Mandatory part of repairs in the apartment - the replacement or installation of electric cables, junction boxes, electrical panel. Properly chosen wiring diagram will protect housing from accidents and emergencies.
We will tell you what you need to provide for self-replacement or laying electricians. You will learn how to chart and distribute elektrotochki in studios, two and three bedroom apartments. Taking into account our recommendations, you will be able to provide for themselves smoothly functioning power grid.
The content of the article:
- Distinctive features of modern wiring
- What is the wiring diagram?
electrical division into groups (lines)
- Stationary appliances
- Dedicated line for kitchen
- One or more lighting groups?
- Facilities with high humidity
Overview of wiring diagrams for premises
- Option # 1: One-room studio or housing
- Option # 2: 2-, 3-room apartment
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Distinctive features of modern wiring
Modern household technology in the late 20th century made significant breakthrough. In addition to TV homes had computers, security and surveillance systems, powerful home appliances, wireless communication. In this connection, the wiring of electric cables has become much more complicated, although the principles of the device are not changed.
Difficulties begin with the very first stage - design. To correctly make the wiring in an apartment, you need to know in advance the approximate power of household electrical appliances, their location. At the same time you need to consider the lighting system in all rooms.
If you do not take into account your computer cable laying and the installation of a router for a home network in the future will get hanging on the wall or on the floor stretched wire. At best, they can be hidden in the plinth or sewn into the box
Besides a large number of new instruments have yet another difference: always present along with low-current power network system traditionally includes TV and telephone wires, as well as computer, security, and acoustic equipment intercom.
These two systems can not share the (power and low), since all the devices are powered from the power source of 220 V.
Wiring diagram of low-voltage systems in the apartment. It includes three networks: a computer, a telephone and a television. their kinds of cable and equipment are provided for each network
Change the number of devices and cables operated simultaneously. If previously lacked installation in one room chandelier, but now many people use a lighting system that includes, in addition to chandeliers, spotlights and lighting.
By increasing the number of appliances must be added an increase in power - for this reason the old cable did not fit, and electrical distribution panel size increased markedly.
What is the wiring diagram?
It turns out that the device of modern electrical wiring in the apartment - a real art, which deal with only by a qualified electrician.
If you do not want to constantly change the walls, to mask here and there appears a cable, be sure to repair apartments or construction of the house to make a drawing with the identification of all significant projects related to electricity: sockets, switches, electrical panel from RCD, Lighting.
A sample scheme that may sketch owner housing. Attention is given to the designation of the locations of all elektrotochek, from the electrical outlets and finishing
Focusing on the requirements and wishes of the landlord, an electrical schematic diagram of the wiring in the apartment. His task - to split the cable into groups in order to properly distribute the load, consider the control and protection system and, ultimately, to do everything to guarantee the safety and comfort.
That it is necessary to consider when preparing the plan, the drawing, the work plan necessary for competent in electrical wiring?
Consider the circuit in terms of component parts:
- Circuit protection devicesInstalled in the electrical panel. On their quality and correct operation of the installation depends on all the home equipment and the safety of users.
- Cables, wires section with a properly chosen and well-insulated.
- Sockets and switches with quality contacts, safe buildings.
In private homes obligatory element - opening machine and the power cable from it to the panel. Via breaker regulate power consumption and, if necessary, cut off all electricity at home.
Exemplary wiring diagram in a private home. The main attention should be paid to the distribution of power on the circuit breakers and protection of each selected line
The meter is usually installed at the entrance, slice after induction machine.
electrical division into groups (lines)
Manage and monitor the power grid is much easier if it is divided into several lines. In the event of a malfunction or accident can disable one group, while the other will operate as usual.
Variant separation into 4 groups:
Suppose, in a city apartment is done laying a separate power cable for the washing machine. This is especially true for the old building houses with poor wiring, do not withstand strong capacity
The kitchen is usually a plurality of devices, the simultaneous operation which also requires the installation of the power suitable cable cross-section: cooking stove, oven, toaster, multivarka, microwave, dishwasher the car
Bathroom - one or two rooms with a high humidity level. This must be considered when installing the lighting system as well as during the installation of sockets, which should be relying protection
Since usually more than one lighting unit, it is recommended to install several separate groups in each room. For example, divide the room lighting (chandeliers, lights, table lamps 2), Bedrooms (2 sconces, ceiling light) and a children's room (spotlights, night lamp, table lamp)
Group 1 - powerful appliances
Group 2 - kitchen line
Group 3 - bathroom and toilet
Group 4 - lighting system
Next to each elektrogruppe more detail.
Large home appliances is usually located in the kitchen area and bathrooms.
