitality.
Unexpected scuffle on the deck made Tesla, has good boxing skills, fight back, and Draco captain changed his grace on indifference. Fortunately, remained close to New York, Goethe stepped fan, finally, to the shore, where he quickly earned the first money by helping a local shop owner.
Edison Tesla helped to see a letter of recommendation. The irony - without this piece of paper, the inventors would not have met. Edison calmly listened to the idea of alternating current. What makes make the assumption of its advance awareness. Tesla was already known to the Continental company, its employees denied Nichols earlier in remuneration. Americans gave Europeans the opportunity to once again experience the price of its own promises.
Edison for the next improvement in their cars has promised Tesla is now $ 50,000. What was the state at that time. Work 20 hours a day, Tesla made a number of innovations, at the same time creating a new type of power source to fulfill their part of the agreement concluded orally. Like last time, the award was null - Edison said that successfully joked the American way.
In the spring of 1885 he broke with the Continental company Tesla embarks on a lonely voyage. However, local dealers already knew of the inventor as a talented engineer: he created an arc lamp under the purpose of street lighting. But instead of paying... I got some hard selling shares. Three times, Tesla received a lesson before realized that with the bigwigs need to keep your eyes open.
Having worked as a loader, laborer, digging ditches unknown number, Nicolas lost interest in America. But in April 1887 on the way I got Obadiah Brown. Foreman was quick to recognize the advantages of Tesla's ideas and offered to meet with his brother Alfred, who worked as an engineer Telegraph Company. Tipsy conversation took place, but the next morning the two have moved in the right direction.
The spread of the telegraph
Agreement was to on the basis of Brown's lab to develop something (at the discretion of Tesla) for a demonstration in front of the lawyer Charles Peck. Circling in a magnetic field, the size of solid metal egg looked really awesome (as the first in the world of asynchronous motor). Some money on the development of the concept of variable, including a three-phase, current.