Outlet arrangement of the kitchen. Rules: directly behind the dishwasher and washing machine placed sockets is prohibited; better to use waterproof model (+)
Separate kitchen area connection is necessary to carry out repairs. If there is a failure of one of the devices needs to be replaced. In order not to turn off the electricity in the entire apartment, turn off quite a protection unit in charge of the stationary equipment.
Unfortunately, even expensive home appliances occasionally fails. Repairs often delayed for several hours. Private elektrogruppa will keep a comfortable stay in the kitchen and other rooms
What prevents a broken disable the device from the mains by pulling the plug out of the socket? The fact that the built-in equipment power connections are located in remote places.
In addition, the fault can not occur in the device itself, and the wiring, camouflaged in the wall. In this case, move the lever of the circuit breaker is much easier.
Dedicated line for kitchen
Kitchen line is traditionally the busiest. About 5-6 units constantly plugged in, even if not used. It relates to a refrigerator, oven, hotplate, dishwasher, hood, microwave oven, toaster. Many people use the kitchen electrical grill, meat grinder, bread machine, etc. multivarka.
Electrical wiring diagram for kitchen divided into 4 groups. For powerful domestic equipment in the switchboard some machines installed
In this case, a separate powerful electric cable simply make possible the simultaneous use of multiple devices.
If the total wiring "hang" also lights or water heater, when the next device is switched network will not survive and will work automatically turn off.
Detailed analysis circuits and layout options outlets in the kitchen is given in the article, with which we encourage you to read.
One or more lighting groups?
Given the amount of lighting in every room, you can make one or more lines. If the hall is one shestirozhkovaya chandelier in the bedroom and low power overhead lighting and two-night-light sconces, all devices can be combined into one line.
However, if the living room is reminiscent of a disco - with chandeliers, spotlights, ceiling and wall light - it should only be to organize a group for it.
Wiring scheme point or halogen lamps 220 in one space, for example for kitchen, children's room or hallway
If, in addition to a network of fixtures one room includes transformers or power supplies, it is also recommended to connect to a single device protection.
Facilities with high humidity
For electrical appliances and cable in the bathroom apply higher requirements, as the close proximity of the water - is the risk. To the grid was safe and functional, it is necessary to take into account a number of rules when drawing up schemes and installation of wiring:
Junction box should be installed abroad bathrooms - in a corridor, lobby or hallway
For each device that is used in the bathroom (washing machine, lights in the mirror, a hair dryer or electric razor), it is necessary to allocate a separate outlet
Regardless of the size of the bathroom switch is always set on the outside. The most successful place - near the entrance door
Electrocable suggestions laid on top of the wall, near the ceiling, having a line parallel to the floor and from the insulating sleeve
Rule 1 - installation of the junction box
Rule 2 - Installation of outlets for appliances
Rule 3 - switch the installation site
Rule 4 - the way wiring
The requirements also apply to the selection of accessories that will come to use regularly - outlets and switches. Suppose outlets degree of protection shall be at least IP 44, and even better to buy a special device with a protective cover from the spray.
From the lamps 220 is recommended to refuse the benefit of analogues of 12 V.
Three-core copper wire is quite suitable for the installation of sockets in the bathroom, but it is worth paying attention to cross section: to connect ordinary devices it should be at least 2.5 mm² for a powerful electric - 4 mm². Domestic version - VVGng
If in the old housing in the flat panel grounding is not provided, not only in the bathroom, but in the whole of the flat wiring have to be replaced by a three-core.
With selection rules damp proof sockets everything for bathrooms and toilets invite you to read an article on these issues.
Overview of wiring diagrams for premises
Let us turn to specific schemes that can be applied in the process of planning the wiring in your own space. In drawing up the drawing it is important to consider the balance of power, and stationary equipment, conditions of use of electrical appliances for comfortable placement of outlets and switches.
Option # 1: One-room studio or housing
The distinguishing feature of one-room housing - is minimal compared with the other embodiments, the amount of electrical respectively formed minimal number of connected lines. But this does not mean that certain groups do not need for the kitchen or bathroom plan - the general principles of better preserve.
Version of the wiring diagram for 1-room apartment with a view of the fact that in each room you plan to install a lighting device
Consider what is required to be taken in the preparation of electrical wiring circuits in a one-room apartment:
- select the basic parameters of the electrical network;
- calculate the load, pick up the cable and RCD;
- select a connection scheme (one or more groups).
Solving these issues will make the scheme easier.
Parameters of the electrical network
It is difficult to decide in advance what equipment will be installed throughout the apartment, however, at least approximate the number needed to calculate the total power correctly.
It is important to determine their location and because the use of extension cords and filters in the future will create additional problems for the network and will spoil the interior design.
When selecting sites for the installation of sockets and switches recall the requirements of the SAE: recommended height of floor to install the sockets - 0.3-1.8 m, switches -. 0.6-0.9 m focus on usability use
It is also important to choose a method of cabling - open or closed. Clear the way It involves laying cables on top of the decorative wall finishing. In this case, most of the wiring cover with plastic boxes, but in some cases, left in plain sight.
Wiring in the clear, even welcome, if the interior design is made in the loft or Country: stylized vintage outlets and the wires are on view are part of the decorative registration
The advantages of open wiring:
- the ability to install after or during repair work;
- quick installation;
- at any time, you can connect another line.
When installing flush have to Stroebe walls to disguise the wires for finishing. Simply with pendant designs: liner for the lighting system can be hidden or covered over tensioning duct of plasterboard.
We flush plus a little, but they are more significant:
- not imposed such stringent requirements to the parameters and conditions of installation;
- increased tolerance to the nominal resolution of the currents;
- Interior integrity is preserved.
Traditionally, new apartments may use a hidden wiring and open pit used only in exceptional cases (for example, when installing a new line in the already renovated apartment).
Calculation of the electrical load
To calculate the total electrical load, it is necessary to know the nominal power for power consumers, the rated current and voltage. There are many formulas for calculating, but it is better to use ready-made tables.
Table wattages most common household appliances that are normally used by the residents of apartments. Values averaged, so for accurate calculation it is necessary to know the characteristics of the devices (+)
We recommend to calculate the exact load refer to the engineer, or use a computer program, because it depends on the result cable selection.
When selecting the cable cross section is necessary to consider not only the wiring material (copper or aluminum), but also a way gaskets (outdoors or indoors), because the thermal conductivity is less closed wiring, consequently, the current also less (+)
According to the rules, if a network inside apartment divided into groups, each individual line must be equipped with automatic 25 A. Consequently, when broken down into groups consider the total nominal current (not more than 25 A).
There are exceptions: for example, for lighting networks enough protection device 16 A, but with the proviso that the group includes no more than 20 outlets and lamps simultaneously.
What is the connection scheme is better?
For the studio there are two options: the power of one group, and powered by several groups. The first option under current conditions is almost not applicable if only because that to use even a powerful domestic appliance (eg washing machines) need a separate line with the device protection.
Such schemes may exist in the old residential sector flats, which for many years was not carried out repairs, or in the country where there are no large electrical equipment. It turns out that even for devices in a studio apartment electricians need to split into groups.
An exemplary connection scheme elektrotochek groups. Kitchen allocated three groups serving electric stove, small household appliances and lighting network
This scheme is applicable to virtually any type of housing, but the connection points, respectively, and lines in the 2- and 3-bedroom apartments will be greater.
Option # 2: 2-, 3-room apartment
Schematic layout does not depend on the number of rooms, but there are a number of features that need to be considered:
- rosette network better divided into several groups - the number of rooms;
- lighting system is also necessary to divide the rooms;
- Kitchen should be made at least three lines - lighting equipment, power equipment, and small appliances;
- if separate bathroom, better use split into 2 groups.
Given that a large area of apartments is typical for housing the elite category, in the wiring schemes include security equipment.
An exemplary setup of a protection device for an apartment with two rooms. It is assumed that in addition to sockets and lighting groups in the apartment has video surveillance and security alarm
If the design of the scheme and assembly by specialists, then you have at the end of work should remain the scheme - in case of maintenance or a disaster occur.
The scheme of installation of sockets and lighting devices in a three-room apartment. In drawing up the wiring diagram for the multi-room apartments is better to use a few drawings, as in the same difficult to identify all the groups, including the low-voltage
According to the scheme developed by laying power lines and installation elektrotochek can safely perform the installation power. It is desirable to avoid changes to the planned layout during manufacturing operations. However, if they become necessary, corrective action schemes should be done with the above rules.
composing wiring diagram in a private house, Be sure to specify the input and electrical parameters of the cable from the input group.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Be the wiring scheme can be a drawing, done by hand, or using a computer program. Example of wiring for apartments in the three-dimensional computer image:
Professional advice from practitioners:
Subtleties of different types of connection sockets and switches:
Carry out the electrical network in the flat, protecting all devices and properly distribute the load, it is possible on one condition - if you are a qualified electrician.
Work with the switchboard without specific tolerance is impossible. Therefore, to change the outlet, or connect the hood can be independently, but more serious work better to entrust to specialists.
Want to share a personal experience in preparing the plan for the modernization or repair of power lines in the apartment? Any questions or valuable advice? Please write comments in the box located below.